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Syed I. Khalid, Ryan Kelly, Rita Wu, Akhil Peta, Adam Carlton and Owoicho Adogwa

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to assess the relationship of comorbidities and postoperative complications to rates of readmission for geriatric patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) involving more than 2 levels on an inpatient or outpatient basis. With the rising costs of healthcare in the United States, understanding the safety and efficacy of performing common surgical interventions (including ACDF) as outpatient procedures could prove to be of great economic impact.Objective This study aims to assess the effect of comorbidities and postoperative complications on the rates of readmission of geriatric patients undergoing multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures (i.e., ACDF involving 3 or more levels) on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Same-day surgery has been demonstrated to be a safe and cost-effective alternative to the traditional inpatient option for many surgical interventions. With the rising costs of healthcare, understanding the safety and efficacy of performing common surgical interventions as outpatient procedures could prove to be of great economic impact.

METHODS

The study population included total of 2492 patients: 2348 inpatients and 144 outpatients having ACDF procedures involving 3 or more levels in the Medicare Standard Analytical Files database. Age, sex, comorbidities, postoperative complications, readmission rates, and surgical procedure charges were compared between both cohorts. For selected variables, logistic regression was used to model odds ratios for various comorbidities against readmission rates for both inpatient and outpatient cohorts. Chi-square tests were also calculated to compare these comorbidities with readmission in each cohort.

RESULTS

Overall complication rates within 30 postoperative days were greater for inpatients than for outpatients (44.2% vs 12.5%, p < 0.001). More inpatients developed postoperative urinary tract infection (7.9% vs 0%, p < 0.001), and the inpatient cohort had increased risk of readmission with comorbidities of anemia (OR 1.52, p < 0.001), smoking (OR 2.12, p < 0.001), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR 1.43, p < 0.001). Outpatients had increased risk of readmission with comorbidities of anemia (OR 2.78, p = 0.047), diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 (OR 3.25, p = 0.033), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR 3.95, p = 0.008). Inpatients also had increased readmission risk with a postoperative complication of surgical site infection (OR 2.38, p < 0.001). The average charges for inpatient multilevel ACDF were significantly higher than for multilevel ACDF performed on an outpatient basis ($12,734.27 vs $12,152.18, p = 0.0019).

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that ACDF surgery involving 3 or more levels performed as an outpatient procedure in the geriatric population may be associated with lower rates of readmissions, complications, and surgical charges.

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Syed I. Khalid, Ryan Kelly, Adam Carlton, Owoicho Adogwa, Patrick Kim, Arjun Ranade, Jessica Moreno, Samantha Maasarani, Rita Wu, Patrick Melville and Jonathan Citow

OBJECTIVE

With the costs related to the United States medical system constantly rising, efforts are being made to turn traditional inpatient procedures into outpatient same-day surgeries. In this study the authors looked at the various comorbidities and perioperative complications and their impact on readmission rates of patients undergoing outpatient versus inpatient 3- and 4-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of 337 3- and 4- level ACDF procedures in 332 patients (5 patients had both primary and revision surgeries that were included in this total of 337 procedures) between May 2012 and June 2017. In total, 331 procedures were analyzed, as 6 patients were lost to follow-up. Outpatient surgery was performed for 299 procedures (102 4-level procedures and 197 3-level procedures), and inpatient surgery was performed for 32 procedures (11 4-level procedures and 21 3-level procedures). Age, sex, comorbidities, number of fusion levels, pain level, and perioperative complications were compared between both cohorts.

