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Andres M. Lozano, Peter Giacobbe, Clement Hamani, Sakina J. Rizvi, Sidney H. Kennedy, Theodore T. Kolivakis, Guy Debonnel, Abbas F. Sadikot, Raymond W. Lam, Andrew K. Howard, Magda Ilcewicz-Klimek, Christopher R. Honey and Helen S. Mayberg

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been recently investigated as a treatment for major depression. One of the proposed targets for this application is the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG). To date, promising results after SCG DBS have been reported by a single center. In the present study the authors investigated whether these findings may be replicated at different institutions. They conducted a 3-center prospective open-label trial of SCG DBS for 12 months in patients with treatment-resistant depression.

Methods

Twenty-one patients underwent implantation of bilateral SCG electrodes. The authors examined the reduction in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) score from baseline (RESP50).

Results

Patients treated with SCG DBS had an RESP50 of 57% at 1 month, 48% at 6 months, and 29% at 12 months. The response rate after 12 months of DBS, however, increased to 62% when defined as a reduction in the baseline HRSD-17 of 40% or more. Reductions in depressive symptomatology were associated with amelioration in disease severity in patients who responded to surgery.

Conclusions

Overall, findings from this study corroborate the results of previous reports showing that outcome of SCG DBS may be replicated across centers.

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Clement Hamani, Helen Mayberg, Brian Snyder, Peter Giacobbe, Sidney Kennedy and Andres M. Lozano

Object

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG), including Brodmann area 25, is currently being investigated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). As a potential emerging therapy, optimal target selection within the SCG has still to be determined. The authors compared the location of the electrode contacts in responders and nonresponders to DBS of the SCG and correlated the results with clinical outcome to help in identifying the optimal target within the region. Based on the location of the active contacts used for long-term stimulation in responders, the authors suggest a standardized method of targeting the SCG in patients with MDD.

Methods

Postoperative MR imaging studies of 20 patients with MDD treated with DBS of the SCG were analyzed. The authors assessed the location of the active contacts relative to the midcommissural point and in relation to anatomical landmarks within the medial aspect of the frontal lobe. For this, a grid with 2 main lines was designed, with 1 line in the anterior-posterior and 1 line in the dorsal-ventral axis. Each of these lines was divided into 100 units, and data were converted into percentages. The anterior-posterior line extended from the anterior commissure (AC) to the projection of the anterior aspect of the corpus callosum (CCa). The dorsal-ventral line extended from the inferior portion of the CC (CCi) to the most ventral aspect of the frontal lobe (abbreviated “Fr” for the formula).

Results

Because the surgical technique did not vary across patients, differences in stereotactic coordinates between responders and nonresponders did not exceed 1.5 mm in any axis (x, y, or z). In patients who responded to the procedure, contacts used for long-term stimulation were in close approximation within the SCG. In the anterior-posterior line, these contacts were located within a 73.2 ± 7.7 percentile distance from the AC (with the AC center being 0% and the line crossing the CCa being 100%). In the dorsal-ventral line, active contacts in responders were located within a 26.2 ± 13.8 percentile distance from the CCi (with the CCi edge being 0% and the Fr inferior limit being 100%). In the medial-lateral plane, most electrode tips were in the transition between the gray and white matter of SCG.

Conclusions

Active contacts in patients who responded to DBS were relatively clustered within the SCG. Because of the anatomical variability in the size and shape of the SCG, the authors developed a method to standardize the targeting of this region.