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Hyung-Youl Park, Young-Hoon Kim, Sang-Il Kim, Sung-Bin Han and Kee-Yong Ha

OBJECTIVE

Few studies have addressed that dynamic sagittal imbalance can develop distal to the spinal fusion and cause sagittal malalignment, unlike proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in the proximal portion. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors between the 2 different types of postoperative sagittal imbalance after long fusion to the sacrum for the treatment of degenerative sagittal imbalance (DSI).

METHODS

Eighty patients who had undergone surgical correction for DSI were included. Radiographic measurements included spinopelvic parameters on whole-spine plain radiographs and degeneration of paravertebral muscles on MRI. Univariate and multivariate analyses for clinical and radiological factors were conducted for respective risk factors. In subgroup analyses, the 2 different types of postoperative sagittal imbalance were directly compared.

RESULTS

Forty patients (50%) developed postoperative sagittal imbalance; of these patients, 22 (55.0%) developed static proximal kyphosis from PJK, and 18 patients (45.0%) developed dynamic sagittal imbalance without PJK. The independent risk factors in proximal kyphosis were greater postoperative pelvic tilt (HR 1.11) and less change in sacral slope (SS) (HR 1.09), whereas there were more fusion levels (HR 3.11), less change in SS (HR 1.28), and less change in thoracic kyphosis (HR 1.26) in dynamic sagittal imbalance. Directly compared with the proximal kyphosis group, dynamic sagittal imbalance was more commonly found in patients who had less correction of sagittal parameters as well as fatty atrophy of the paravertebral muscles. Clinical outcomes in the dynamic sagittal imbalance group were superior to those in the proximal kyphosis group.

CONCLUSIONS

Optimal correction of sagittal alignment should be considered in long instrumented fusion for DSI, because insufficient correction might cause one of 2 different types of postoperative sagittal imbalance at different sites of decompression. Dynamic sagittal imbalance compared with proximal kyphosis was significantly associated with less correction of sagittal alignment, in conjunction with more fusion levels and degeneration of the paravertebral muscles.

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Eun Jung Lee, Jeong Hoon Kim, Eun Suk Park, Young-Hoon Kim, Jae Koo Lee, Seok Ho Hong, Young Hyun Cho and Chang Jin Kim

OBJECTIVE

Advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the increased detection of asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas (IMs). Despite several studies on the natural history of IMs, a comprehensive evaluation method for estimating the growth potential of these tumors, based on the relative weight of each risk factor, has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a weighted scoring system that estimates the risk of rapid tumor growth to aid treatment decision making.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 232 patients with presumed IM who had been prospectively followed up in the absence of treatment from 1997 to 2013. Tumor volume was measured by imaging at each follow-up visit, and the growth rate was determined by regression analysis. Predictors of rapid tumor growth (defined as ≥ 2 cm3/year) were identified using a logistic regression model; each factor was awarded a score based on its own coefficient value. The probability (P) of rapid tumor growth was estimated using the following formula:

FD1

RESULTS

Fifty-nine tumors (25.4%) showed rapid growth. Tumor size (OR per cm3 1.07, p = 0.000), absence of calcification (OR 3.87, p = 0.004), peritumoral edema (OR 2.74, p = 0.025), and hyperintense or isointense signal on T2-weighted MRI (OR 3.76, p = 0.049) were predictors of tumor growth rate. In the Asan Intracranial Meningioma Scoring System (AIMSS), tumor size was categorized into 3 groups of < 2.5 cm, ≥ 2.5 to < 4.0 cm, and ≥ 4.0 cm in diameter and awarded a score of 0, 3, and 6, respectively; the parameters of calcification and peritumoral edema were categorized into 2 groups based on their presence or absence and given a score of 0 or 2 and 1 or 0, respectively; and the signal on T2-weighted MRI was categorized into 2 groups of hypointense and hyperintense/isointense and given a score of 0 or 2, respectively. The risk of rapid tumor growth was estimated to be < 10% when the total score was 0–2, 10%–50% when the total score was 3–6, and ≥ 50% when the total score was 7–11 (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, p = 0.9958). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors suggest a weighted scoring system (AIMSS) that predicts the specific probability of rapid tumor growth for patients with untreated IM. This scoring system will aid treatment decision making in clinical settings by screening out patients at high risk for rapid tumor growth.

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Young-Hoon Kim, Young Jin Lee, Jung Ho Han, Soyeon Ahn, Jaebong Lee, Jae Hyoung Kim, Byung Se Choi, Jae Seung Bang, Chae-Yong Kim, Gyojun Hwang, O-Ki Kwon and Chang Wan Oh

OBJECT

The authors aimed to assess whether the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in patients with intracranial meningiomas was higher than that in a healthy population.