RESULTS

Analysis was performed for 331 3- and 4-level ACDF procedures done at 6 different hospitals. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 1.2% (outpatient 3 [1.0%] vs inpatient 1 [3.1%], p = 0.847). Outpatients had increased readmission risk, with comorbidities of coronary artery disease (OR 1.058, p = 0.039), autoimmune disease (OR 1.142, p = 0.006), diabetes (OR 1.056, p = 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (OR 0.933, p = 0.035). Perioperative complications of delirium (OR 2.709, p < 0.001) and surgical site infection (OR 2.709, p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of 30-day hospital readmission in outpatients compared to inpatients.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of 3- and 4-level ACDF surgery, although various comorbidities and perioperative complications may lead to higher readmission rates. Patient selection for outpatient 3- and 4-level ACDF cases might play a role in the safety of performing these procedures in the ambulatory setting, but further studies are needed to accurately identify which factors are most pertinent for appropriate selection.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Isaac O. Karikari, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Amanda R. Sergesketter, Diego Galan and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are often measured up to 2 years after surgery; however, prospective collection of longitudinal outcomes for 5 years postoperatively can be challenging due to lack of patient follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine whether PROs collected at 2-year follow-up accurately predict long-term PROs 5 years after complex spinal fusion (≥ 5 levels).

METHODS

This was an ambispective study of 118 adult patients (≥ 18 years old) undergoing ≥ 5-level spinal arthrodesis to the sacrum with iliac fixation from January 2002 to December 2011. Patient demographics and radiographic parameters as well as intraoperative variables were collected. PRO instruments (Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-22r function, self-image, mental health, pain, and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]) were completed before surgery then at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Primary outcome investigated in this study was the correlation between SRS-22r domains and ODI collected at 2- and 5-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Of the 118 patients, 111 patients had baseline PROs, 105 patients had 2-year follow-up data, and 91 patients had 5-year follow-up PRO data with 72% undergoing revision surgery. The average pre- and postoperative major coronal curve Cobb angles for the cohort were 32.1° ± 23.7° and 19.8° ± 19.3°, respectively. There was a strong correlation between 2- and 5-year ODI (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and between 2- and 5-year SRS-22r domains, including function (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.001), self-image (r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001), mental health (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.001), and pain (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.001). Of the PROs, ODI showed the greatest absolute change from baseline to 2- and 5-year follow-up (2-year Δ 17.6 ± 15.9; 5-year Δ 16.5 ± 19.9) followed by SRS-22r self-image (2-year Δ 1.4 ± 0.96; 5-year Δ 1.3 ± 1.0), pain (2-year Δ 0.94 ± 0.97; 5-year Δ 0.80 ± 1.0), function (2-year Δ 0.60 ± 0.62; 5-year Δ 0.49 ± 0.79), and mental health (2-year Δ 0.49 ± 0.77; 5-year Δ 0.38 ± 0.84).

CONCLUSIONS

Patient-reported outcomes collected at 2-year follow-up may accurately predict long-term PROs (5-year follow-up).

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Hanna Kemeny, Owoicho Adogwa, Eric W. Sankey, C. Rory Goodwin, Chester K. Yarbrough, Shivanand P. Lad, Isaac O. Karikari and Oren N. Gottfried

OBJECTIVE

In spine surgery, racial disparities have been shown to impact various aspects of surgical care. Previous studies have associated racial disparities with inferior surgical outcomes, including increased complication and 30-day readmission rates after spine surgery. Recently, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and satisfaction measures have been proxies for overall quality of care and hospital reimbursements. However, the influence that racial disparities have on short- and long-term PROs and patient satisfaction after spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of racial disparities on 3- and 12-month PROs and patient satisfaction after elective lumbar spine surgery.

METHODS

This study was designed as a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database. The medical records of adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients who had undergone elective lumbar spine surgery for spondylolisthesis (grade 1), disc herniation, or stenosis at a major academic institution were included in this study. Patient demographics, comorbidities, postoperative complications, and 30-day readmission rates were collected. Patients had prospectively collected outcome and satisfaction measures. Patient-reported outcome instruments—Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale for back pain (VAS-BP), and VAS for leg pain (VAS-LP)—were completed before surgery and at 3 and 12 months after surgery, as were patient satisfaction measures.

