Daniel D. Cavalcanti, Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Ketan Verma, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Randall W. Porter, Nicholas Theodore, Volker K. H. Sonntag, Curtis A. Dickman and Robert F. Spetzler
Schwannomas occupying the craniocervical junction (CCJ) are rare and usually originate from the jugular foramen, hypoglossal nerves, and C-1 and C-2 nerves. Although they may have different origins, they may share the same symptoms, surgical approaches, and complications. An extension of these lesions along the posterior fossa cisterns, foramina, and spinal canal—usually involving various cranial nerves (CNs) and the vertebral and cerebellar arteries—poses a surgical challenge. The primary goals of both surgical and radiosurgical management of schwannomas in the CCJ are the preservation and restoration of function of the lower CNs, and of hearing and facial nerve function. The origins of schwannomas in the CCJ and their clinical presentation, surgical management, adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery, and outcomes in 36 patients treated at Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) are presented.
Between 1989 and 2009, 36 patients (mean age 43.6 years, range 17–68 years) with craniocervical schwannomas underwent surgical resection at BNI. The records were reviewed retrospectively regarding clinical presentation, radiographic assessment, surgical approaches, adjuvant therapies, and follow-up outcomes.
Headache or neck pain was present in 72.2% of patients. Cranial nerve impairments, mainly involving the vagus nerve, were present in 14 patients (38.9%). Motor deficits were found in 27.8% of the patients. Sixteen tumors were intra- and extradural, 15 were intradural, and 5 were extradural. Gross-total resection was achieved in 25 patients (69.4%). Adjunctive radiosurgery was used in the management of residual tumor in 8 patients; tumor control was ultimately obtained in all cases.
Surgical removal, which is the treatment of choice, is curative when schwannomas in the CCJ are excised completely. The far-lateral approach and its variations are our preferred approaches for managing these lesions. Most common complications involve deficits of the lower CNs, and their early recognition and rehabilitation are needed. Stereotactic radiosurgery, an important tool for the management of these tumors as adjuvant therapy, can help decrease morbidity rates.
Neil R. Crawford, K. Zafer Yüksel, Şeref Doğan, Octavio Villasana-Ramos, Julio C. Soto-Barraza, Seungwon Baek, Randall W. Porter, Frederick F. Marciano and Nicholas Theodore
An experiment was performed to study the limits of the ability of screws designed to center themselves in the pedicle during insertion, and to study whether straight-ahead versus inward screw insertion trajectories differ in their resistance to pullout.
Forty-nine human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were studied. Pedicle screws were inserted in trajectories starting 0°, 10°, 20°, or 30° from the optimal trajectory, either medially or laterally misdirected. The surgeon then inserted the screw with forward thrust but without resisting the screw's tendency to reorient its own trajectory during insertion. On the opposite pedicle, a control screw was inserted with the more standard inward-angled anatomical trajectory and insertion point. Cortical wall violation during insertion was recorded. Screws were then pulled out at a constant displacement rate while ultimate strength was recorded.
Lateral misdirection as small as 10° was likely to lead to cortical wall violation (3 of 7 violations). Conversely, medial misdirection usually resulted in safe screw insertion (1 of 21 violations for 10°, 20°, or 30° medial misdirection). The resistance to pullout of screws inserted in a straight-ahead trajectory did not differ significantly from that of screws inserted along an inward trajectory (p = 0.68).
Self-tapping, self-drilling pedicle screws can redirect themselves to a much greater extent during medial than during lateral misdirection. The cortical wall is more likely to be violated laterally than medially. The strength of straight-ahead and inward trajectories was equivalent.
Eric M. Horn, Jonathan S. Hott, Randall W. Porter, Nicholas Theodore, Stephen M. Papadopoulos and Volker K. H. Sonntag
✓ Atlantoaxial stabilization has evolved from simple posterior wiring to transarticular screw fixation. In some patients, however, the course of the vertebral artery (VA) through the axis varies, and therefore transarticular screw placement is not always feasible. For these patients, the authors have developed a novel method of atlantoaxial stabilization that does not require axial screws. In this paper, they describe the use of this technique in the first 10 cases.
Ten consecutive patients underwent the combined C1–3 lateral mass–sublaminar axis cable fixation technique. The mean age of the patients was 62.6 years (range 23–84 years). There were six men and four women. Eight patients were treated after traumatic atlantoaxial instability developed (four had remote trauma and previous nonunion), whereas in the other two atlantoaxial instability was caused by arthritic degeneration. All had VA anatomy unsuitable to traditional transarticular screw fixation.
There were no intraoperative complications in any of the patients. Postoperative computed tomography studies demonstrated excellent screw positioning in each patient. Nine patients were treated postoperatively with the aid of a rigid cervical orthosis. The remaining patient was treated using a halo fixation device. One patient died of respiratory failure 2 months after surgery. Follow-up data (mean follow-up duration 13.1 months) were available for seven of the remaining nine patients and demonstrated a stable construct with fusion in each patient.
The authors present an effective alternative method in which C1–3 lateral mass screw fixation is used to treat patients with unfavorable anatomy for atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation. In this series of 10 patients, the method was a safe and effective way to provide stabilization in these anatomically difficult patients.
Patrick P. Han, Nicholas Theodore, Randall W. Porter, Paul W. Detwiler, MichaeL T. Lawton and Robert F. Spetzler
✓ The authors report a patient in whom a subdural hematoma developed from a Type I spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The patient became symptomatic with back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a spinal subdural hematoma. Selective spinal angiography, however, failed to demonstrate a pathological process. The patient underwent exploratory laminoplasty that revealed a subdural extraarachnoid hematoma with an underlying Type I spinal AVM, which was surgically obliterated. The patient recovered completely. Subdural hematomas that affect the spine are rare. Although a negative result was obtained using selective spinal angiography, exploratory surgery should be considered for the evacuation of a subdural hematoma and possibly for the definitive treatment of a spinal AVM.