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Tiziano Tallarita, Thomas J. Sorenson, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Gustavo S. Oderich, Thomas C. Bower, Fredric B. Meyer and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECTIVE

Concomitant unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are present in patients with carotid artery stenosis not infrequently and result in unique management challenges. Thus, we investigated the risk of rupture of an aneurysm after revascularization of a carotid artery in a contemporary consecutive series of patients seen at our institution.

METHODS

Data from patients who underwent a carotid revascularization in the presence of at least one concomitant UIA at our institution from 1991 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated for the incidence of aneurysm rupture within 30 days (early period) and after 30 days (late period) of carotid revascularization, as well as for the incidence of periprocedural complications from the treatment of carotid stenosis and/or UIA.

RESULTS

Our study included 53 patients with 63 concomitant UIAs. There was no rupture within 30 days of carotid revascularization. The overall risk of rupture was 0.87% per patient-year. Treatment (coiling or clipping) of a concomitant UIA, if pursued, could be performed successfully after carotid revascularization.

CONCLUSIONS

Carotid artery revascularization in the setting of a concomitant UIA can be performed safely without an increased 30-day or late-term risk of rupture. If indicated, treatment of the UIA can take place after the patient recovers from the carotid procedure.

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Maria Peris-Celda, Soliman Oushy, Avital Perry, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Richard S. Zimmerman, Fredric B. Meyer, Bruce E. Pollock and Michael J. Link

OBJECTIVE

Geniculate neuralgia (GN) is an uncommon craniofacial pain syndrome attributable to nervus intermedius (NI) dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment can be challenging, due to the complex nature of ear sensory innervation, resulting in clinical overlap with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN).

METHODS

A retrospective review of a prospective neurosurgical database at our institution was performed, 2000–2017, with a corresponding systematic literature review. Pain outcomes were dichotomized as unfavorable for unchanged/worsened symptoms versus favorable if improved/resolved. Eight formalin-fixed brains were examined to describe NI at the brainstem.

RESULTS

Eleven patients were surgically treated for GN—9 primary, 2 reoperations. The median age was 48, 7 patients were female, and the median follow-up was 11 months (range 3–143). Seven had ≥ 2 probable cranial neuralgias. NI was sectioned in 9 and treated via microvascular decompression (MVD) in 2. Five patients underwent simultaneous treatment for TN (4 MVD; 1 rhizotomy) and 5 for GPN (3 MVD; 2 rhizotomy). Eleven reported symptomatic improvement (100%); 8 initially reported complete resolution (73%). Pain outcomes at last contact were favorable in 8 (73%)—all among the 9 primary operations (89% vs 0%, p = 0.054). Six prior series reported outcomes in 111 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

GN is rare, and diagnosis is confounded by symptomatic overlap with TN/GPN. Directed treatment of all possible neuralgias improved pain control in almost all primary operations. Repeat surgery seems a risk factor for an unfavorable outcome. NI is adherent to superomedial VIII at the brainstem; the intermediate/cisternal portion is optimal for visualization and sectioning.

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Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Daniel S. Ubl, Kristine T. Hanson, William E. Krauss, Fredric B. Meyer, Robert J. Spinner, Elizabeth B. Habermann and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Patient-reported outcomes have been increasingly mandated by regulators and payers to evaluate hospital and physician performance. The purpose of this study is to delineate the differences in patient-reported experience of hospital care for cranial and spinal operations.

METHODS

The authors selected all patients who underwent inpatient, elective cranial or spinal procedures and completed the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey at a single, high-volume, tertiary care institution between October 2012 and September 2015. The association of the surgical procedure and diagnosis with various HCAHPS composite measures, calculated across 9 domains using standard top-box methodology, was investigated. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted for outcomes that were significant with procedure type and diagnosis group on univariate analysis, adjusting for age, sex, case complexity, overall health rating, and education level.