RESULTS

The authors identified 345 medical records for 53 (15.4%) African American (AA) patients and 292 (84.6%) white patients. Baseline patient demographics and comorbidities were similar between the two cohorts, with AA patients having a greater body mass index (33.1 ± 6.6 vs 30.2 ± 6.4 kg/m2, p = 0.005) and a higher prevalence of diabetes (35.9% vs 16.1%, p = 0.0008). Surgical indications, operative variables, and postoperative variables were similar between the cohorts. Baseline and follow-up PRO measures were worse in the AA cohort, with patients having a greater baseline ODI (p < 0.0001), VAS-BP score (p = 0.0002), and VAS-LP score (p = 0.0007). However, mean changes from baseline to 3- and 12-month PROs were similar between the cohorts for all measures except the 3-month VAS-BP score (p = 0.046). Patient-reported satisfaction measures at 3 and 12 months demonstrated a significantly lower proportion of AA patients stating that surgery met their expectations (3 months: 47.2% vs 65.5%, p = 0.01; 12 months: 35.7% vs 62.7%, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

The study data suggest that there is a significant difference in the perception of health, pain, and disability between AA and white patients at baseline and short- and long-term follow-ups, which may influence overall patient satisfaction. Further research is necessary to identify patient-specific factors associated with racial disparities that may be influencing outcomes to adequately measure and assess overall PROs and satisfaction after elective lumbar spine surgery.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Victoria D. Vuong, Jared Fialkoff, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O. Karikari and Carlos A. Bagley

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative delirium is common in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery and is associated with a longer and more costly hospital course, functional decline, postoperative institutionalization, and higher likelihood of death within 6 months of discharge. Preoperative cognitive impairment may be a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for degenerative scoliosis.

METHODS

Elderly patients 65 years and older undergoing a planned elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis were enrolled in this study. Preoperative cognition was assessed using the validated Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) examination. SLUMS comprises 11 questions, with a maximum score of 30 points. Mild cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score between 21 and 26 points, while severe cognitive impairment was defined as a SLUMS score of ≤ 20 points. Normal cognition was defined as a SLUMS score of ≥ 27 points. Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and rated as absent or present on the basis of CAM. The incidence of delirium was compared in patients with and without baseline cognitive impairment.

RESULTS

Twenty-two patients (18%) developed delirium postoperatively. Baseline demographics, including age, sex, comorbidities, and perioperative variables, were similar in patients with and without delirium. The length of in-hospital stay (mean 5.33 days vs 5.48 days) and 30-day hospital readmission rates (12.28% vs 12%) were similar between patients with and without delirium, respectively. Patients with preoperative cognitive impairment (i.e., a lower SLUMS score) had a higher incidence of postoperative delirium. One- and 2-year patient reported outcomes scores were similar in patients with and without delirium.

CONCLUSIONS

Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. Postoperative delirium may be associated with decreased preoperative cognitive reserve. Cognitive impairment assessments should be considered in the preoperative evaluations of elderly patients prior to surgery.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Victoria D. Vuong, Jessica Moreno, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O. Karikari and Carlos A. Bagley

OBJECTIVE

Geriatric patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery have unique needs due to the physiological changes of aging. They are at risk for adverse outcomes such as delirium, infection, and iatrogenic complications, and these complications, in turn, contribute to the risk of functional decline, nursing home admission, and death. Whether preoperative and perioperative comanagement by a geriatrician reduces the incidence of in-hospital complications and length of in-hospital stay after elective lumbar spine surgery remains unknown.

METHODS

A unique model of comanagement for elderly patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery was implemented at a major academic medical center. The Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program was launched with the aim of improving outcomes in elderly patients (> 65 years old) undergoing complex lumbar spine surgery. In this model, a geriatrician evaluates elderly patients preoperatively, in addition to performing routine preoperative anesthesia surgical screening, and comanages them daily throughout the course of their hospital stay to manage medical comorbid conditions and coordinate multidisciplinary rehabilitation along with the neurosurgical team. The first 100 cases were retrospectively reviewed after initiation of the POSH protocol and compared with the immediately preceding 25 cases to assess the incidence of perioperative complications and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

One hundred twenty-five patients undergoing lumbar decompression and fusion were enrolled in this pilot program. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean length of in-hospital stay was 30% shorter in the POSH cohort (6.13 vs 8.72 days; p = 0.06). The mean duration of time between surgery and patient mobilization was significantly shorter in the POSH cohort compared with the non-POSH cohort (1.57 days vs 2.77 days; p = 0.02), and the number of steps ambulated on day of discharge was 2-fold higher in the POSH cohort (p = 0.04). Compared with the non-POSH cohort, the majority of patients in the POSH cohort were discharged to home (24% vs 54%; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Geriatric comanagement reduces the incidence of postoperative complications, shortens the duration of in-hospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients undergoing elective spinal surgery for the correction of adult degenerative scoliosis.

