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  • By Author: Crawford, Neil R. x
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Michael D. Staudt, Doron Rabin, Ali A. Baaj, Neil R. Crawford and Neil Duggal

OBJECTIVE

There are limited data regarding the implications of revision posterior surgery in the setting of previous cervical arthroplasty (CA). The purpose of this study was to analyze segmental biomechanics in human cadaveric specimens with and without CA, in the context of graded posterior resection.

METHODS

Fourteen human cadaveric cervical spines (C3–T1 or C2–7) were divided into arthroplasty (ProDisc-C, n = 7) and control (intact disc, n = 7) groups. Both groups underwent sequential posterior element resections: unilateral foraminotomy, laminoplasty, and finally laminectomy. Specimens were studied sequentially in two different loading apparatuses during the induction of flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation.

RESULTS

Range of motion (ROM) after artificial disc insertion was reduced relative to that in the control group during axial rotation and lateral bending (13% and 28%, respectively; p < 0.05) but was similar during flexion and extension. With sequential resections, ROM increased by a similar magnitude following foraminotomy and laminoplasty in both groups. Laminectomy had a much greater effect: mean (aggregate) ROM during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was increased by a magnitude of 52% following laminectomy in the setting of CA, compared to an 8% increase without arthroplasty. In particular, laminectomy in the setting of CA introduced significant instability in flexion-extension, characterized by a 90% increase in ROM from laminoplasty to laminectomy, compared to a 16% increase in ROM from laminoplasty to laminectomy without arthroplasty (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Foraminotomy and laminoplasty did not result in significant instability in the setting of CA, compared to controls. Laminectomy alone, however, resulted in a significant change in biomechanics, allowing for significantly increased flexion and extension. Laminectomy alone should be used with caution in the setting of previous CA.

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Ali A. Baaj, Phillip M. Reyes, Ali S. Yaqoobi, Juan S. Uribe, Fernando L. Vale, Nicholas Theodore, Volker K. H. Sonntag and Neil R. Crawford

Object

Unstable fractures at the thoracolumbar junction often require extended, posterior, segmental pedicular fixation. Some surgeons have reported good clinical outcomes with short-segment constructs if additional pedicle screws are inserted at the fractured level. The goal of this study was to quantify the biomechanical advantage of the index-level screw in a fracture model.

Methods

Six human cadaveric T10–L4 specimens were tested. A 3-column injury at L-1 was simulated, and 4 posterior constructs were tested as follows: one-above-one-below (short construct) with/without index-level screws, and two-above-two-below (long construct) with/without index-level screws. Pure moments were applied quasistatically while 3D motion was measured optoelectronically. The range of motion (ROM) and lax zone across T12–L2 were measured during flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending, and left and right axial rotation.

Results

All constructs significantly reduced the ROM and lax zone in the fractured specimens. With or without index-level screws, the long-segment constructs provided better immobilization than the short-segment constructs during all loading modes. Adding an index-level screw to the short-segment construct significantly improved stability during flexion and lateral bending; there was no significant improvement in stability when an index-level screw was added to the long-segment construct. Overall, bilateral index-level screws decreased the ROM of the 1-level construct by 25% but decreased the ROM of the 2-level construct by only 3%.

Conclusions

In a fracture model, adding index-level pedicle screws to short-segment constructs improves stability, although stability remains less than that provided by long-segment constructs with or without index-level pedicle screws. Therefore, highly unstable fractures likely require extended, long-segment constructs for optimum stability.

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Ali A. Baaj, Juan S. Uribe, Tann A. Nichols, Nicholas Theodore, Neil R. Crawford, Volker K. H. Sonntag and Fernando L. Vale

Object

The objective of this work was to search a national health care database of patients diagnosed with cervical spine fractures in the US to analyze discharge, demographic, and hospital charge trends over a 10-year period.

Methods

Clinical data were derived from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 1997 through 2006. The NIS is maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and represents a 20% random stratified sample of all discharges from nonfederal hospitals within the US. Patients with cervical spine fractures with and without spinal cord injury (SCI) were identified using the appropriate ICD-9-CM codes. The volume of discharges, length of stay (LOS), hospital charges, total national charges, discharge pattern, age, and sex were analyzed. National estimates were calculated using the HCUPnet tool.

Results

Approximately 200,000 hospitalizations were identified. In the non-SCI group, there was a 74% increase in hospitalizations and charges between 1997 and 2006, but LOS changed minimally. There was no appreciable change in the rate of in-hospital mortality (< 3%), but discharges home with home health care and to skilled rehabilitation or nursing facilities increased slightly. In the SCI group, hospitalizations and charges increased by 29 and 38%, respectively. There were no significant changes in LOS or discharge status in this group. Spinal cord injury was associated with increases in LOS, charges, and adverse outcomes compared with fractures without SCI. Total national charges associated with both groups combined exceeded $1.3 billion US in 2006.

Conclusions

During the studied period, increases in hospitalizations and charges were observed in both the SCI and non-SCI groups. The percentage increase was higher in the non-SCI group. Although SCI was associated with higher adverse outcomes, there were no significant improvements in immediate discharge status in either group during the 10 years analyzed.

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Dean G. Karahalios, Taro Kaibara, Randall W. Porter, Udaya K. Kakarla, Phillip M. Reyes, Ali A. Baaj, Ali S. Yaqoobi and Neil R. Crawford

Object

An interspinous anchor (ISA) provides fixation to the lumbar spine to facilitate fusion. The biomechanical stability provided by the Aspen ISA was studied in applications utilizing an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) construct.

Methods

Seven human cadaveric L3–S1 specimens were tested in the following states: 1) intact; 2) after placing an ISA at L4–5; 3) after ALIF with an ISA; 4) after ALIF with an ISA and anterior screw/plate fixation system; 5) after removing the ISA (ALIF with plate only); 6) after removing the plate (ALIF only); and 7) after applying bilateral pedicle screws and rods. Pure moments (7.5 Nm maximum) were applied in flexion and extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while recording angular motion optoelectronically. Changes in angulation as well as foraminal height were also measured.

Results

All instrumentation variances except ALIF alone reduced angular range of motion (ROM) significantly from normal in all directions of loading. The ISA was most effective in limiting flexion and extension (25% of normal) and less effective in reducing lateral bending (71% of normal) and axial rotation (71% of normal). Overall, ALIF with an ISA provided stability that was statistically equivalent to ALIF with bilateral pedicle screws and rods. An ISA-augmented ALIF allowed less ROM than plate-augmented ALIF during flexion, extension, and lateral bending. Use of the ISA resulted in flexion at the index level, with a resultant increase in foraminal height. Compensatory extension at the adjacent levels prevented any significant change in overall sagittal balance.

Conclusions

When used with ALIF at L4–5, the ISA provides immediate rigid immobilization of the lumbar spine, allowing equivalent ROM to that of a pedicle screw/rod system, and smaller ROM than an anterior plate. When used with ALIF, the ISA may offer an alternative to anterior plate fixation or bilateral pedicle screw/rod constructs.

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Ali A. Baaj, Juan S. Uribe, Fernando L. Vale, Mark C. Preul and Neil R. Crawford

Enthusiasm for cervical disc arthroplasty is based on the premise that motion-preserving devices attenuate the progression of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) in the cervical spine. Arthrodesis, on the other hand, results in abnormal load transfer on adjacent segments, leading to the acceleration of ASD. It has taken several decades of pioneering work to produce clinically relevant devices that mimic the kinematics of the intervertebral disc. The goal of this work is to trace the origins of cervical arthroplasty technology and highlight the attributes of devices currently available in the market.