Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • By Author: Chalouhi, Nohra x
  • By Author: Jabbour, Pascal x
  • By Author: Daou, Badih x
Clear All
Restricted access

Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Jeffrey Oliver, Maria Montano, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty.

METHODS

Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment.

RESULTS

Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33–5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15–7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19–6.18; p = 0.017), and longer follow-up duration (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09; p < 0.001) were associated with incomplete aneurysm occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

While the PED can allow for treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms with high efficacy, treatment failures do occur (16.4%). Aneurysm size, shape, and previous treatment may influence treatment outcome.

Restricted access

Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Jeffrey Oliver, Maria Montano, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a valuable tool in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Although failures with PED treatment have been reported, the characteristics and course of these aneurysms remain a topic of uncertainty.

METHODS

Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for all patients treated with the PED between July 2010 and March 2015 to identify characteristics of patients and aneurysms with residual filling after PED treatment.

RESULTS

Of 316 cases treated at a single institution, 281 patients had a long-term follow-up. A total of 52 (16.4%) aneurysms with residual filling were identified and constituted the study population. The mean patient age in this population was 58.8 years. The mean aneurysm size was 10.1 mm ± 7.15 mm. Twelve aneurysms were fusiform (23%). Of the aneurysms with residual filling, there were 20 carotid ophthalmic (CO) aneurysms (20% of all CO aneurysms treated), 10 other paraclinoid aneurysms (16.4% of all paraclinoid aneurysms), 7 posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (21.9% of all PCoA aneurysms), 7 cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (14.9% of all cavernous ICA aneurysms), 4 vertebrobasilar (VB) junction aneurysms (14.8% of all VB junction aneurysms), and 3 middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms (25% of all MCA aneurysms). Eleven patients underwent placement of more than one PED (21.2%), with a mean number of devices of 1.28 per case. Eight of 12 aneurysms were previously treated with a stent (15.4%). Nineteen patients underwent re-treatment (36.5%); the 33 patients who did not undergo re-treatment (63.5%) were monitored by angiography or noninvasive imaging. In multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33–5.28; p = 0.05), prior stent placement across the target aneurysm (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.15–7.51; p = 0.02), aneurysm location in the distal anterior circulation (MCA, PCoA, and anterior choroidal artery: OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.19–6.18; p = 0.017), and longer follow-up duration (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09; p < 0.001) were associated with incomplete aneurysm occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

While the PED can allow for treatment of large, broad-necked aneurysms with high efficacy, treatment failures do occur (16.4%). Aneurysm size, shape, and previous treatment may influence treatment outcome.

Full access

Kate A. Hentschel, Badih Daou, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Shannon Clark, Ashish Gandhe, Pascal Jabbour, Robert Rosenwasser and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

Mechanical thrombectomy is standard of care for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. However, limited data are available from assessment of outcomes of FDA-approved devices. The objective of this study is to compare clinical outcomes, efficacy, and safety of non–stent retriever and stent retriever thrombectomy devices.

METHODS

Between January 2008 and June 2014, 166 patients treated at Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience for acute ischemic stroke with mechanical thrombectomy using Merci, Penumbra, Solitaire, or Trevo devices were retrospectively reviewed. Primary outcomes included 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, recanalization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI score]), and incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression determined predictors of mRS Score 3–6, mortality, and TICI Score 3.

RESULTS

A total of 99 patients were treated with non–stent retriever devices (Merci and Penumbra) and 67 with stent retrievers (Solitaire and Trevo). Stent retrievers yielded lower 90-day NIH Stroke Scale scores and higher rates of 90-day mRS scores ≤ 2 (22.54% [non–stent retriever] vs 61.67% [stent retriever]; p < 0.001), TICI Score 2b–3 recanalization rates (79.80% [non–stent retriever] vs 97.01% [stent retriever]; p < 0.001), percentage of parenchyma salvaged, and discharge rates to home/rehabilitation. The overall incidence of ICH was also significantly lower (40.40% [non–stent retriever] vs 13.43% [stent retriever]; p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower 90-day mortality. Use of non–stent retriever devices was an independent predictor of mRS Scores 3–6 (p = 0.002), while use of stent retrievers was an independent predictor of TICI Score 3 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Stent retriever mechanical thrombectomy devices achieve higher recanalization rates than non–stent retriever devices in acute ischemic stroke with improved clinical and radiographic outcomes and safety.

Full access

Badih Daou, Edison P. Valle-Giler, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Ryan Hebert and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has become an effective treatment strategy for some cerebral aneurysms. Concerns regarding the patency of branch arteries have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the patency of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) following treatment of PCoA aneurysms using the PED.

