Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 26 items for

  • By Author: Pluta, Ryszard M. x
Clear All
Full access

Angelika Ehlert, Christoph Schmidt, Johannes Wölfer, Gerd Manthei, Andreas H. Jacobs, Roland Brüning, Walter Heindel, E. Bernd Ringelstein, Walter Stummer, Ryszard M. Pluta and Volker Hesselmann

OBJECT

Delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are responsible fora poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), most likely because of a decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) in the cerebral microcirculation. In this study, the authors examined the effects of treatment with the NO donor molsidomine with regard to decreasing the incidence of spasm-related delayed brain infarctions and improving clinical outcome in patients with SAH.

METHODS

Seventy-four patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH were included in this post hoc analysis. Twenty-nine patients with SAH and proven CVS received molsidomine in addition to oral or intravenous nimodipine. Control groups consisted of 25 SAH patients with proven vasospasm and 20 SAH patients without. These patients received nimodipine therapy alone. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) before and after treatment was analyzed for CVS-related infarcts. A modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to assess outcomes at a 3-month clinical follow-up.

RESULTS

Four of the 29 (13.8%) patients receiving molsidomine plus nimodipine and 22 of the 45 (48%) patients receiving nimodipine therapy alone developed vasospasm-associated brain infarcts (p < 0.01). Follow-up revealed a median mNIHSS score of 3.0 and a median mRS score of 2.5 in the molsidomine group compared with scores of 11.5 and 5.0, respectively, in the nimodipine group with CVS (p < 0.001). One patient in the molsidomine treatment group died, and 12 patients in the standard care group died (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

In this post hoc analysis, patients with CVS who were treated with intravenous molsidomine had a significant improvement in clinical outcome and less cerebral infarction. Molsidomine offers a promising therapeutic option in patients with severe SAH and CVS and should be assessed in a prospective study.

Restricted access

Marc R. Mayberg

Restricted access

Ali Reza Fathi, Ryszard M. Pluta, Kamran D. Bakhtian, Meng Qi and Russell R. Lonser

Object

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm is a significant underlying cause of aneurysm rupture-related morbidity and death. While long-term intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) can prevent cerebral vasospasm after SAH, it is not known if the intravenous administration of this compound can reverse established SAH-induced vasospasm. To determine if the intravenous infusion of NaNO2 can reverse established vasospasm, the authors infused primates with the compound after SAH-induced vasospasm was established.

Methods

Subarachnoid hemorrhage–induced vasospasm was created in 14 cynomolgus macaques via subarachnoid implantation of a 5-ml blood clot. On Day 7 after clot implantation, animals were randomized to either control (saline infusion, 5 monkeys) or treatment groups (intravenous NaNO2 infusion at 300 μg/kg/hr for 3 hours [7 monkeys] or 8 hours [2 monkeys]). Arteriographic vessel diameter was blindly analyzed to determine the degree of vasospasm before, during, and after treatment. Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite, nitrate, and S-nitrosothiols) were measured in whole blood and CSF.

Results

Moderate-to-severe vasospasm was present in all animals before treatment (control, 36.2% ± 8.8% [mean ± SD]; treatment, 45.5% ± 12.5%; p = 0.9). While saline infusion did not reduce vasospasm, NaNO2 infusion significantly reduced the degree of vasospasm (26.9% ± 7.6%; p = 0.008). Reversal of the vasospasm lasted more than 2 hours after cessation of the infusion and could be maintained with a prolonged infusion. Nitrite (peak value, 3.7 ± 2.1 μmol/L), nitrate (18.2 ± 5.3 μmol/L), and S-nitrosothiols (33.4 ± 11.4 nmol/L) increased significantly in whole blood, and nitrite increased significantly in CSF.

Conclusions

These findings indicate that the intravenous infusion of NaNO2 can reverse SAH-induced vasospasm in primates. Further, these findings indicate that a similar treatment paradigm could be useful in reversing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH.

Restricted access

Ryszard M. Pluta, John A. Butman, Bawarjan Schatlo, Dennis L. Johnson and Edward H. Oldfield

Object

Investigators in experimental and clinical studies have used the intrathecal route to deliver drugs to prevent or treat vasospasm. However, a clot near an artery or arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may hamper distribution and limit the effects of intrathecally delivered compounds. In a primate model of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) SAH, the authors examined the distribution of Isovue-M 300 and 3% Evans blue after infusion into the cisterna magna CSF.

