Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 117 items for

  • By Author: Lawton, Michael T. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Benjamin K. Hendricks, James S. Yoon, Kurt Yaeger, Christopher P. Kellner, J Mocco, Reade A. De Leacy, Andrew F. Ducruet, Michael T. Lawton and Justin R. Mascitelli

OBJECTIVE

Wide-necked aneurysms (WNAs) are a variably defined subset of cerebral aneurysms that require more advanced endovascular and microsurgical techniques than those required for narrow-necked aneurysms. The neurosurgical literature includes many definitions of WNAs, and a systematic review has not been performed to identify the most commonly used or optimal definition. The purpose of this systematic review was to highlight the most commonly used definition of WNAs.

METHODS

The authors searched PubMed for the years 1998–2017, using the terms “wide neck aneurysm” and “broad neck aneurysm” to identify relevant articles. All results were screened for having a minimum of 30 patients and for clearly stating a definition of WNA. Reference lists for all articles meeting the inclusion criteria were also screened for eligibility.

RESULTS

The search of the neurosurgical literature identified 809 records, of which 686 were excluded (626 with < 30 patients; 60 for lack of a WNA definition), leaving 123 articles for analysis. Twenty-seven unique definitions were identified and condensed into 14 definitions. The most common definition was neck size ≥ 4 mm or dome-to-neck ratio < 2, which was used in 49 articles (39.8%). The second most commonly used definition was neck size ≥ 4 mm, which was used in 26 articles (21.1%). The rest of the definitions included similar parameters with variable thresholds. There was inconsistent reporting of the precise dome measurements used to determine the dome-to-neck ratio. Digital subtraction angiography was the only imaging modality used to study the aneurysm morphology in 87 of 122 articles (71.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

The literature has great variability regarding the definition of a WNA. The most prevalent definition is a neck diameter of ≥ 4 mm or a dome-to-neck ratio of < 2. Whether this is the most appropriate and clinically useful definition is an area for future study.

Restricted access

Grace F. Donzelli, Jeffrey Nelson, David McCoy, Charles E. McCulloch, Steven W. Hetts, Matthew R. Amans, Christopher F. Dowd, Van V. Halbach, Randall T. Higashida, Michael T. Lawton, Helen Kim and Daniel L. Cooke

OBJECTIVE

Preoperative embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is performed to facilitate resection, although its impact on surgical performance has not been clearly defined. The authors tested for associations between embolization and surgical performance metrics.

METHODS

The authors analyzed AVM cases resected by one neurosurgeon from 2006 to 2017. They tested whether cases with and without embolization differed from one another with respect to patient and AVM characteristics using t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables. They used simple and multivariable regression models to test whether surgical outcomes (blood loss, resection time, surgical clip usage, and modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) were associated with embolization. Additional regression analyses integrated the peak arterial afferent contrast normalized for the size of the region of interest (Cmax/ROI) into models as an additional predictor.

RESULTS

The authors included 319 patients, of whom 151 (47%) had preoperative embolization. Embolized AVMs tended to be larger (38% with diameter > 3 cm vs 19%, p = 0.001), less likely to have hemorrhaged (48% vs 63%, p = 0.013), or be diffuse (19% vs 29%, p = 0.045). Embolized AVMs were more likely to have both superficial and deep venous drainage and less likely to have exclusively deep drainage (32% vs 17% and 12% vs 23%, respectively; p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, embolization was not a significant predictor of blood loss or mRS score changes, but did predict longer operating times (+29 minutes, 95% CI 2–56 minutes; p = 0.034) and increased clip usage (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.45–4.71; p = 0.001). Cmax/ROI was not a significant predictor, although cases with large Cmax/ROI tended to have longer procedure times (+25 minutes per doubling of Cmax/ROI, 95% CI 0–50 minutes; p = 0.051).

CONCLUSIONS

In this series, preoperative embolization was associated with longer median resection times and had no association with intraoperative blood loss or mRS score changes.

