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  • Journal of Neurosurgery x
  • By Author: Ardalan, Mohammad R. x
  • By Author: Tubbs, R. Shane x
  • By Author: Oakes, W. Jerry x
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R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Nihal Apaydin, Mohammad R. Ardalan and W. Jerry Oakes

Object

There is scant and conflicting information in the literature regarding the lateral lacunae, or lateral lakes of Trolard. As these venous structures can be encountered surgically, this study aimed at further elucidating their anatomy, identifying surgical landmarks, and associated quantitation.

Methods

Thirty-five adult cadavers were dissected of lateral lacunae. Following quantitation of the lacunae, these structures were measured, as were the distances from them to the coronal and sagittal sutures.

Results

A mean of 1.9 lacunae were identified on the right sides and 1.4 lacunae on the left sides. Although there tended to be slightly more lacunae on the right sides, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). The average lengths of the lacunae were 3.2 and 2.0 cm for the right and left sides, respectively. The mean widths of these venous lakes were 1.5 cm for the right sides and 0.8 cm for the left sides. Lacunae were variably positioned but tended to cluster near the vertex of the skull. None were identified posterior to the lambdoid sutures, and only 5 were found to lie anterior to the coronal suture, with 4 of these located on right sides (p < 0.05). When lacunae were identified anterior to the coronal suture, they were generally 5–6 cm from this structure. The majority of lacunae could be identified between the coronal and lambdoid sutures and within 3 cm of the midline.

Conclusions

Although the situation varies, lateral lacunae are concentrated posterior to the coronal suture and anterior to the lambdoid sutures. They are most often found within 3 cm of the sagittal suture. These previously unreported data could be useful to the neurosurgeon in planning surgical procedures that traverse the calvaria.

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R. Shane Tubbs, Robert G. Louis Jr., Christopher T. Wartmann, Marios Loukas, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Mohammad R. Ardalan and W. Jerry Oakes

Object

Facial nerve injury with resultant facial muscle paralysis is disfiguring and disabling. To the auhtors' knowledge, neurotization of the facial nerve using a branch of the brachial plexus has not been previously performed.

Methods

In an attempt to identify an additional nerve donor candidate for facial nerve neurotization, 5 fresh adult human cadavers (10 sides) underwent dissection of the suprascapular nerve distal to the suprascapular notch where it was transected. The facial nerve was localized from the stylomastoid foramen onto the face, and the cut end of the suprascapular nerve was tunneled to this location. Measurements were made of the length and diameter of the supra-scapular nerve. In 2 of these specimens prior to transection of the nerve, a nerve-splitting technique was used.

Results

All specimens were found to have a suprascapular nerve with enough length to be tunneled, tension free, superiorly to the extracranial facial nerve. Connections remained tensionless with left and right head rotation of up to 45°. The mean length of this part of the suprascapular nerve was 12.5 cm (range 11.5–14 cm). The mean diameter of this nerve was 3 mm. A nerve-splitting technique was also easily performed. No gross evidence of injury to surrounding neurovascular structures was identified.

Conclusions

To the authors' knowledge, the suprascapular nerve has not been previously explored as a donor nerve for facial nerve reanimation procedures. Based on the results of this cadaveric study, the authors believe that use of the suprascapular nerve may be considered for surgical maneuvers.