METHODS

All patients with PCoA aneurysms treated with the PED who had angiographic follow-up were retrospectively identified. The patency of the PCoA at follow-up was evaluated by 2 authors who were not involved in the intervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the following: 1) PCoA patency versus no or diminished flow, and 2) PCoA patency and diminished flow versus PCoA occlusion.

RESULTS

Thirty patients with an angiographic follow-up of 6 months were included. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 25 patients (83.3%). The PCoA was patent in 7 patients (23.3%), had diminished flow in 7 patients (23.3%), and was occluded in 16 patients (53.3%). In the univariate analysis of outcome, there was a trend for aneurysms with incomplete occlusion, aneurysms not previously treated, those with presence of a fetal PCoA, and those with an artery coming from the aneurysm to have higher odds of the PCoA remaining patent. In univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with outcome, fetal PCoA and presence of an artery coming from the aneurysm were associated with the PCoA remaining open with or without diminished flow. No patients had symptoms related to PCoA occlusion.

CONCLUSIONS

Occlusion and diminished flow through the PCoA is common following PED treatment of PCoA aneurysms. However, it is clinically insignificant in most cases.

Full access

Badih Daou, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Guilherme Barros, Lina Ya'qoub, John Do, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

With the increasing number of aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling, more recurrences are being encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical clipping in the treatment of recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms and to identify risk factors that can affect the outcomes of this procedure.

METHODS

One hundred eleven patients with recurrent aneurysms whose lesions were managed by surgical clipping between January 2002 and October 2014 were identified. The rates of aneurysm occlusion, retreatment, complications, and good clinical outcome were retrospectively determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with these outcomes.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 50.5 years, the mean aneurysm size was 7 mm, and 97.3% of aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Complete aneurysm occlusion, as assessed by intraoperative angiography, was achieved in 97.3% of aneurysms (108 of 111 patients). Among patients, 1.8% (2 of 111 patients) had a recurrence after clipping. Retreatment was required in 4.5% of patients (5 of 111) after clipping. Major complications were observed in 8% of patients and mortality in 2.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good clinical outcome. Aneurysm size (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.08–1.7; p = 0.009) and location in the posterior circulation were significantly associated with higher complications. All 3 patients who had coil extraction experienced a postoperative stroke. Aneurysm size (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.02–1.45; p = 0.025) and higher number of interventions prior to clipping (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3–21.4; p = 0.019) were significant predictors of poor outcome. An aneurysm size > 7 mm was a significant predictor of incomplete obliteration and retreatment (p = 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS

Surgical clipping is safe and effective in treating recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysm size, location, and number of previous coiling procedures are important factors to consider in the management of these aneurysms.

Full access

Badih Daou, Christine Hammer, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

OBJECTIVE

Dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries can result in the development of aneurysmal dilations. These dissecting pseudoaneurysms can enlarge and cause symptoms. The objective of this study is to provide insight into the progression of dissecting pseudoaneurysms and the treatments required to manage them.

METHODS

A review of the electronic medical records was conducted to detect patients with carotid and vertebral artery dissection. An imaging review was conducted to identify patients with dissecting pseudoaneurysms. One hundred twelve patients with 120 dissecting pseudoaneurysms were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with undergoing further interventions other than medical treatment, pseudoaneurysm enlargement, pseudoaneurysms resulting in ischemic and nonischemic symptoms, and clinical outcome.

RESULTS

Overall, 18.3% of pseudoaneurysms were intracranial and 81.7% were extracranial, and the average size was 7.3 mm. The mean follow-up time was 29.3 months; 3.3% of patients had a recurrent transient ischemic attack, no patients had a recurrent stroke, and 14.2% of patients had recurrence of nonischemic symptoms (headache, neck pain, Horner syndrome, or cranial nerve palsy). Follow-up imaging demonstrated that 13.8% of pseudoaneurysms had enlarged, 30.2% had healed, and 56% had remained stable. In total, 20.8% of patients had an intervention other than medical treatment. Interventions included stenting, coiling, flow diversion, and clipping. Predictors of intervention included increasing size, size > 10 mm, location in the C2 (petrous) segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), younger age, hyperlipidemia, pseudoaneurysm enlargement, and any symptom development. Significant predictors of enlargement included smoking, history of trauma, C2 location, hyperlipidemia, and larger initial pseudoaneurysm size. Predictors of pseudoaneurysm resulting in recurrent ischemic and nonischemic symptoms included increasing size and location in the petrous segment of the ICA. Smoking was a predictor of unfavorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Dissecting pseudoaneurysms have a benign course and most will not cause symptoms or enlarge on follow-up. Medical treatment can be a sufficient, initial treatment for dissecting pseudoaneurysms.

