✓ Brain abscess is a rare but very dangerous neurosurgical lesion. Prompt diagnosis and emergency surgical evacuation are the hallmarks of therapy. Brain abscess following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke is a rare entity. These cases are often preceded by episodes of bacteremia, sepsis, and local infection. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a cerebral abscess at the site of a recent intraparenchymal hemorrhage.
Shervin R. Dashti, Humain Baharvahdat, Eric Sauvageau, Steven W. Chang, Michael F. Stiefel, Min S. Park, Robert F. Spetzler and Nicholas C. Bambakidis
Shervin R. Dashti, Humain Baharvahdat, Robert F. Spetzler, Eric Sauvageau, Steven W. Chang, Michael F. Stiefel, Min S. Park and Nicholas C. Bambakidis
Postoperative infection after cranial surgery is a serious complication that requires immediate recognition and treatment. In certain cases such as postoperative meningitis, the patient can be treated with antibiotics only. In cases that involve a bone flap infection, subdural empyema, or cerebral abscess, however, reoperation is often needed. There has been significant disagreement regarding the incidence of postoperative central nervous system (CNS) infections following cranial surgery. In this paper the authors' goal was to perform a retrospective review of the incidence of CNS infection after cranial surgery at their institution. They focused their review on those patients who required repeated surgery to treat the infection.
The authors reviewed the medical records and imaging studies in all patients who underwent a craniotomy or stereotactic drainage for CNS infection over the past 10 years. Subgroup analysis was then performed in patients whose infection was a result of a previous cranial operation to determine the incidence, factors associated with infection, and the type of infectious organism. Patients treated nonoperatively (that is, those who received intravenous antibiotics for postoperative meningitis or cellulitis) were not included. Patients treated for wound infection without intracranial pus were also not included.
During the study period from January 1997 through December 2007, ~ 16,540 cranial surgeries were performed by 25 neurosurgeons. These included elective as well as emergency and trauma cases. Of these cases 82 (0.5%) were performed to treat postoperative infection in 50 patients. All 50 patients underwent their original surgery at the authors' institution. The median age was 51 years (range 2–74 years). There were 26 male and 24 female patients.
The most common offending organism was methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which was found in 10 of 50 patients. Gram-negative rods were found in 15 patients. Multiple organisms were identified in specimens obtained in 5 patients. Six patients had negative cultures. Most craniotomies leading to subsequent infection were performed for tumors or other mass lesions (23 of 50 patients), followed by craniotomies for hemorrhage and vascular lesions. Almost half of the patients underwent > 1 cranial operation before presenting with infection.
Postoperative infection after cranial surgery is an important phenomenon that needs immediate recognition. Even with strict adherence to sterile techniques and administration of antibiotic prophylaxis, a small percentage of these patients will develop an infection severe enough to require reoperation.
Seref Dogan, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Nicholas Theodore, Steven W. Chang, Eric M. Horn, Nittin R. Mariwalla, Harold L. Rekate and Volker K. H. Sonntag
The authors evaluated the mechanisms and patterns of thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal injuries in a pediatric population as well as factors affecting the management and outcome of these injuries.
The records of 89 patients (46 boys and 43 girls; mean age 13.2 years, range 3–16 years) with thoracic, lumbar, or sacral injuries were reviewed. Motor vehicle accidents were the most common cause of injury. Eighty-two patients (92.1%) were between 10 and 16 years old, and seven (7.9%) were between 3 and 9 years old. Patient injuries included fracture (91%), fracture and dislocation (6.7%), dislocation (1.1%), and ligamentous injury (1.1%). The L2–5 region was the most common injury site (29.8%) and the sacrum the least common injury site (5%). At the time of presentation 85.4% of the patients were neurologically intact, 4.5% had incomplete injuries, and 10.1% had complete injuries. Twenty-six percent of patients underwent surgery for their injuries whereas 76% received nonsurgical treatment. In patients treated surgically, an anterior approach was used in six patients (6.7%), a posterior approach in 16 (18%), and a combined approach in one (1.1%). Postoperatively, six patients (26.1%) with neurological deficits improved, one of whom recovered fully from an initially complete injury.
Thoracic and lumbar spine injuries were most common in children older than 9 years. Multilevel injuries were common and warranted imaging evaluation of the entire spinal column. Most patients were treated conservatively. The prognosis for neurological recovery is related to the initial severity of the neurological injuries. Some pediatric patients with devastating spinal cord injuries can recover substantial neurological function.