The objective of this study was to identify the natural history and clinical predictors of postoperative recurrence of skull base and non–skull base meningiomas.
The authors performed a retrospective hospital-based study of all patients with meningioma referred to their institution from September 1993 to January 2014. The cohort constituted both patients with a first-time presentation and those with evidence of recurrence. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for analysis of recurrence and differences were assessed using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify potential predictors of recurrence.
Overall, 398 intracranial meningiomas were reviewed, including 269 (68%) non–skull base and 129 (32%) skull base meningiomas (median follow-up 30.2 months, interquartile range [IQR] 8.5–76 months). The 10-year recurrence-free survival rates for patients with gross-total resection (GTR) and subtotal resection (STR) were 90% and 43%, respectively. Skull base tumors were associated with a lower proliferation index (0.041 vs 0.062, p = 0.001), higher likelihood of WHO Grade I (85.3% vs 69.1%, p = 0.003), and younger patient age (55.2 vs 58.3 years, p = 0.01). Meningiomas in all locations demonstrated an average recurrence rate of 30% at 100 months of follow-up. Subsequently, the recurrence of skull base meningiomas plateaued whereas non–skull base lesions had an 80% recurrence rate at 230 months follow-up (p = 0.02). On univariate analysis, a prior history of recurrence (p < 0.001), initial WHO grade following resection (p < 0.001), and the inability to obtain GTR (p < 0.001) were predictors of future recurrence. On multivariate analysis a prior history of recurrence (p = 0.02) and an STR (p < 0.01) were independent predictors of a recurrence. Assessing only patients with primary presentations, STR and WHO Grades II and III were independent predictors of recurrence (p < 0.001 for both).
Patients with skull base meningiomas present at a younger age and have less aggressive lesions overall. Extent of resection is a key predictor of recurrence and long-term follow-up of meningiomas is necessary, especially for non–skull base tumors. In skull base meningiomas, recurrence risk plateaus approximately 100 months after surgery, suggesting that for this specific cohort, follow-up after 100 months can be less frequent.