Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for

  • By Author: Alaraj, Ali x
Clear All
Restricted access

Mateo Calderon-Arnulphi, Ali Alaraj, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, William W. Mantulin, Chiara M. Polzonetti, Enrico Gratton and Fady T. Charbel

Object

There is great value in monitoring for signs of ischemia during neurovascular procedures. Current intraoperative monitoring techniques provide real-time feedback with limited accuracy. Quantitative frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (Q-NIRS) allows measurement of tissue oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), and total hemoglobin (tHb) concentrations and brain tissue oxygen saturation (SO2), which could be useful when monitoring for evidence of intraoperative ischemia.

Methods

Using Q-NIRS, the authors monitored 25 neurovascular procedures including aneurysm clip placement, arteriovenous malformation resection, carotid endarterectomy, superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass surgery, external carotid artery–MCA bypass surgery, encephaloduromyosynangiosis, and balloon occlusion testing. The Q-NIRS technology provides measurable cerebral oxygenation values independent from those of the scalp tissue. Thus, alterations in the variables measured with Q-NIRS quantitatively reflect cerebral tissue perfusion. Bilateral monitoring was performed in all cases.

Five of the patients exhibited evidence of clinical ischemic events during the procedures. One patient suffered blood loss with systemic hypotension and developed diffuse brain edema intraoperatively, one patient suffered an ischemic event intraoperatively and developed an occipital stroke postoperatively, and one patient showed slowing on electroencephalography intraoperatively during carotid clamping; in two patients balloon occlusion testing failed. In all cases of ischemic events occurring during the procedure, Q-NIRS monitoring showed a decrease in HbO2, tHb, and SO2, and an increase in HHb.

Conclusions

Quantitative frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy provides quantifiable and continuous real-time information about brain oxygenation and hemodynamics in a noninvasive manner. This continuous intraoperative oxygenation monitoring is a promising method for detecting ischemic events during neurovascular procedures.

Full access

William W. Ashley Jr., Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, John H. Shin and Fady T. Charbel

✓Extracranial–intracranial bypass surgery has advanced from a mere technical feat to a procedure requiring careful patient selection and a justifiable decision-making paradigm. Currently available technologies for flow measurement in the perioperative and intraoperative setting allow a more structured and analytical approach to decision making. The purpose of this report is to review the use of flow measurement in cerebral revascularization, presenting algorithms for flow-assisted surgical planning, technique, and surveillance.

Full access

Ali Alaraj, William W. Ashley Jr., Fady T. Charbel and Sepideh Amin-Hanjani

Object

The superficial temporal artery (STA) is the mainstay of donor vessels for extracranial–intracranial bypass in cerebral revascularization. However, the typically used STA anterior or posterior branch is not always adequate in its flow-carrying capacity. In this report the authors describe the use of the STA trunk at the level of the zygoma as an alternative donor and highlight the benefits and pitfalls of this revascularization option.

Methods

The authors reviewed the cases of 4 patients in whom the STA trunk was used as a donor site for anastomosis of a short interposition vein graft. The graft was implanted into the middle cerebral artery to trap a cartoid aneurysm in 2 patients, and the posterior cerebral artery for vertebrobasilar insufficiency in the other 2. Discrepancies in size between the interposition vein and STA trunk were compensated for by a beveled end-to-end anastomosis or by implanting the STA trunk into the vein graft in an end-to-side fashion.

Results

Intraoperative flow measurements confirmed the significantly higher flow-carrying capacity of the STA trunk (54–100 ml/minute) compared with its branches (10–28 ml/minute). The STA trunk interposition graft has several advantages compared with an interposition graft to the cervical carotid, including a shorter graft and no need for a neck incision. However, in the setting of ruptured aneurysm trapping, with the risk of subsequent vasospasm, it is a poor conduit for endovascular therapies.

Conclusions

The STA trunk is a valuable donor option for cerebral revascularization, but should be avoided in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Restricted access

Michael Chan, Ali Alaraj, Mateo Calderon, Sebastian Ramon Herrera, Weihua Gao, Sean Ruland and Ben Zion Roitberg

Object

Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated using external ventricular drainage due to obstructive hydrocephalus commonly remain shunt-dependent. Based on identified risk factors for external ventricular drain (EVD) challenge failure, the authors sought to determine the likelihood that a patient will require a permanent shunt.

Methods

The authors reviewed 89 consecutive cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with obstructive hydrocephalus for parameters associated with EVD challenge failure and permanent shunt requirement. Significant parameters were combined in a discriminant function analysis to create a failure risk index (FRI). Linear regression analysis was performed correlating the FRI with the actual rate of shunt dependency.