Full access

Nohra Chalouhi, Badih Daou, Toshimasa Okabe, Robert M. Starke, Richard Dalyai, Cory D. Bovenzi, Eliza Claire Anderson, Guilherme Barros, Adam Reese, Pascal Jabbour, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert Rosenwasser, Walter K. Kraft and Fred Rincon

OBJECTIVE

Cerebral vasospasm (cVSP) is a frequent complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), with a significant impact on outcome. Beta blockers (BBs) may blunt the sympathetic effect and catecholamine surge associated with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and prevent cardiac dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between preadmission BB therapy and cVSP, cardiac dysfunction, and in-hospital mortality following aSAH.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with aSAH who were treated at a tertiary high-volume neurovascular referral center. The exposure was defined as any preadmission BB therapy. The primary outcome was cVSP assessed by serial transcranial Doppler with any mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm/sec and/or need for endovascular intervention for medically refractory cVSP. Secondary outcomes were cardiac dysfunction (defined as cardiac troponin-I elevation > 0.05 μg/L, low left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] < 40%, or LV wall motion abnormalities [LVWMA]) and in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 210 patients treated between February 2009 and September 2010 (55% were women), with a mean age of 53.4 ± 13 years and median Hunt and Hess Grade III (interquartile range III–IV). Only 13% (27/210) of patients were exposed to preadmission BB therapy. Compared with these patients, a higher percentage of patients not exposed to preadmission BBs had transcranial Doppler-mean flow velocity ≥ 120 cm/sec (59% vs 22%; p = 0.003). In multivariate analyses, lower Hunt and Hess grade (OR 3.9; p < 0.001) and preadmission BBs (OR 4.5; p = 0.002) were negatively associated with cVSP. In multivariate analysis, LVWMA (OR 2.7; p = 0.002) and low LVEF (OR 1.1; p = 0.05) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Low LVEF (OR 3.9; p = 0.05) independently predicted medically refractory cVSP. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with LVWMA (47.4% vs 14.8%; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The study data suggest that preadmission therapy with BBs is associated with lower incidence of cVSP after aSAH. LV dysfunction was associated with higher medically refractory cVSP and in-hospital mortality. BB therapy may be considered after aSAH as a cardioprotective and cVSP preventive therapy.

Free access

Badih Daou, Anthony P. Kent, Maria Montano, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECT

Patients presenting with large-territory ischemic strokes may develop intractable cerebral edema that puts them at risk of death unless intervention is performed. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of outcome for decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) in ischemic stroke.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective electronic medical record review of 1624 patients from 2006 to 2014. Subjects were screened for DH secondary to ischemic stroke involving the middle cerebral artery, internal carotid artery, or both. Ninety-five individuals were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for an array of clinical variables in relationship to functional outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Clinical outcome was assessed at 90 days and at the latest follow-up (mean duration 16.5 months).

RESULTS

The mean mRS score at 90 days and at the latest follow-up post-DH was 4. Good functional outcome was observed in 40% of patients at 90 days and in 48% of patient at the latest follow-up. The mortality rate at 90 days was 18% and at the last follow-up 20%. Univariate analysis identified a greater likelihood of poor functional outcome (mRS scores of 4–6) in patients with a history of stroke (OR 6.54 [95% CI1.39–30.66]; p = 0.017), peak midline shift (MLS) > 10 mm (OR 3.35 [95% CI 1.33–8.47]; p = 0.011), or a history of myocardial infarction (OR 8.95 [95% CI1.10–72.76]; p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis demonstrated elevated odds of poor functional outcome associated with a history of stroke (OR 9.14 [95% CI 1.78–47.05]; p = 0.008), MLS > 10 mm (OR 5.15 [95% CI 1.58–16.79; p = 0.007), a history of diabetes (OR 5.63 [95% CI 1.52–20.88]; p = 0.01), delayed time from onset of stroke to DH (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.02–1.72]; p = 0.037), and evidence of pupillary dilation prior to DH (OR 4.19 [95% CI 1.06–16.51]; p = 0.04). Patients with infarction involving the dominant hemisphere had higher odds of unfavorable functional outcome at 90 days (OR 4.73 [95% CI 1.36–16.44]; p = 0.014), but at the latest follow-up, cerebral dominance was not significantly related to outcome (OR 1.63 [95% CI 0.61–4.34]; p = 0.328).

CONCLUSIONS

History of stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, peak MLS > 10 mm, increasing duration from onset of stroke to DH, and presence of pupillary dilation prior to intervention are associated with a worse functional outcome.