METHODS

The authors performed a hospital-based case-control study of 300 patients with newly diagnosed intracranial meningiomas and 900 age- and sex-matched controls without a history of brain tumors to evaluate any associations between intracranial aneurysms and intracranial meningiomas. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression models were used for case-control comparisons.

RESULTS

Intracranial aneurysms were identified in 23 patients (7.7%) and 24 controls (2.7%; p < 0.001). There was a significant association between intracranial aneurysms and intracranial meningiomas (OR 2.913, 95% CI 1.613–5.261) and hypertension (OR 1.905, 95% CI 1.053–3.446). In a subgroup analysis of the patients with newly diagnosed intracranial meningiomas, there was a significant association between intracranial aneurysms and hypertension (OR 2.876, 95% CI 1.125–7.352) and tumor volume (OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.001–1.024). These patients were also more likely than controls to have other intracranial vascular diseases (p < 0.001), such as isolated occlusion of the intracranial vessels, excluding intracranial aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS

The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms was higher in patients with intracranial meningiomas. Hypertension and tumor volume appear to be associated with the formation of intracranial aneurysms in these patients.

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Il-Nam Son, Young-Hoon Kim and Kee-Yong Ha

OBJECT

This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and radiological findings after open lumbar discectomy (OLD) in patients who were followed up for 10 years or longer.

METHODS

The authors classified 79 patients who had a mean age (± SD) of 53.6 ± 13.6 years (range 30–78 years) into 4 groups according to the length of their follow-up. Patients in Group 1 were followed up for 10–14 years, in Group 2 for 15–19 years, in Group 3 for 20–24 years, and in Group 4 for more than 25 years. In all of these patients, the clinical outcomes were assessed by using patients' self-reported scores on visual analog scales (VASs) measuring back and leg pain and by using scores from the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In addition, 10 radiological parameters suggesting degenerative changes or instability at the operated segment were recorded at various time points and used to calculate a numeric radiological finding (NRF) score by rating a presence for each finding of spinal degeneration or instability as 1.

RESULTS

The authors observed that OLD decreased pain and disability scores in all groups. Numeric radiological findings were highest in Group 4, and a significant correlation was detected between NRFs and VAS scores of back pain (p = 0.039). In this cohort, the reoperation rate was 13.9% during a mean follow-up period of 15.3 years. Clinical outcomes tended to be most favorable in Group 1, representing patients who had OLD most recently, and they tended to deteriorate in the other 3 groups, indicating some worsening of outcomes over time. Degeneration of the spine at the operated level measured with radiographic methods tended to increase over time, but some stabilization was observed. Although spinal degeneration was stable, clinical outcomes deteriorated over time.

CONCLUSIONS

This cross-sectional assessment of a retrospective cohort indicates that outcomes after OLD deteriorate over time. Increased back pain indicated a worsening of clinical outcomes, and this worsening was correlated with radiological findings of degeneration at the operated segment.

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Nicholas M. Barbaro

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Young-Hoon Kim, Chi Heon Kim, June Sic Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Jung Ho Han, Chae-Yong Kim and Chun Kee Chung

Object

Supplementary motor area (SMA) resection often induces postoperative contralateral hemiparesis or speech disturbance. This study was performed to assess the neurological impairments that often follow SMA resection and to assess the risk factors associated with these postoperative deficits.

Methods

The records for patients who had undergone SMA resection for pharmacologically intractable epilepsy between 1994 and 2010 were gleaned from an epilepsy surgery database and retrospectively reviewed in this study.

Results

Forty-three patients with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy underwent SMA resection with intraoperative cortical stimulation and mapping while under awake anesthesia. The mean patient age was 31.7 years (range 15–63 years), and the mean duration and frequency of seizures were 10.4 years (range 0.1–30 years) and 14.6 per month (range 0.1–150 per month), respectively. Pathological examination of the brain revealed cortical dysplasia in 18 patients (41.9%), tumors in 16 patients (37.2%), and other lesions in 9 patients (20.9%). The mean duration of the follow-up period was 84.0 months (range 24–169 months). After SMA resection, 23 patients (53.5%) experienced neurological deficits. Three patients (7.0%) experienced permanent deficits, and 20 (46.5%) experienced symptoms that were transient. All permanent deficits involved contralateral weakness, whereas the transient symptoms patients experienced were varied, including contralateral weaknesses in 15, apraxia in 1, sensory disturbances in 1, and dysphasia in 6. Thirteen patients recovered completely within 1 month. Univariate analysis revealed that resection of the SMA proper, a shorter lifetime seizure history (< 10 years), and resection of the cingulate gyrus in addition to the SMA were associated with the development of neurological deficits (p = 0.078, 0.069, and 0.023, respectively). Cingulate gyrus resection was the only risk factor identified on multivariate analysis (p = 0.027, OR 6.530, 95% CI 1.234–34.562).

