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Akshitkumar M. Mistry, Nishit Mummareddy, Travis S. CreveCoeur, Jock C. Lillard, Brandy N. Vaughn, Jean-Nicolas Gallant, Andrew T. Hale, Natalie Griffin, John C. Wellons III, David D. Limbrick Jr., Paul Klimo Jr. and Robert P. Naftel

OBJECTIVE

The subventricular zone (SVZ), housed in the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles, is the largest neurogenic niche in the brain. In adults, high-grade gliomas in contact or involved with the SVZ are associated with decreased survival. Whether this association holds true in the pediatric population remains unexplored. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted this retrospective study in a pediatric population with high-grade gliomas treated at three comprehensive centers in the United States.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified 63 patients, age ≤ 21 years, with supratentorial WHO grade III–IV gliomas treated at three academic centers. Basic demographic and clinical data regarding presenting signs and symptoms and common treatment variables were obtained. Preoperative MRI studies were evaluated to assess SVZ contact by tumor and to quantify tumor volume.

RESULTS

Sixty-three patients, including 34 males (54%), had a median age of 12.3 years (IQR 6.50–16.2) and a median tumor volume of 39.4 ml (IQR 19.4–65.8). Tumors contacting the SVZ (SVZ+) were noted in 34 patients (54%) and overall were larger than those not in contact with the SVZ (SVZ−; 51.1 vs 27.3, p = 0.002). The SVZ+ tumors were also associated with decreased survival. However, age, tumor volume, tumor grade, and treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation were not associated with survival in the 63 patients. In the univariable analysis, near-total resection, gross-total resection, and seizure presentation were associated with increased survival (HR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.06–0.88, p = 0.03; HR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.09–0.74, p = 0.01; and HR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.22–0.97, p = 0.04, respectively). In a multivariable stepwise Cox regression analysis, only SVZ+ tumors remained significantly associated with decreased survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.03–3.64, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS

High-grade glioma contact with the SVZ neural stem cell niche was associated with a significant decrease in survival in the pediatric population, as it is in the adult population. This result suggests that tumor contact with the SVZ is a general negative prognosticator in high-grade glioma independent of age group and invites biological investigations to understand the SVZ’s role in glioma pathobiology.

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Sebastian P. Norrdahl, Tamekia L. Jones, Pooja Dave, David S. Hersh, Brandy Vaughn and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

In pediatric patients, the development of a postoperative pseudomeningocele after an elective craniotomy is not unusual. Most will resolve with time, but some may require intervention. In this study, the authors analyzed patients who required intervention for a postoperative pseudomeningocele following an elective craniotomy or craniectomy and identified factors associated with the need for intervention.

METHODS

An institutional operative database of elective craniotomies and craniectomies was queried to identify all surgeries associated with development of a postoperative pseudomeningocele from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2017. Demographic and surgical data were collected, as were details regarding postoperative events and interventions during either the initial admission or upon readmission. A bivariate analysis was performed to compare patients who underwent observation with those who required intervention.

RESULTS

Following 1648 elective craniotomies or craniectomies, 84 (5.1%) clinically significant pseudomeningoceles were identified in 82 unique patients. Of these, 58 (69%) of the pseudomeningoceles were diagnosed during the index admission (8 of which persisted and resulted in readmission), and 26 (31%) were diagnosed upon readmission. Forty-nine patients (59.8% of those with a pseudomeningocele) required one or more interventions, such as lumbar puncture(s), lumbar drain placement, wound exploration, or shunt placement or revision. Only race (p < 0.01) and duraplasty (p = 0.03, OR 3.0) were associated with the need for pseudomeningocele treatment.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinically relevant pseudomeningoceles developed in 5% of patients undergoing an elective craniotomy, with 60% of these pseudomeningoceles needing some form of intervention. The need for intervention was associated with race and whether a duraplasty was performed.

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Andrew Erwood, Rima S. Rindler, Mustafa Motiwala, Sonia Ajmera, Brandy Vaughn, Paul Klimo Jr. and Joshua J. Chern

OBJECTIVE

There are many known complications associated with CSF shunts. One of the more rare ones is a sterile abdominal pseudocyst due to decreased peritoneal absorption. This study was undertaken to detail the presentation, evaluation, and management of this unusual shunt-related event.

METHODS

Patients presenting with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS)–related sterile abdominal pseudocysts treated at two institutions between 2013 and 2018 were included. Patients who had undergone abdominal surgery or shunt revisions within a 12-month period preceding presentation were excluded. Information was collected regarding clinical characteristics; hospital course, including surgical intervention(s); and any subsequent complications. Special attention was given to the eventual surgery after pseudocyst resolution, including the use of laparoscopy for peritoneal catheter placement, distal shunt conversion (i.e., in the atrium or pleural cavity), endoscopic third ventriculostomy, or shunt removal. The timing and nature of any subsequent shunt failures were also noted.