Free access

Michael T. Lawton and Michael J. Lang

Despite the erosion of microsurgical case volume because of advances in endovascular and radiosurgical therapies, indications remain for open resection of pathology and highly technical vascular repairs. Treatment risk, efficacy, and durability make open microsurgery a preferred option for cerebral cavernous malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and many aneurysms. In this paper, a 21-year experience with 7348 cases was reviewed to identify trends in microsurgical management. Brainstem cavernous malformations (227 cases), once considered inoperable and managed conservatively, are now resected in increasing numbers through elegant skull base approaches and newly defined safe entry zones, demonstrating that microsurgical techniques can be applied in ways that generate entirely new areas of practice. Despite excellent results with microsurgery for low-grade AVMs, brain AVM management (836 cases) is being challenged by endovascular embolization and radiosurgery, as well as by randomized trials that show superior results with medical management. Reviews of ARUBA-eligible AVM patients treated at high-volume centers have demonstrated that open microsurgery with AVM resection is still better than many new techniques and less invasive approaches that are occlusive or obliterative. Although the volume of open aneurysm surgery is declining (4479 cases), complex aneurysms still require open microsurgery, often with bypass techniques. Intracranial arterial reconstructions with reimplantations, reanastomoses, in situ bypasses, and intracranial interpositional bypasses (third-generation bypasses) augment conventional extracranial-intracranial techniques (first- and second-generation bypasses) and generate innovative bypasses in deep locations, such as for anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. When conventional combinations of anastomoses and suturing techniques are reshuffled, a fourth generation of bypasses results, with eight new types of bypasses. Type 4A bypasses use in situ suturing techniques within the conventional anastomosis, whereas type 4B bypasses maintain the basic construct of reimplantations or reanastomoses but use an unconventional anastomosis. Bypass surgery (605 cases) demonstrates that open microsurgery will continue to evolve. The best neurosurgeons will be needed to tackle the complex lesions that cannot be managed with other modalities. Becoming an open vascular neurosurgeon will be intensely competitive. The microvascular practice of the future will require subspecialization, collaborative team effort, an academic medical center, regional prominence, and a large catchment population, as well as a health system that funnels patients from hospital networks outside the region. Dexterity and meticulous application of microsurgical technique will remain the fundamental skills of the open vascular neurosurgeon.

Restricted access

Philip Cheng, Li Ma, Sonali Shaligram, Espen J. Walker, Shun-Tai Yang, Chaoliang Tang, Wan Zhu, Lei Zhan, Qiang Li, Xiaonan Zhu, Michael T. Lawton and Hua Su

OBJECTIVE

A high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) bleeding and rupture. However, direct evidence is missing. In this study the authors used a mouse bAVM model to test the hypothesis that elevation of focal VEGF levels in bAVMs exacerbates the severity of bAVM hemorrhage.

METHODS

Brain AVMs were induced in adult mice in which activin receptor–like kinase 1 (Alk1, a gene that causes AVM) gene exons 4–6 were floxed by intrabasal ganglia injection of an adenoviral vector expressing Cre recombinase to induce Alk1 mutation and an adeno-associated viral vector expressing human VEGF (AAV-VEGF) to induce angiogenesis. Two doses of AAV-VEGF (5 × 109 [high] or 2 × 109 [low]) viral genomes were used. In addition, the common carotid artery and external jugular vein were anastomosed in a group of mice treated with low-dose AAV-VEGF 6 weeks after the model induction to induce cerebral venous hypertension (VH), because VH increases the VEGF level in the brain. Brain samples were collected 8 weeks after the model induction. Hemorrhages in the bAVM lesions were quantified on brain sections stained with Prussian blue, which detects iron deposition. VEGF levels were quantified in bAVM tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS

Compared to mice injected with a low dose of AAV-VEGF, the mice injected with a high dose had higher levels of VEGF (p = 0.003) and larger Prussian blue–positive areas in the bAVM lesion at 8 or 9 weeks after model induction (p = 0.002). VH increased bAVM hemorrhage in the low-dose AAV-VEGF group. The overall mortality in the high-dose AAV-VEGF group was 26.7%, whereas no mouse died in the low-dose AAV-VEGF group without VH. In contrast, VH caused a mortality of 50% in the low-dose AAV-VEGF group.

