Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease with unknown cause, which very rarely occurs exclusively in the central nervous system. The authors performed biopsy sampling of a mass that developed in the left tentorium cerebelli that appeared to be a malignant tumor. The mass was diagnosed as a sarcoid granuloma, which was confirmed with the onset of antibody reaction product against Propionibacterium acnes. Findings suggesting sarcoidosis to be an immune response to P. acnes infection have recently been reported, and they give insight for diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The authors report the possible first case that was confirmed with P. acnes infection in a meningeal lesion in solitary neurosarcoidosis.
Jiro Akimoto, Kenta Nagai, Daisuke Ogasawara, Yujiro Tanaka, Hitoshi Izawa, Michihiro Kohno, Keisuke Uchida and Yoshinobu Eishi
Satoshi Tanaka, Jiro Akimoto, Yoshitaka Narita, Hidehiro Oka and Takashi Tashiro
Methylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been reported to be a good prognostic factor for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). To determine whether the absolute value of MGMT messenger RNA (mRNA) might be a prognostic factor and useful for predicting the therapeutic effectiveness of temozolomide, especially with regard to GBMs, the authors measured the absolute value of MGMT mRNA in gliomas by using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
MGMT mRNA was measured in 140 newly diagnosed gliomas by real-time RT-PCR using the Taq-Man probe. Among 73 GBMs, 45 had been initially treated with temozolomide and radiation.
The mean MGMT mRNA value was significantly lower in oligodendroglial tumors than in other tumors. In the 73 GBMs, a significant prognostic factor for progression-free survival was fewer than 1000 copies/ μgRNA of MGMT mRNA (p = 0.0150). Of 45 patients with GBMs that had been treated with temozolomide and radiation, progression-free survival was significantly longer for those whose GMB had fewer than 1000 copies/μgRNA of MGMT mRNA than for those whose GBM had more than 1000 copies/μgRNA (p = 0.0090). In 32 patients with GBMs treated by temozolomide and radiation whose age was younger than 75 years and whose Karnofsky Performance Scale score was more than 70, progression-free and overall survival times were longer for those with GBMs of fewer than 5000 copies/μgRNA of MGMT mRNA than for those with GBMs of more than 5000 copies/μgRNA (p = 0.0365 and p = 0.0312).
MGMT mRNA might be useful as a prognostic factor and for predicting the results of therapy for GBMs treated by temozolomide. New individual adjuvant therapy based on the results of MGMT mRNA quantitation has been proposed.
Yoshihiro Muragaki, Jiro Akimoto, Takashi Maruyama, Hiroshi Iseki, Soko Ikuta, Masayuki Nitta, Katsuya Maebayashi, Taiichi Saito, Yoshikazu Okada, Sadao Kaneko, Akira Matsumura, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Yoichi Nakazato and Takamasa Kayama
The objective of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium and irradiation using a 664-nm semiconductor laser in patients with primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors.
In 27 patients with suspected newly diagnosed or recurrent primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors, a single intravenous injection of talaporfin sodium (40 mg/m2) was administered 1 day before resection of the neoplasm. The next day after completion of the tumor removal, the residual lesion and/or resection cavity were irradiated using a 664-nm semiconductor laser with a radiation power density of 150 mW/cm2 and a radiation energy density of 27 J/cm2. The procedure was performed 22–27 hours after drug administration. The study cohort included 22 patients with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of primary malignant parenchymal brain tumor. Thirteen of these neoplasms (59.1%) were newly diagnosed glioblastomas multiforme (GBM).
Among all 22 patients included in the study cohort, the 12-month overall survival (OS), 6-month progression-free survival (PFS), and 6-month local PFS rates after surgery and PDT were 95.5%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. Among patients with newly diagnosed GBMs, all these parameters were 100%. Side effects on the skin, which could be attributable to the administration of talaporfin sodium, were noted in 7.4% of patients and included rash (2 cases), blister (1 case), and erythema (1 case). Skin photosensitivity test results were relatively mild and fully disappeared within 15 days after administration of photosensitizer in all patients.
Intraoperative PDT using talaporfin sodium and a semiconductor laser may be considered as a potentially effective and sufficiently safe option for adjuvant management of primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors. The inclusion of intraoperative PDT in a combined treatment strategy may have a positive impact on OS and local tumor control, particularly in patients with newly diagnosed GBMs. Clinical trial registration no.: JMA-IIA00026 (https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/jmactr/App/JMACTRS06/JMACTRS06.aspx?seqno=862).