RESULTS

Twenty-eight patients met the study criteria, with a mean age of 10 years. The most common etiology of hydrocephalus was intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity. All shunts were externalized at presentation. One shunt was removed without subsequent internalization. Distal catheters were re-internalized back into the peritoneal cavity in 11 patients (laparoscopy was used in 8 cases). Fourteen shunts were converted to a ventriculoatrial shunt (VAS), and two to a ventriculopleural (VPlS). Two VPSs failed due to a recurrent pseudocyst. The total all-cause failure rates at 1 year were as follows: 18% for VPSs and 50% for VASs.

CONCLUSIONS

Following treatment of a VPS-related sterile abdominal pseudocyst, laparoscopy-assisted placement of the distal catheter in the peritoneum is a viable and safe option for select patients, compared to a VAS or VPlS.

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David S. Hersh, Kenneth Moore, Vincent Nguyen, Lucas Elijovich, Asim F. Choudhri, Jorge A. Lee-Diaz, Raja B. Khan, Brandy Vaughn and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Stenoocclusive cerebral vasculopathy is an infrequent delayed complication of ionizing radiation. It has been well described with photon-based radiation therapy but less so following proton-beam radiotherapy. The authors report their recent institutional experience in evaluating and treating children with radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy.

METHODS

Eligible patients were age 21 years or younger who had a history of cranial radiation and subsequently developed vascular narrowing detected by MR arteriography that was significant enough to warrant cerebral angiography, with or without ischemic symptoms. The study period was January 2011 to March 2019.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients met the study inclusion criteria. Their median age was 12 years, and 18 (58%) were male. Proton-beam radiation therapy was used in 20 patients (64.5%) and photon-based radiation therapy was used in 11 patients (35.5%). Patients were most commonly referred for workup as a result of incidental findings on surveillance tumor imaging (n = 23; 74.2%). Proton-beam patients had a shorter median time from radiotherapy to catheter angiography (24.1 months [IQR 16.8–35.4 months]) than patients who underwent photon-based radiation therapy (48.2 months [IQR 26.6–61.1 months]; p = 0.04). Eighteen hemispheres were revascularized in 15 patients. One surgical patient suffered a contralateral hemispheric infarct 2 weeks after revascularization; no child treated medically (aspirin) has had a stroke to date. The median follow-up duration was 29.2 months (IQR 21.8–54.0 months) from the date of the first catheter angiogram to last clinic visit.

CONCLUSIONS

All children who receive cranial radiation therapy from any source, particularly if the parasellar region was involved and the child was young at the time of treatment, require close surveillance for the development of vasculopathy. A structured and detailed evaluation is necessary to determine optimal treatment.

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Sonia Ajmera, Ryan P. Lee, Andrew Schultz, David S. Hersh, Jacob Lepard, Raymond Xu, Hassan Saad, Olutomi Akinduro, Melissa Justo, Brittany D. Fraser, Mustafa Motiwala, Pooja Dave, Brian Jimenez, David A. Wallace, Olufemi Osikoya, Sebastian Norrdahl, Jennings H. Dooley, Nickalus R. Khan, Brandy N. Vaughn, Cormac O. Maher and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to analyze the publication output of postgraduate pediatric neurosurgery fellows for a 10-year period as well as identify 25 individual highly productive pediatric neurosurgeons. The correlation between academic productivity and the site of fellowship training was studied.

METHODS

Programs certified by the Accreditation Council for Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowships that had 5 or more graduating fellows from 2006 to 2015 were included for analysis. Fellows were queried using Scopus for publications during those 10 years with citation data through 2017. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, comparing program rankings of faculty against fellows using the revised Hirsch index (r-index; primary) and Hirsch index (h-index; secondary). A list of 25 highly accomplished individual academicians and their fellowship training locations was compiled.

RESULTS

Sixteen programs qualified with 152 fellows from 2006 to 2015; 136 of these surgeons published a total of 2009 articles with 23,735 citations. Most publications were pediatric-specific (66.7%) clinical articles (93.1%), with middle authorship (55%). Co-investigators were more likely from residency than fellowship. There was a clustering of the top 7 programs each having total publications of around 120 or greater, publications per fellow greater than 12, more than 1200 citations, and adjusted ir10 (revised 10-year institutional h-index) and ih10 (10-year institutional h-index) values of approximately 2 or higher. Correlating faculty and fellowship program rankings yielded correlation coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.80. Fifteen individuals (60%) in the top 25 (by r5 index) list completed their fellowship at 1 of these 7 institutions.

CONCLUSIONS

Approximately 90% of fellowship-trained pediatric neurosurgeons have 1 or more publications, but the spectrum of output is broad. There is a strong correlation between where surgeons complete their fellowships and postgraduate publications.