CONCLUSIONS

Using mouse bAVM models, the authors provided direct evidence that elevation of the VEGF level increases bAVM hemorrhage and mouse mortality.

Restricted access

Michael E. Ivan, Michael M. Safaee, Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Ana Rodríguez-Hernández, Barbara Sullinger, Priyanka Kuruppu, Julian Habdank-Kolaczkowski and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms are common intracranial aneurysms. Despite advances in endovascular therapy, microsurgical clipping remains an important treatment for aneurysms with broad necks, large size, intraluminal thrombus, complex branches, or previous coiling. Anatomical triangles identify safe corridors for aneurysm access. The authors introduce the A1-A2 junctional triangle and the A1-A1 precommunicating triangle and examine relationships between dome projection, triangular corridors of access, and surgical outcomes.

METHODS

Preoperative catheter and CT angiograms were evaluated to characterize aneurysm dome projection. Aneurysm projection was categorized into quadrants and octants. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors were correlated to aneurysm dome projection and patient outcomes using univariate and multivariate analyses.

RESULTS

A total of 513 patients with microsurgically treated ACoA aneurysms were identified over a 13-year period, and 400 had adequate imaging and follow-up data for inclusion. Surgical clipping was performed on 271 ruptured and 129 unruptured aneurysms. Good outcomes were observed in 91% of patients with unruptured aneurysms and 86% of those with ruptured aneurysms, with a mortality rate < 1% among patients with unruptured aneurysms. Increasing age (p < 0.01), larger aneurysm size (p = 0.03), and worse preoperative modified Rankin Scale score (p < 0.01) affected outcomes adversely. Aneurysms projecting superiorly and posteriorly required dissection in the junctional triangle, and multivariate analysis demonstrated worse clinical outcomes in these patients (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Anteriorly and inferiorly projecting aneurysms involve only the precommunicating triangle, are simpler to treat microsurgically, and have more favorable outcomes. Superior and posterior dome projections make ACoA aneurysms more difficult to visualize and require opening the junctional triangle. Added visualization through the junctional triangle is recommended for these aneurysms in order to facilitate dissection of efferent branch arteries, careful clip application, and perforator preservation. Dome projection can be determined preoperatively from images and can help anticipate dissection routes through the junctional triangle.

Free access

Tyler S. Cole, Sirin Gandhi, Justin R. Mascitelli, Douglas Hardesty, Claudio Cavallo and Michael T. Lawton

Venous interruption through surgical clip ligation is the gold standard treatment for ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistula (e-dAVF). Their malignant natural history is attributable to the higher predilection for retrograde cortical venous drainage. This video illustrates an e-dAVF in a 70-year-old man with progressive tinnitus and headache. Angiogram revealed bilateral e-dAVFs (Borden III–Cognard III) with one fistula draining into cavernous sinus and another to the sagittal sinus. A bifrontal craniotomy was utilized for venous interruption of both e-dAVFs. Postoperative angiography confirmed curative obliteration with no postoperative anosmia. Bilateral e-dAVFs are rare but can be safely treated simultaneously through a single craniotomy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/666edwKHGKc.

Restricted access

Thomas K. Mattingly and Stephen P. Lownie

Restricted access

Peyton L. Nisson, Salman A. Fard, Christina M. Walter, Cameron M. Johnstone, Michael A. Mooney, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael Lang, Helen Kim, Heidi Jahnke, Denise J. Roe, Travis M. Dumont, G. Michael Lemole Jr., Robert F. Spetzler and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing Spetzler-Martin (SM), Spetzler-Ponce (SP), and Lawton-Young (LY) grading systems for cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and to propose a new grading system to estimate the risks associated with these lesions.