Conclusions

Resection of the cingulate gyrus in addition to the SMA was significantly associated with the development of postoperative neurological impairment.

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Kee-Yong Ha, Jun-Yeong Seo, Soon-Eok Kwon, Il-Nam Son, Ki-Won Kim and Young-Hoon Kim

Object

The authors undertook this study to investigate the validity of the rationale for posterior dynamic stabilization using the Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) in the treatment of degenerative lumbar stenosis.

Methods

A cohort of 31 patients who underwent single-level decompression and DIAM placement for degenerative lumbar stenosis were followed up for at least 2 years and data pertaining to their cases were analyzed prospectively. Of these patients, 7 had retrolisthesis. Preoperative and postoperative plain lumbar radiographs obtained in all patients and CT images obtained in 14 patients were analyzed. Posterior disc heights; range of motion (ROM) of proximal, distal, and implant segments; lordotic angles of implant segments; percentage of retrolisthesis; and cross-sectional area and heights of intervertebral foramina on CT sagittal images were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using visual analog scale scores and Oswestry Disability Index scores.

Results

The mean values for posterior disc height before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the final follow-up visits were 6.4 ± 2.0 mm, 9.7 ± 2.8 mm, and 6.8 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. The mean lordotic angles at the implant levels before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the final follow-up visits were 7.1° ± 3.3°, 4.1° ± 2.7°, and 7.0° ± 3.7°, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the preoperative values and values from final follow-up visits for posterior disc height and lordotic angles at implant levels (p = 0.17 and p = 0.10, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the preoperative and final follow-up visit values for intervertebral foramen cross-sectional area and heights on CT images. The ROMs of proximal and distal segments also showed no significant decrease (p = 0.98 and p = 0.92, respectively). However, the ROMs of implant segments decreased significantly (p = 0.02). The average 31.4-month improvement for all clinical outcome measures was significant (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Based on radiological findings, the DIAM failed to show validity in terms of the rationale of indirect decompression, but it did restrict motion at the instrumented level without significant change in adjacent-segment ROM. The clinical condition of the patients, however, was improved, and improvement was maintained despite progressive loss of posterior disc height after surgery.

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Jun-Yeong Seo, Kee-Yong Ha, Tae-Hyok Hwang, Ki-Won Kim and Young-Hoon Kim

Object

In this paper the authors' goal was to determine the factors associated with the progression of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS).

Methods

Twenty-seven patients (3 men and 24 women; mean age 64.9 years) with more than 10° of lumbar scoliosis at baseline were monitored for a mean period of 10 years. The radiological evaluation included measurement of the scoliosis angle using the Cobb method, the direction of the scoliosis, the relationship between the intercrest line and the L-5 vertebra, lateral listhesis, segmental angle, distance from the center of the sacral line to the apical vertebra, degenerative listhesis anteriorly or posteriorly or both, and lordosis angle. In addition, the lateral osteophyte difference, disc index, and severity of osteoporosis were measured. The pain and disability outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) relative to severity of the angle of scoliosis.

Results

The mean initial and final scoliosis angles were 14° ± 5.4° and 25° ± 8.5°, respectively. The initial disc index at the L-3 vertebra (Spearman ρ = 0.7, p < 0.001), the sum of the segmental wedging angles above and below the L-3 vertebra (ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001), and the initial disc index at the apical vertebra (ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001) were correlated with the last follow-up angle of the scoliosis. By contrast, there was no statistically significant correlation between the initial segmental angles at L2–3 and L3–4 and the final follow-up scoliosis angle (ρ = 0.2, p = 0.67; and ρ = 0.1, p = 0.22; respectively). When the authors separated the patients into 3 groups according to the sum of the segmental angles above and below L-3 (< 5°, 5° to 10°, and > 10°), they found that 3 (42.9%) of 7, 8 (66.7%) of 12, and 6 (75.0%) of 8 patients in the 3 groups showed increases of greater than 10° in scoliosis angle. The mean distance from the center of the sacral line to the apical vertebra was 36.0 ± 9.7 mm, and the distance correlated with the measurement of the last follow-up angle of the scoliosis (ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001). The mean angle of the scoliosis was significantly greater when the intercrest line passed through the L-5 or L4–5 disc space than when the line passed through the L-4 vertebral body (31.4° ± 7.9° vs 21.8° ± 6.7°, p = 0.01). The ODI correlated with the measurement of the angle of the scoliosis (ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001). Age, sex, osteoporosis, the direction of the scoliosis, listhesis of coronal and sagittal planes, the lateral osteophyte difference, and the vertebral body index did not correlate with curve progression.

Conclusions

The findings of this study demonstrated that the progression of DLS was affected by the relationship between the intercrest line and the L-5 vertebra. When L-5 was deep seated, progression of DLS was found. Asymmetrical change in the disc space above and below the L-3 or apical vertebra may also be an important predictor of curve progression.