Methods

Ten cynomolgus monkeys were assigned to SAH and sham SAH surgery groups (5 in each group). Monkeys received CSF injections as long as 28 days after SAH and were killed 3 hours after the contrast/Evans blue injection. The authors assessed the distribution of contrast material on serial CT within 2 hours after contrast injection and during autopsy within 3 hours after Evans blue staining.

Results

Computed tomography cisternographies showed no contrast in the vicinity of the right MCA (p < 0.05 compared with left); the distribution of contrast surrounding the entire right cerebral hemisphere was substantially reduced. Postmortem analysis demonstrated much less Evans blue staining of the right hemisphere surface compared with the left. Furthermore, the Evans blue dye did not penetrate into the right sylvian fissure, which occurred surrounding the left MCA. The authors observed the same pattern of changes and differences in contrast distribution between SAH and sham SAH animals and between the right and the left hemispheres on Days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after SAH.

Conclusions

Intrathecal drug distribution is substantially limited by SAH. Thus, when using intrathecal drug delivery after SAH, vasoactive drugs are unlikely to reach the arteries that are at the highest risk of delayed cerebral vasospasm.

Restricted access

Carla S. Jung, Edward H. Oldfield, Judith Harvey-White, Michael G. Espey, Michael Zimmermann, Volker Seifert and Ryszard M. Pluta

Object

Delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be evoked by the decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO). Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of asymmetric dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), have been associated with the course and degree of cerebral vasospasm in a primate model of SAH. In this study, the authors sought to determine if similar changes in CSF ADMA levels are observed in patients with SAH, and whether these changes are associated with NO and NOS metabolite levels in the CSF and the presence of cerebral vasospasm.

Methods

Asymmetric dimethyl-l-arginine, l-arginine, l-citrulline, and nitrite levels were measured in CSF and serum samples collected during the 21-day period after a single aneurysmal SAH in 18 consecutive patients. Samples were also obtained in a control group consisting of seven patients with Chiari malformation Type I and five patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage without SAH. Vasospasm, defined as a greater than 11% reduction in the anterior circulation vessel diameter ratio compared with the ratio calculated from the initial arteriogram, was assessed on cerebral arteriography performed around Day 7.

Results

In 13 patients with SAH, arteriographic cerebral vasospasm developed. Cerebrospinal fluid ADMA levels in patients with SAH were higher than in those in the control group (p < 0.001). The CSF ADMA level remained unchanged in the five patients with SAH without vasospasm, but was significantly increased in patients with vasospasm after Day 3 (6.2 ± 1.7 μM) peaking during Days 7 through 9 (13.3 ± 6.7 μM; p < 0.001) and then gradually decreasing between Days 12 and 21 (8.8 ± 3.2 μM; p < 0.05). Nitrite levels in the CSF were lower in patients with vasospasm compared to patients without vasospasm (p < 0.03). Cerebrospinal fluid ADMA levels positively correlated with the degree of vasospasm (correlation coefficient [CC] = 0.88, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–0.95) and negatively correlated with CSF nitrite levels (CC = −0.55; p = 0.017; 95% CI −0.81 to −0.12).

Conclusions

These results support the hypothesis that ADMA is involved in the progression of cerebral vasospasm. Asymmetric dimethyl-l-arginine and its metabolizing enzymes may be a future target for treatment of cerebral vasospasm after SAH.

Restricted access

Ryszard M. Pluta, Carla S. Jung, Judith Harvey-White, Anne Whitehead, Sabrina Shilad, Michael G. Espey and Edward H. Oldfield

Object. Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of asymmetric dimethyl l-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), are associated with delayed vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, the source, cellular mechanisms, and pharmacological inhibition of ADMA production following SAH are unknown.

Methods. In an in vitro experiment involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the authors examined mechanisms potentially responsible for increased ADMA levels during vasospasm and investigated whether this increase can be inhibited pharmacologically. In a second study, an in vivo experiment, the authors used probucol, which effectively inhibited ADMA increase in HUVEC cultures in vitro, in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled experiment in a primate model of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH.

