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  • By Author: Linden, R. Dean x
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R. John Hurlbert, Charles H. Tator, Michael G. Fehlings, Greg Niznik and R. Dean Linden

✓ Although the assessment of spinal cord function by electrophysiological techniques has become important in both clinical and research environments, current monitoring methods do not completely evaluate all tracts in the spinal cord. Somatosensory and motor evoked potentials primarily reflect dorsal column and pyramidal tract integrity, respectively, but do not directly assess the status of the ventral funiculus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of evoked potentials, elicited by direct cerebellar stimulation, in monitoring the ventral component of the rodent spinal cord. Twenty-nine rats underwent epidural anodal stimulation directly over the cerebellar cortex, with recording of evoked responses from the lower thoracic spinal cord, both sciatic nerves, and/or both gastrocnemius muscles. Stimulation parameters were varied to establish normative characteristics. The pathways conducting these “posterior fossa evoked potentials” were determined after creation of various lesions of the cervical spinal cord.

The evoked potential recorded from the thoracic spinal cord consisted of five positive (P1 to P5) and five negative (N1 to N5) peaks. The average conduction velocity (± standard deviation) of the earliest wave (P1) was 53 ± 4 m/sec, with a latency of 1.24 ± 0.10 msec. The other components followed within 4 msec from stimulus onset. Unilateral cerebellar stimulation resulted in bilateral sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle responses; there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the thresholds, amplitudes, or latencies of these responses elicited by right- versus left-sided stimulation. Recordings performed following creation of selective lesions of the cervical cord indicated that the thoracic response was carried primarily in the ventral funiculus while the sciatic and gastrocnemius responses were mediated through the dorsal half of the spinal cord. It is concluded that the posterior fossa evoked potential has research value as a method of monitoring pathways within the ventral spinal cord of the rat, and should be useful in the study of spinal cord injury.

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Michael G. Fehlings, Charles H. Tator and R. Dean Linden

✓ There is evidence that posttraumatic ischemia is important in the pathogenesis of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), measured by the hydrogen clearance technique, and motor and somatosensory evoked potentials (MEP and SSEP) were recorded to evaluate whether the administration of nimodipine and dextran 40, alone or in combination, could increase posttraumatic SCBF and improve axonal function in the cord after acute SCI. Thirty rats received a 53-gm clip compression injury on the cord at T-1 and were then randomly and blindly allocated to one of six treatment groups (five rats in each). Each group was given an intravenous infusion of one of the following over 1 hour, commencing 1 hour after SCI: placebo and saline; placebo and dextran 40; nimodipine 0.02 mg/kg and saline; nimodipine 0.02 mg/kg and dextran 40; nimodipine 0.05 mg/kg and saline; and nimodipine 0.05 mg/kg and dextran 40.

The preinjury physiological parameters, including the SCBF at T-1 (mean ± standard error of the mean: 56.84 ± 4.51 ml/100 gm/min), were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Following SCI, there was a significant decrease in the SCBF at T-1 (24.55 ± 2.99 ml/100 gm/min; p < 0.0001) as well as significant changes in the MEP recorded from the spinal cord (MEP-C) (p < 0.0001), the MEP recorded from the sciatic nerve (MEP-N) (p < 0.0001), and the SSEP (p < 0.002). Only the combination of nimodipine 0.02 mg/kg and dextran 40 increased the SCBF at T-1 (43.69 ± 6.09 ml/100 gm/min; p < 0.003) and improved the MEP-C (p < 0.0001), MEP-N (p < 0.04), and SSEP (p < 0.002) following SCI. With this combination, the changes in SCBF were significantly related to improvement in axonal function in the motor tracts (p < 0.0001) and somatosensory tracts (p < 0.0001) of the cord. This study provides quantitative evidence that an increase in posttraumatic SCBF can significantly improve the function of injured spinal cord axons, and strongly implicates posttraumatic ischemia in the pathogenesis of acute SCI.

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Michael G. Fehlings, Charles H. Tator and R. Dean Linden

✓ Recent work has indicated that direct-current (DC) fields may promote recovery after acute spinal cord injury. In the present experiments, the therapeutic value of an applied DC field was studied in 40 rats with clip compression injuries of the cord at C7–T1. The rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups including 10 rats each: two groups received a 17-gm cord injury and two groups a 53-gm injury. One group at each injury severity received implantation of a treatment (14 µA) DC stimulator and the other group a control (0 µA) stimulator. Clinical neurological function was assessed weekly by the inclined-plane technique. At 8 weeks after injury, motor and somatosensory evoked potentials (MEP's and SSEP's) were recorded, and the axonal tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was introduced into the cord at T-6. The total number of HRP-labeled cells was counted in every sixth coronal section through the brain stem and motor cortex. All outcome parameters were assessed blindly.

In the 17-gm group, there were no significant differences in any outcome measure between control and treated rats. In contrast, in the 53-gm group, the inclined-plane scores, the amplitude of the MEP's, and the number of labeled cells in the red nucleus, raphé nuclei, and vestibular nuclei were greater in treated than in control rats. These data strongly indicate that an applied DC field can produce functional neurological and anatomical improvement in rats with acute spinal cord injuries.