Results

Patients requiring a permanent shunt had: a larger third ventricular diameter (7.0 vs 5.4 mm; p = 0.02) and a higher Hunt and Hess grade (3 vs 2; p = 0.02) at the time of admission; and a larger third ventricular diameter (6.6 vs 5.2 mm; p = 0.04), a larger bicaudate diameter (31.9 vs 30.2 mm; p = 0.03), and higher CSF protein levels (76.5 vs 40.3 mg/dl; p < 0.0001) at the onset of EVD challenge. These patients were also more likely to be female (p = 0.01) and have a posterior circulation location of their aneurysm (p = 0.01). The FRI score was calculated based on a weighted combination of the above parameters. Linear regression analysis between FRI values and the percentage of patients who required a permanent shunt had a correlation coefficient of 91%; the risk of a permanent shunt requirement increased linearly with a rising FRI score.

Conclusions

An FRI score created by discriminant function analysis can predict whether or not a permanent shunt is required, even if separate factors are not in agreement with each other or show a weak correlation when considered separately. An increased FRI score was strongly and linearly correlated with the risk of EVD challenge failure. A prospective study is necessary to validate the FRI.

Restricted access

Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

Restricted access

Ali Alaraj, Troy Munson, Sebastian R. Herrera, Victor Aletich, Fady T. Charbel and Sepideh Amin-Hanjani

Object

Cerebrospinal fluid hypotension, or “brain sag,” is a recently described phenomenon most commonly seen following craniotomy for the clipping of ruptured aneurysms along with preoperative lumbar drain placement. The clinical features and CT findings have been previously described. Clinical presentation can be similar to and often mistaken for cerebral vasospasm. In this study, the authors report on the angiographic findings in patients with brain sag.

Methods

Five cases of brain sag were diagnosed (range 1–4 days) after the surgical treatment of ruptured aneurysms at the University of Illinois at Chicago. All patients met the clinical and CT criteria for brain sag. Admission cerebral angiograms and subsequent angiograms during symptoms of brain sag were obtained in all patients. In 3 patients, angiography was performed after the resolution of symptoms.

Results

In all 5 patients, the level of the basilar artery apex was displaced inferiorly with respect to the posterior clinoid processes during brain sag. This displacement was significant enough to create a noticeable kink in the basilar artery (“cobra sign”) in 3 patients. Other angiographic findings included foreshortening or kinking of the intracranial vertebral artery. In all patients, the posterior cerebral arteries were displaced medially and inferiorly. Three patients were treated for simultaneous severe radiological vasospasm. In 4 patients, the brain sag was recognized, and the patients' conditions improved when they were placed flat or in the Trendelenburg position, at times combined with an epidural blood patch. Patients with follow-up angiography studies after the symptoms had resolved displayed a reversal of the angiographic features.

Conclusions

Brain sag appears to be associated with characteristic angiographic features. Recognizing these features may help to diagnose brain sag as the cause of neurological deterioration in this patient population.

Restricted access

E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Restricted access

Omar M. Qahwash, Ali Alaraj, Victor Aletich, Fady T. Charbel and Sepideh Amin-Hanjani

Object

The goal of this study was to demonstrate feasibility and evaluate technical aspects of early endovascular access through extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass grafts.

Methods

Patients undergoing endovascular interventions through the graft in the acute postoperative period following EC-IC bypass are presented. Results, complications, and technical nuances are reviewed.

Results

Fourteen endovascular procedures were performed in 5 patients after EC-IC bypass for ruptured aneurysms in 4 patients and posterior circulation ischemia in 1 patient. In 2 patients, a saphenous vein graft (SVG) was used to bypass the common carotid artery (CCA) to the middle cerebral artery (MCA). One patient underwent a superficial temporal artery (STA)–MCA bypass, and in 2 other patients the STA stump was connected to the intracranial circulation via an interposition SVG. The interval from surgery to endovascular intervention spanned 2–18 days; the indication was intracranial vasospasm in all patients. One case involved angioplasty of the proximal anastomosis on postoperative Day 14. All other interventions entailed proximal access through the bypass conduit for intraarterial infusion of vasodilators. Significant vasospasm of the STA itself was encountered in 2 patients during endovascular manipulation, and it was treated with intraarterial nitroglycerin. There were no cases of anastomotic disruption.

Conclusions

Endovascular catheterization and intervention involving a recent EC-IC bypass is feasible. The main limitation in this series was catheter-induced vasospasm involving the STA. A vein graft may be the more appropriate option in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who may require subsequent endovascular intervention for vasospasm.

Restricted access

Sukhraaj Basati, Bhargav Desai, Ali Alaraj, Fady Charbel and Andreas Linninger

Object

Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals.

Methods

A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration.

Results

Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus.

Conclusions

This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic (long-term) volume monitoring system.