Oxidized low-density lipids (OxLDLs; positive control; p < 0.02) and bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes; p < 0.01), but not oxyhemoglobin (p = 0.74), increased ADMA levels in HUVECs. Probucol inhibited changes in ADMA levels evoked by either OxLDLs (p < 0.001) or BOXes (p < 0.01). Comparable changes were observed in cell lysates. In vivo probucol (100 mg/kg by mouth daily) did not alter serum ADMA levels on Days 7, 14, and 21 after SAH compared with levels before SAH, and these levels were not different from those observed in the placebo group (p = 0.3). Despite achieving therapeutic levels in plasma and measurable levels in CSF, probucol neither prevented increased CSF ADMA levels nor the development of vasospasm after SAH. Increased CSF ADMA and decreased nitrite levels in both groups were strongly associated with the degree of delayed vasospasm after SAH (correlation coefficient [CC] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19–0.72, p < 0.002 and CC −0.43, 95% CI −0.7 to < 0.05, p < 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions. Bilirubin oxidation products, but not oxyhemoglobin, increased ADMA levels in the HUVEC. Despite its in vitro ability to lower ADMA levels, probucol failed to inhibit increased CSF ADMA and decreased nitrite levels, and it did not prevent delayed vasospasm in a primate SAH model.

Restricted access

Carla S. Jung, Brian A. Iuliano, Judith Harvey-White, Michael G. Espey, Edward H. Oldfield and Ryszard M. Pluta

Object. Decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to evoke delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Asymmetric dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA) inhibits endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and, therefore, may be responsible for decreased NO availability in cases of cerebral vasospasm. The goal of this study was to determine whether ADMA levels are associated with cerebral vasospasm in a primate model of SAH.

Methods. Twenty-two cynomolgus monkeys (six control animals and 16 with SAH) were used in this study. The levels of ADMA, l-arginine, l-citrulline, nitrites, and nitrates in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were determined on Days 0, 7, 14, and 21 following onset of SAH. Cerebral arteriography was performed to assess the degree of vasospasm. Western blot analyses of the right and left middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were performed to assess the expression of eNOS, type I protein—arginine methyl transferase (PRMT1) and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH2).

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of ADMA remained unchanged in the control group (six animals) and in animals with SAH that did not have vasospasm (five animals; p = 0.17), but the levels increased in animals with vasospasm (11 animals) on Day 7 post-SAH (p < 0.01) and decreased on Days 14 through 21 (p < 0.05). Cerebrospinal fluid levels of ADMA correlated directly with the degree of vasospasm (correlation coefficient = 0.7, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 0.43–0.83). Levels of nitrite and nitrate as well as those of l-citrulline in CSF were decreased in animals with vasospasm. Furthermore, DDAH2 expression was attenuated in the right spastic MCA on Day 7 post-SAH, whereas eNOS and PRMT1 expression remained unchanged.

Conclusions. Changes in the CSF levels of ADMA are associated with the development and resolution of vasospasm found on arteriograms after SAH. The results indicate that endogenous inhibition of eNOS by ADMA may be involved in the development of delayed cerebral vasospasm. Inhibition of ADMA production may provide a new therapeutic approach for cerebral vasospasm after SAH.

Restricted access

Brian A. Iuliano, Ryszard M. Pluta, Carla Jung and Edward H. Oldfield

Object

Although abnormalities in the control of endothelial vasomotility have been reported in both experimental and clinical studies, the mechanism of the endothelial dysfunction that occurs following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. Because of the absence of previous in vivo studies of endothelial function in cerebral vessels in response to SAH or cerebral vasospasm, the authors investigated endothelium—dependent responses in an established primate model of vasospasm after SAH. Endothelial function was assessed by examining vascular responses to intracarotid injections of various drugs known to act via the endothelium. Drugs that have a rapid total body clearance were selected so that their pharmacological effects would be limited to the cerebral circulation after an intracarotid infusion.

Methods

Seventeen adult male cynomolgus monkeys were used. Cerebrovascular endothelium—dependent responses were examined in control animals and in animals with SAH 7, 14, and 21 days after placement of a subarachnoid clot around the right middle cerebral artery. Cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) were recorded continuously during 5-minute intracarotid infusions of 5% dextrose vehicle, acetylcholine, histamine, bradykinin, or Calcimycin.

