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WINS White Paper Committee:, Deborah L. Benzil, Aviva Abosch, Isabelle Germano, Holly Gilmer, J. Nozipo Maraire, Karin Muraszko, Susan Pannullo, Gail Rosseau, Lauren Schwartz, Roxanne Todor, Jamie Ullman and Edie Zusman


The leadership of Women in Neurosurgery (WINS) has been asked by the Board of Directors of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) to compose a white paper on the recruitment and retention of female neurosurgical residents and practitioners.


Neurosurgery must attract the best and the brightest. Women now constitute a larger percentage of medical school classes than men, representing approximately 60% of each graduating medical school class. Neurosurgery is facing a potential crisis in the US workforce pipeline, with the number of neurosurgeons in the US (per capita) decreasing.

Women in the Neurosurgery Workforce

The number of women entering neurosurgery training programs and the number of board-certified female neurosurgeons is not increasing. Personal anecdotes demonstrating gender inequity abound among female neurosurgeons at every level of training and career development. Gender inequity exists in neurosurgery training programs, in the neurosurgery workplace, and within organized neurosurgery.


The consistently low numbers of women in neurosurgery training programs and in the workplace results in a dearth of female role models for the mentoring of residents and junior faculty/practitioners. This lack of guidance contributes to perpetuation of barriers to women considering careers in neurosurgery, and to the lack of professional advancement experienced by women already in the field. There is ample evidence that mentors and role models play a critical role in the training and retention of women faculty within academic medicine. The absence of a critical mass of female neurosurgeons in academic medicine may serve as a deterrent to female medical students deciding whether or not to pursue careers in neurosurgery. There is limited exposure to neurosurgery during medical school. Medical students have concerns regarding gender inequities (acceptance into residency, salaries, promotion, and achieving leadership positions). Gender inequity in academic medicine is not unique to neurosurgery; nonetheless, promotion to full professor, to neurosurgery department chair, or to a national leadership position is exceedingly rare within neurosurgery. Bright, competent, committed female neurosurgeons exist in the workforce, yet they are not being promoted in numbers comparable to their male counterparts. No female neurosurgeon has ever been president of the AANS, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, or Society of Neurological Surgeons (SNS), or chair of the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS). No female neurosurgeon has even been on the ABNS or the Neurological Surgery Residency Review Committee and, until this year, no more than 2 women have simultaneously been members of the SNS. Gender inequity serves as a barrier to the advancement of women within both academic and community-based neurosurgery.

Strategic Approach to Address Issues Identified.

To overcome the issues identified above, the authors recommend that the AANS join WINS in implementing a strategic plan, as follows: 1) Characterize the barriers. 2) Identify and eliminate discriminatory practices in the recruitment of medical students, in the training of residents, and in the hiring and advancement of neurosurgeons. 3) Promote women into leadership positions within organized neurosurgery. 4) Foster the development of female neurosurgeon role models by the training and promotion of competent, enthusiastic, female trainees and surgeons.

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Ronald J. Benveniste, Gordon Keller and Isabelle Germano


Embryonic stem cell (ESC)—derived astrocytes have many theoretical and practical advantages as vectors for delivery of gene therapy to the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to generate highly pure populations of ESC-derived astrocytes expressing drug-inducible transgenes, while minimizing contamination by undifferentiated ESCs


Embryonic stem cells carrying a doxycycline-inducible green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene were induced to differentiate into astrocytes by using feeder cell—free conditions that are completely defined. More than 95% of these cells expressed the astrocyte markers glial fibrillary acidic protein and GLT-1 glutamate transporter, and the morphological characteristics of these cells were typical of astrocytes. The expression of additional astrocyte markers was detected using reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction. Undifferentiated ESCs comprised fewer than 0.1% of the cells after 10 days in this culture. Positive and negative selection techniques based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting were successfully used to decrease further the numbers of undifferentiated ESCs. Fully differentiated astrocytes expressed a GFP transgene under the tight control of a doxycycline-responsive promoter, and maintained their astrocytic phenotype 24 hours after transplantation into the mouse brain.


This study shows that transgenic ESCs can be induced to differentiate into highly pure populations of astrocytes. The astrocytes continue to express the transgene under the tight control of a drug-inducible promoter and are suitable for transplantation into the mouse brain. The number of potentially hazardous ESCs can be minimized using cell-sorting techniques. This strategy may be used to generate cellular vectors for delivering gene therapy to the CNS.

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