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Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Amanda Sergesketter, Victoria D. Vuong, Ankit I. Mehta, Raul A. Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A. Bagley and Isaac O. Karikari

OBJECTIVE

Wound infections following spinal surgery for deformity place a high toll on patients, providers, and the health care system. The prophylactic application of intraoperative vancomycin powder has been shown to lower the infection risk after thoracolumbar decompression and fusion for deformity correction. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological patterns of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) after prophylactic use of vancomycin powder in adult patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

METHODS

All cases involving adult patients who underwent spinal deformity reconstruction at Duke University Medical Center between 2011 and 2013 with a minimum of 3 months of clinical follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases included in the study, crystalline vancomycin powder was applied to the surgical bed for infection prophylaxis. Baseline characteristics, operative details, rates of wound infection, and microbiological data for each case were gathered by direct medical record review.

RESULTS

A total of 1200 consecutive spine operations were performed for deformity between 2011 and 2013. Review of the associated records demonstrated 34 cases of SSI, yielding an SSI rate of 2.83%. The patients’ mean age (± SD) was 62.08 ± 14.76 years. The patients’ mean body mass index was 30.86 ± 7.15 kg/m2, and 29.41% had a history of diabetes. The average dose of vancomycin powder was 1.41 ± 2.77 g (range 1–7 g). Subfascial drains were placed in 88% of patients. All SSIs occurred within 30 days of surgery, with deep wound infections accounting for 50%. In 74% of the SSIs cultures were positive, with about half the organisms being gram negative, such as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morgani, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were no adverse clinical outcomes related to the local application of vancomycin.

CONCLUSIONS

Our study suggests that in the setting of prophylactic vancomycin powder use, the preponderance of SSIs are caused by gram-negative organisms or are polymicrobial. Further randomized control trials of prophylactic adjunctive measures are warranted to help guide the choice of empirical antibiotic therapy while awaiting culture data.

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Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Owoicho Adogwa, Emily Lydon, Amanda Sergesketter, Rayan Kaakati, Ankit I. Mehta, Raul A. Vasquez, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A. Bagley and Isaac O. Karikari

OBJECTIVE

Depression is the most prevalent affective disorder in the US, and patients with spinal deformity are at increased risk. Postoperative delirium has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. The relationship between depression and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if depression is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for deformity.

METHODS

The medical records of 923 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing elective spine surgery at a single major academic institution from 2005 through 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 255 (27.6%) patients had been diagnosed with depression by a board-certified psychiatrist and constituted the Depression group; the remaining 668 patients constituted the No-Depression group. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and intra- and postoperative complication rates were collected for each patient and compared between groups. The primary outcome investigated in this study was rate of postoperative delirium, according to DSM-V criteria, during initial hospital stay after surgery. The association between depression and postoperative delirium rate was assessed via multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

Patient demographics and comorbidities other than depression were similar in the 2 groups. In the Depression group, 85.1% of the patients were taking an antidepressant prior to surgery. There were no significant between-group differences in intraoperative variables and rates of complications other than delirium. Postoperative complication rates were also similar between the cohorts, including rates of urinary tract infection, fever, deep and superficial surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, urinary retention, and proportion of patients transferred to the intensive care unit. In total, 66 patients (7.15%) had an episode of postoperative delirium, with depressed patients experiencing approximately a 2-fold higher rate of delirium (10.59% vs 5.84%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, depression was an independent predictor of postoperative delirium after spine surgery in spinal deformity patients (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that depression is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium after elective spine surgery. Further studies are necessary to understand the effects of affective disorders on postoperative delirium, in hopes to better identify patients at risk.