In control animals the intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine produced a significant (7.8 ± 9.5%) increase in CBF and a 9.3 ± 8.7% reduction in CVR in comparison with a control infusion of dextrose vehicle. The responses to acetylcholine disappeared in animals 7 days post-SAH, specifically in the subset of animals in which arteriography confirmed the presence of vasospasm. Infusion of Calcimycin produced no significant changes in CBF or CVR in control animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in CBF and increase in CVR in animals 7 days after SAH and in animals with vasospasm. An infusion of histamine or bradykinin had no significant effect on CBF or CVR.

Conclusions

An intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine, but not one of histamine, bradykinin, or Calcimycin, produced a measurable physiological response in the normal primate cerebrovasculature. Cerebral vasospasm that occurred after SAH produced a pathophysiological effect similar to the endothelial denudation shown in the in vitro experiments of Furchgott and Zawadzki, in which acetylcholine constricted the vessels via activation of receptors on smooth-muscle cells. Changes in vascular responses to acetylcholine and Calcimycin in animals with vasospasm, compared with control animals, provide evidence that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development and/or sustenance of vasospasm after SAH.

Restricted access

Astrid Weyerbrock, Stuart Walbridge, Ryszard M. Pluta, Joseph E. Saavedra, Larry K. Keefer and Edward H. Oldfield

Object. The response of brain tumors to systemic chemotherapy is limited by the blood—tumor barrier (BTB). Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the regulation of vascular permeability and blood flow. The authors evaluated the effects of exogenous NO, which was released from a short-acting NO donor (Proli/NO), and those of NO metabolites on the capillary permeability of tumors and normal brain tissue by using quantitative autoradiography in a C6 glioma model in rats.

Methods. The Proli/NO was infused at a wide dose range (10−2 to 10−12 M) either intravenously or into the internal carotid artery (ICA) and demonstrated substantial tumor-selective increases in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in response to various-sized tracers ([14C]aminoisobutyric acid, [14C]sucrose, [14C]dextran). Internal carotid artery or intravenous administration of sodium nitrite had a comparable effect on BTB permeability. The NO effect on microvascular permeability could be obtained without causing hemodynamic side effects. The effect of NO on the efficacy of carboplatin chemotherapy was investigated in intracerebral C6 gliomas. Simultaneous intravenous infusions of Proli/NO (10−6 M) and carboplatin (20 mg/kg) led to long-term survival in 40% of rats harboring intracerebral C6 gliomas compared with control animals receiving ICA or intravenous infusions of carboplatin, Proli/NO, or vehicle alone. No residual tumor was demonstrated on histological or magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in rats treated with Proli/NO and carboplatin, and no toxicity was observed.

Conclusions. This new approach demonstrated the in vivo efficacy and safety of NO and nitrite in enhancing the delivery of systemically delivered radiolabeled tracers and carboplatin into rat gliomas. The NO-induced tumor-selective BBB disruption and intravenous carboplatin chemotherapy may be more efficacious than current chemotherapy strategies against brain tumors.

Full access

Ryszard M. Pluta, Scott D. Wait, John A. Butman, Kathleen A. Leppig, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Edward H. Oldfield and Russell R. Lonser

Hemangioblastomas are histologically benign neoplasms that occur sporadically or as part of von Hippel–Lindau disease. Hemangioblastomas may occur anywhere along the neuraxis, but sacral hemangioblastomas are extremely rare. To identify features that will help guide the operative and clinical management of these lesions, the authors describe the management of a large von Hippel–Lindau disease–associated sacral hemangioblastoma and review the literature.

The authors present the case of a 38-year-old woman with von Hippel–Lindau disease and a 10-year history of progressive back pain, as well as left lower-extremity pain and numbness. Neurological examination revealed decreased sensation in the left S-1 and S-2 dermatomes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large enhancing lesion in the sacral region, with associated erosion of the sacrum. The patient underwent arteriography and embolization of the tumor and then resection. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hemangioblastoma and showed intrafascicular tumor infiltration of the S-2 nerve root. At 1-year follow-up examination, pain had resolved and numbness improved.

Sacral nerve root hemangioblastomas may be safely removed in most patients, resulting in stabilization or improvement in symptomatology. Generally, hemangioblastomas of the sacral nerve roots should be removed when they cause symptoms. Because they originate from the nerve root, the nerve root from which the hemangioblastoma originates must be sacrificed to achieve complete resection.