RESULTS

A total of 1484 patients met criteria and returned an HCAHPS survey. Overall, patients undergoing a cranial procedure gave top-box (most favorable) scores more often in pain management measure (66.3% vs 59.6%, p = 0.01) compared with those undergoing spine surgery. Furthermore, despite better discharge scores (93.1% vs 87.1%, p < 0.001), spinal patients were less likely to report excellent health (7.4% vs 12.7%). Lastly, patients with a primary diagnosis of brain or spinal tumor compared with those with degenerative spinal disease and those with other neurosurgical diagnoses provided top-box scores more often regarding communication with doctors (82.7% vs 76.4% vs 75.2%, p = 0.04), pain management (71.8% vs 60.9% vs 59.1%, p = 0.002), and global rating (90.4% vs 84.0% vs 87.3%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, spinal patients had significantly lower odds of reporting top-box scores in pain management (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52–0.85; p = 0.001), staff responsiveness (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87; p = 0.002), and global rating (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42–0.82; p = 0.002), and significantly higher odds of top-box scoring in discharge information (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.45–3.18; p < 0.001) than cranial patients. Similarly, brain tumor cases were associated with significantly higher odds of top-box scoring in communication with doctors (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01–2.12; p = 0.04), pain management (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29–2.55; p < 0.001), staff responsiveness (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.33–2.66; p < 0.001), and global rating (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.26–3.17; p = 0.003) compared with degenerative spine cases.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant differences in patient-reported experience with hospital care exist across different cranial and spine surgery patient populations. Overall, spinal patients, particularly those with degenerative spine disease, rated their health and their hospital experience lower relative to cranial patients. Identifying weaker areas of hospital performance in target populations can stimulate quality initiatives that aim to increase the overall hospital score.

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Jason M. Hoover, Macaulay Nwojo, Ross Puffer, Jay Mandrekar, Fredric B. Meyer and Ian F. Parney

Object

The object of this study was to assess outcomes after surgery for recurrent intracranial glioma.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed cases involving adult patients with intracranial glioma patients undergoing initial surgery (biopsy or resection) and one or more additional surgeries at their institution.

Results

A total of 323 operations were performed in 131 patients. The median survival was 76 months after first surgery, 36 months after second, 24 months after third, and 26.5 months after 4 or more surgeries. The overall complication rate was 12.8% after first surgery, 27.0% after second (OR 2.52, p = 0.0068), 22.0% after third (OR 1.92, not statistically significant [NS]), and 22.2% after 4 or more (OR 1.95, NS). Neurological complications occurred in 4.8% of patients at first surgery, 12.1% at second (OR 2.7, p = 0.0437), 8.2% at third (OR 1.75, NS), and 11.1% at 4 or more surgeries (OR 2.4583, NS). Regional complications occurred in 6.2% after first surgery, 9.9% after second surgery (OR 2.30, p = 0.095), 13.7% after third surgery (OR 3.31, p = 0.015), and 22.2% after 4 or more surgeries (OR 5.95, p = 0.056). Systemic complications occurred in 3.2% after first surgery, in 7.3% after second surgery (OR 2.3, p = 0.NS), in 4.1% after third surgery (OR 1.3, NS), and 0% after 4 or more surgeries. Reduction in Karnofsky Performance Status score occurred in 0% after first surgery, 8.1% after second surgery (OR 3.13, p = 0.0018), 10.2% after third surgery (OR 5.52, p < 0.0001), and 11.1% after 4 or more surgeries (OR 1.037, NS).

Conclusions

Postoperative survival is relatively prolonged but complication risk increases in patients with glioma who undergo multiple cranial surgeries. The largest increase in neurological risk occurs between the first and second surgery. In contrast, regional complication risk increases consistently with each surgery. The risk of systemic complications is not significantly altered with increasing surgeries. However, these complications only result in a modestly increased risk of functional decline after 2 or more surgeries. These findings may help counsel patients considering multiple glioma surgeries.

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Shota Tanaka, Fredric B. Meyer, Jan C. Buckner, Joon H. Uhm, Elizabeth S. Yan and Ian F. Parney

Object

Optimum management for elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide (TMZ) era is not well defined. The object of this study was to clarify outcomes in this population.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 105 consecutive cases involving elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) with newly diagnosed GBM who were treated at the Mayo Clinic between 2003 and 2008.

Results

The patients' median age was 74 years (range 66–87 years), and the median Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score was 80 (range 40–90). Half of the patients underwent biopsy and half underwent resection. Patients with deep-seated lesions (19 patients [18%]) or multifocal lesions (34 patients [32%]) were more likely to have biopsy than resection (p = 0.0001 and 0.0009, respectively). New persistent neurological deficits developed in 7 patients (6.7%). Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 6 patients (5.7%), all of whom underwent biopsy. Complete follow-up data regarding adjuvant treatment was available in 84 patients. Forty-one (49%) were treated with chemotherapy (mostly TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), and 23 (27%) with RT alone. Nineteen (23%) received only palliative care after surgery (more common with biopsy, p = 0.03). Chemotherapy complications occurred in 28.6% (Grade 3 or 4 hematological complications in 11.9%). The median values for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 3.5 and 5.5 months. In a multivariate analysis, younger age (p = 0.03, risk ratio [RR] 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.89), single lesion (p = 0.02, RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30–0.89), resection (p = 0.04, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31–0.94), and adjuvant treatment (p = 0.0001, RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.49) were associated with better OS. Only adjuvant treatment was significantly associated with prolonged PFS (p = 0.0007, RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.13–0.57). With combined therapy with resection, RT, and chemotherapy, the median PFS and OS were 8 and 12.5 months, respectively.