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Nickalus R. Khan, Kenneth Moore, Jaafar Basma, David S. Hersh, Asim F. Choudhri, Brandy Vaughn and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

An ischemic stroke following an elective craniotomy in a child is perceived to be a rare event. However, to date there are few papers on this topic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of stroke following elective intracranial surgery at a children’s hospital.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who developed a perioperative stroke following an elective craniotomy from 2010 through 2017. Data were collected using an institutional database that contained demographic, medical, radiological, and outcome variables.

RESULTS

A total of 1591 elective craniotomies were performed at the authors’ institution during the study period. Of these, 28 (1.8%) were followed by a perioperative stroke. Radiographic diagnosis of the infarction occurred at a median of 1.7 days (range 0–9 days) from the time of surgery, and neurological deficits were apparent within 24 hours of surgery in 18 patients (62.5%). Infarcts tended to occur adjacent to tumor resection sites (86% of cases), and in a unilateral (89%), unifocal (93%), and supratentorial (93%) location. Overall, 11 (39.3%) strokes were due to a perforating artery, 10 (35.7%) were due to a large vessel, 4 (14.3%) were venous, and 3 (10.7%) were related to hypoperfusion or embolic causes. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) was used in 11 of the 28 cases, and 6 (55%) infarcts were not detected, all of which were deep.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of stroke following an elective craniotomy is low, with nearly all cases (86%) occurring after tumor resection. Perforator infarcts were most common but may be missed on iMRI.

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Ryan P. Lee, Raymond Xu, Pooja Dave, Sonia Ajmera, Jock C. Lillard, David Wallace, Austin Broussard, Mustafa Motiwala, Sebastian Norrdahl, Carissa Howie, Oluwatomi Akinduro, Garrett T. Venable, Nickalus R. Khan, Douglas R. Taylor, Brandy N. Vaughn and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

There has been an increasing interest in the quantitative analysis of publishing within the field of neurosurgery at the individual, group, and institutional levels. The authors present an updated analysis of accredited pediatric neurosurgery training programs.

METHODS

All 28 Accreditation Council for Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowship programs were contacted for the names of pediatric neurosurgeons who were present each year from 2011 through 2015. Faculty names were queried in Scopus for publications and citations during this time period. The 5-year institutional Hirsch index [ih(5)-index] and revised 5-year institutional h-index [ir(5)-index] were calculated to rank programs. Each publication was reviewed to determine authorship value, tier of research, clinical versus basic science research, subject matter, and whether it was pediatrics-specific. A unique 3-tier article classification system was introduced to stratify clinical articles by quality and complexity, with tier 3 being the lowest tier of publication (e.g., case reports) and tier 1 being the highest (e.g., randomized controlled trials).

RESULTS

Among 2060 unique publications, 1378 (67%) were pediatrics-specific. The pediatrics-specific articles had a mean of 15.2 citations per publication (median 6), whereas the non–pediatrics-specific articles had a mean of 23.0 citations per publication (median 8; p < 0.0001). For the 46% of papers that had a pediatric neurosurgeon as first or last author, the mean number of citations per publication was 12.1 (median 5.0) compared with 22.5 (median 8.0) for those in which a pediatric neurosurgeon was a middle author (p < 0.0001). Seventy-nine percent of articles were clinical research and 21% were basic science or translational research; however, basic science and translational articles had a mean of 36.9 citations per publication (median 15) compared with 12.6 for clinical publications (median 5.0; p < 0.0001). Among clinical articles, tier 1 papers had a mean of 15.0 citations per publication (median 8.0), tier 2 papers had a mean of 18.7 (median 8.0), and tier 3 papers had a mean of 7.8 (median 3.0). Neuro-oncology papers received the highest number of citations per publication (mean 25.7). The most common journal was the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics (20%). MD/PhD faculty members had significantly more citations per publication than MD faculty members (mean 26.7 vs 14.0; p < 0.0001) and also a higher number of publications per author (mean 38.6 vs 20.8). The median ih(5)- and ir(5)-indices per program were 14 (range 5–48) and 10 (range 5.6–37.2), respectively. The mean ir(5)/ih(5)-index ratio was 0.8. The top 5 fellowship programs (in descending order) as ranked by the ih(5)-index corrected for number of faculty members were The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto; Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh; University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children’s Hospital; Seattle Children’s Hospital; and St. Louis Children’s Hospital.

CONCLUSIONS

About two-thirds of publications authored by pediatric neurosurgeons are pediatrics-specific, although non–pediatrics-specific articles averaged more citations. Most of the articles authored by pediatric neurosurgeons are clinical, with basic and translational articles averaging more citations. Neurosurgeons with PhD degrees averaged more total publications and more citations per publication. In all, this is the most advanced and informative analysis of publication productivity in pediatric neurosurgery to date.

