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Charles B. Wilson and Grant Hieshima

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Neil A. Martin, John Bentson, Fernando Viñuela, Grant Hieshima, Murray Reicher, Keith Black, Jacques Dion and Donald Becker

✓ Intraoperative digital subtraction angiography using commercially available equipment was employed to confirm the precision of the surgical result in 105 procedures for intracranial aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVM's). Transfemoral selective arterial catheterization was performed in most of these cases. A radiolucent operating table was used in all cases, and a radiolucent head-holder in most. In five of the 57 aneurysm procedures, clip repositioning was required after intraoperative angiography demonstrated an inadequate result. In five of the 48 AVM procedures, intraoperative angiography demonstrated residual AVM nidus which was then located and resected. In two cases intraoperative angiography failed to identify residual filling of an aneurysm which was seen later on postoperative angiography, and in one case the intraoperative study failed to demonstrate a tiny residual fragment of AVM which was seen on conventional postoperative angiography. Two complications resulted from intraoperative angiography: one patient developed aphasia from cerebral embolization and one patient developed leg ischemia from femoral artery thrombosis. This technique appears to be of particular value in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms and vascular malformations.

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Complex dural arteriovenous fistulas

Results of combined endovascular and neurosurgical treatment in 16 patients

Stanley L. Barnwell, Van V. Halbach, Randall T. Higashida, Grant Hieshima and Charles B. Wilson

✓ Of the 88 patients evaluated for symptomatic dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula over the past 8 years, 16 had large or complicated lesions that could not be treated with standard transvascular approaches or in which such treatment had been unsuccessful. Eleven fistulas were located in the transverse sinus, two in the cavernous sinus, two in the straight sinus, and one in the falx-tentorial region near the vein of Galen. The patients were treated with a combination of endovascular and neurosurgical techniques. Fourteen patients underwent preoperative transarterial embolization; this procedure closed the fistula in one patient. In the remaining 15 patients, surgery was performed to provide access to the fistula for embolization from either the venous or the arterial side, or for excision of the fistula. Transvenous embolization completely obliterated the fistula in seven of nine patients; the fistulas were embolized incompletely through the feeding arteries in two patients; and complete surgical resection of the lesion was accomplished in four patients. Complications related to venous occlusion occurred in two patients and one patient suffered communicating hydrocephalus that was effectively treated by shunting. There were no deaths. The results suggest that combined endovascular and neurosurgical techniques are a safe and effective means for the treatment of selected complex dural AV fistulas.