Conclusions

The prognosis for GBM worsens with increasing age in elderly patients. With important risks, resection and adjuvant treatment are associated with prolonged survival. Although selection bias cannot be excluded in this retrospective study, advanced age alone should not necessarily preclude optimal resection followed by adjuvant radiochemotherapy.

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Matthew C. Murphy, John Huston III, Kevin J. Glaser, Armando Manduca, Fredric B. Meyer, Giuseppe Lanzino, Jonathan M. Morris, Joel P. Felmlee and Richard L. Ehman

Object

The object of this study was to determine the potential of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to preoperatively assess the stiffness of meningiomas.

Methods

Thirteen patients with meningiomas underwent 3D brain MRE examination to measure stiffness in the tumor as well as in surrounding brain tissue. Blinded to the MRE results, neurosurgeons made a qualitative assessment of tumor stiffness at the time of resection. The ability of MRE to predict the surgical assessment of stiffness was tested using a Spearman rank correlation.

Results

One case was excluded due to a small tumor size. In the remaining 12 cases, both tumor stiffness alone (p = 0.023) and the ratio of tumor stiffness to surrounding brain tissue stiffness (p = 0.0032) significantly correlated with the surgeons' qualitative assessment of tumor stiffness. Results of the MRE examination provided a stronger correlation with the surgical assessment of stiffness compared with traditional T1- and T2-weighted imaging (p = 0.089), particularly when considering meningiomas of intermediate stiffness.

Conclusions

In this cohort, preoperative MRE predicted tumor consistency at the time of surgery. Tumor stiffness as measured using MRE outperformed conventional MRI because tumor appearance on T1- and T2-weighted images could only accurately predict the softest and hardest meningiomas.

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Julia J. Compton, Nadia N. Issa Laack, Laurence J. Eckel, David A. Schomas, Caterina Giannini and Fredric B. Meyer

Object

Gangliogliomas comprise less than 1% of all brain tumors and occur most often in children. Therefore, there are a limited number of patients and data involving the use or role of adjuvant therapy after subtotal resections (STRs) of gangliogliomas. The objective of this study was to examine and review the Mayo Clinic experience of 88 patients with gangliogliomas, their follow-up, risk of recurrence, and the role of radiation therapy after STR or only biopsy.

Methods

Eighty-eight patients with gangliogliomas diagnosed between 1970 and 2007 were reviewed. Data on clinical outcomes and therapy received were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival.

Results

The median age at diagnosis was 19 years. The median potential follow-up as of June 2008 was 142 months (range 9–416 months). Fifteen-year overall survival was 94%, median PFS was 5.6 years, with a 10-year PFS rate of 37%. Progression-free survival was dramatically affected by extent of initial resection (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

This single-institution retrospective series of patients with gangliogliomas is unique given its large cohort size with a long follow-up duration, and confirms the excellent long-term survival rate in this group. The study also shows the importance of resection extent on likelihood of recurrence. Patients with gangliogliomas who undergo STR or biopsy alone have poor PFS. Radiation therapy may delay time to progression in patients with unresectable disease.

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Kelly D. Flemming, George K. Bovis and Fredric B. Meyer

The risk of hemorrhage from an intracerebral cavernous malformation has been estimated at 2%–4% per year. In patients with multiple cavernous malformations, typically there are 1 or 2 dominant lesions that result in symptoms. This report highlights an unusual case of recurrent hemorrhage from de novo cavernous malformations.

This 35-year-old man had a generalized seizure in 2007. Magnetic resonance imaging performed at the time showed multiple hemorrhagic lesions suggestive of cavernous malformations. Two years later, the patient had clinical symptoms referable to a midbrain hemorrhage. This lesion was not present on 2007 standard and gradient echo images. One year later, the patient had another clinical hemorrhage at the cervical medullary junction. This lesion was also not present on earlier imaging. Genetic testing was negative for the known familial types of cavernous malformation. A lesion was biopsied to ensure correct diagnosis, and the results were pathologically consistent with a cavernous malformation. The patient had a fourth clinical hemorrhage in 2011 from a separate lesion. All hemorrhage symptoms were mild, and he returned to normal functioning and work after each hemorrhage.

This case highlights several unusual features of the known natural history of intracerebral cavernous malformations. In this case, resection of the hemorrhagic lesion would not have altered future hemorrhage risk since each new hemorrhage was from a de novo lesion.

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Fredric B. Meyer