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Michael C. Dewan, Jaims Lim, Stephen R. Gannon, David Heaner, Matthew C. Davis, Brandy Vaughn, Joshua J. Chern, Brandon G. Rocque, Paul Klimo Jr., John C. Wellons III and Robert P. Naftel

OBJECTIVE

It has been suggested that the treatment of infant hydrocephalus results in different craniometric changes depending upon whether ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) is performed. Without an objective and quantitative description of expected changes to the infant cranium and ventricles following ETV/CPC, asserting successful treatment of hydrocephalus is difficult. By comparing infants successfully treated via ETV/CPC or VPS surgery, the authors of this study aimed to define the expected postoperative cranial and ventricular alterations at the time of clinical follow-up.

METHODS

Patients who underwent successful treatment of hydrocephalus at 4 institutions with either VPS placement or ETV/CPC were matched in a 3:1 ratio on the basis of age and etiology. Commonly used cranial parameters (including head circumference [HC], HC z-score, fontanelle status, and frontooccipital horn ratio [FOHR]) were compared pre- and postoperatively between treatment cohorts. First, baseline preoperative values were compared to ensure cohort equivalence. Next, postoperative metrics, including the relative change in metrics, were compared between treatment groups using multivariate linear regression.

RESULTS

Across 4 institutions, 18 ETV/CPC-treated and 54 VPS-treated infants with hydrocephalus were matched and compared at 6 months postoperatively. The most common etiologies of hydrocephalus were myelomeningocele (61%), followed by congenital communicating hydrocephalus (17%), aqueductal stenosis (11%), and intraventricular hemorrhage (6%). The mean age at the time of CSF diversion was similar between ETV/CPC- and VPS-treated patients (3.4 vs 2.9 months; p = 0.69), as were all preoperative cranial hydrocephalus metrics (p > 0.05). Postoperatively, the ventricle size FOHR decreased significantly more following VPS surgery (−0.15) than following ETV/CPC (−0.02) (p < 0.001), yielding a lower postoperative FOHR in the VPS arm (0.42 vs 0.51; p = 0.01). The HC percentile was greater in the ETV/CPC cohort than in the VPS-treated patients (76th vs 54th percentile; p = 0.046). A significant difference in the postoperative z-score was not observed. With both treatment modalities, a bulging fontanelle reliably normalized at last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical and radiographic parameters following successful treatment of hydrocephalus in infants differed between ETV/CPC and VPS treatment. At 6 months post-ETV/CPC, ventricle size remained unchanged, whereas VPS-treated ventricles decreased to a near-normal FOHR. The HC growth control between the procedures was similar, although the final HC percentile may be lower after VPS. The fontanelle remained a reliable indicator of success for both treatments. This study establishes expected cranial and ventricular parameters following ETV/CPC, which may be used to guide preoperative counseling and postoperative decision making.

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Frank J. Attenello, Ian A. Buchanan, Timothy Wen, Daniel A. Donoho, Shirley McCartney, Steven Y. Cen, Alexander A. Khalessi, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Joseph S. Cheng, William J. Mack, Clemens M. Schirmer, Karin R. Swartz, J. Adair Prall, Ann R. Stroink, Steven L. Giannotta and Paul Klimo Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Excessive dissatisfaction and stress among physicians can precipitate burnout, which results in diminished productivity, quality of care, and patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. Given the multiplicity of its harms and detriments to workforce retention and in light of the growing physician shortage, burnout has garnered much attention in recent years. Using a national survey, the authors formally evaluated burnout among neurosurgery trainees.

METHODS

An 86-item questionnaire was disseminated to residents in the American Association of Neurological Surgeons database between June and November 2015. Questions evaluated personal and workplace stressors, mentorship, career satisfaction, and burnout. Burnout was assessed using the previously validated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Factors associated with burnout were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

The response rate with completed surveys was 21% (346/1643). The majority of residents were male (78%), 26–35 years old (92%), in a stable relationship (70%), and without children (73%). Respondents were equally distributed across all residency years. Eighty-one percent of residents were satisfied with their career choice, although 41% had at some point given serious thought to quitting. The overall burnout rate was 67%. In the multivariate analysis, notable factors associated with burnout included inadequate operating room exposure (OR 7.57, p = 0.011), hostile faculty (OR 4.07, p = 0.008), and social stressors outside of work (OR 4.52, p = 0.008). Meaningful mentorship was protective against burnout in the multivariate regression models (OR 0.338, p = 0.031).

CONCLUSIONS

Rates of burnout and career satisfaction are paradoxically high among neurosurgery trainees. While several factors were predictive of burnout, including inadequate operative exposure and social stressors, meaningful mentorship proved to be protective against burnout. The documented negative effects of burnout on patient care and health care economics necessitate further studies for potential solutions to curb its rise.