METHODS

Data for patients with cerebellar AVMs treated microsurgically in two tertiary medical centers were retrospectively reviewed. Data from patients at institution 1 were collected from September 1999 to February 2013, and at institution 2 from October 2008 to October 2015. Patient outcomes were classified as favorable (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) or poor (mRS score 3–6) at the time of discharge. Using chi-square and logistic regression analysis, variables associated with poor outcomes were assigned risk points to design the proposed grading system. The proposed system included neurological status prior to treatment (poor, +2 points), emergency surgery (+1 point), age > 60 years (+1 point), and deep venous drainage (deep, +1 point). Risk point totals of 0–1 comprised grade 1, 2–3 grade 2, and 4–5 grade 3.

RESULTS

A total of 125 cerebellar AVMs of 1328 brain AVMs were reviewed in 125 patients, 120 of which were treated microsurgically and included in the study. With our proposed grading system, we found poor outcomes differed significantly between each grade (p < 0.001), while with the SM, SP, and LY grading systems they did not (p = 0.22, p = 0.25, and p = 1, respectively). Logistic regression revealed grade 2 had 3.3 times the risk of experiencing a poor outcome (p = 0.008), while grade 3 had 9.9 times the risk (p < 0.001). The proposed grading system demonstrated a superior level of predictive accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] of 0.72) compared with the SM, SP, and LY grading systems (AUROC of 0.61, 0.57, and 0.51, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors propose a novel grading system for cerebellar AVMs based on emergency surgery, venous drainage, preoperative neurological status, and age that provides a superior prognostication power than the formerly proposed SM, SP, and LY grading systems. This grading system is clinically predictive of patient outcomes and can be used to better guide vascular neurosurgeons in clinical decision-making.

Restricted access

Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Michelle H. Chua, Ethan A. Winkler, W. Caleb Rutledge and Michael T. Lawton

OBJECTIVE

During the microsurgical clipping of known aneurysms, angiographically occult (AO) aneurysms are sometimes found and treated simultaneously to prevent their growth and protect the patient from future rupture or reoperation. The authors analyzed the incidence, treatment, and outcomes associated with AO aneurysms to determine whether limited surgical exploration around the known aneurysm was safe and justified given the known limitations of diagnostic angiography.

METHODS

An AO aneurysm was defined as a saccular aneurysm detected using the operative microscope during dissection of a known aneurysm, and not detected on preoperative catheter angiography. A prospective database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with AO aneurysms treated microsurgically over a 20-year period.

RESULTS

One hundred fifteen AO aneurysms (4.0%) were identified during 2867 distinct craniotomies for aneurysm clipping. The most common locations for AO aneurysms were the middle cerebral artery (60 aneurysms, 54.1%) and the anterior cerebral artery (20 aneurysms, 18.0%). Fifty-six AO aneurysms (50.5%) were located on the same artery as the known saccular aneurysm. Most AO aneurysms (95.5%) were clipped and there was no attributed morbidity. The most common causes of failed angiographic detection were superimposition of a large aneurysm (type 1, 30.6%), a small aneurysm (type 2, 18.9%), or an adjacent normal artery (type 3, 36.9%). Multivariate analysis identified multiple known aneurysms (odds ratio [OR] 3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.16–5.49, p < 0.0001) and young age (OR 0.981, 95% CI 0.965–0.997, p = 0.0226) as independent predictors of AO aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS

Meticulous inspection of common aneurysm sites within the surgical field will identify AO aneurysms during microsurgical dissection of another known aneurysm. Simultaneous identification and treatment of these additional undiagnosed aneurysms can spare patients later rupture or reoperation, particularly in those with multiple known aneurysms and a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Limited microsurgical exploration around a known aneurysm can be performed safely without additional morbidity.

Restricted access

R. Michael Scott and Edward R. Smith