Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for

  • By Author: Ackerman, Laurie L. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Kyung Shin Kang, Jeff Lastfogel, Laurie L. Ackerman, Andrew Jea, Alexander G. Robling and Sunil S. Tholpady

OBJECTIVE

Cranial defects can result from trauma, infection, congenital malformations, and iatrogenic causes and represent a surgical challenge. The current standard of care is cranioplasty, with either autologous or allogeneic material. In either case, the intrinsic vascularity of the surrounding tissues allows for bone healing. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanotransductive gene manipulation would yield non–weight-bearing bone regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect in mice.

METHODS

A mouse model of Sost deletion in Sost knockout (KO) mice was created in which the osteocytes do not express sclerostin. A critical size calvarial defect (4 mm in diameter) was surgically created in the parietal bone in 8-week-old wild-type (n = 8) and Sost KO (n = 8) male mice. The defects were left undisturbed (no implant or scaffold) to simulate a traumatic calvariectomy model. Eight weeks later, the animals were examined at necropsy by planimetry, histological analysis of new bone growth, and micro-CT scanning of bone thickness.

RESULTS

Defects created in wild-type mice did not fill with bone over the study period of 2 months. Genetic downregulation of sclerostin yielded animals that were able to regenerate 40% of the initial critical size defect area 8 weeks after surgery. A thin layer of bone covered a significant portion of the original defect in all Sost KO animals. A statistically significant increase in bone volume (p < 0.05) was measured in Sost KO mice using radiodensitometric analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed that this bone regeneration occurred through the Wnt pathway and originated from the edge of the defect; BMP signaling did not appear to be affected by sclerostin.

CONCLUSIONS

Mechanical loading is an important mechanism of bone formation in the cranial skeleton and is poorly understood. This is partially due to the fact that it is difficult to load bone in the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. This study suggests that modulation of the Wnt pathway, as is able to be done with monoclonal antibodies, is a potentially efficacious method for bone regeneration that requires further study.

Restricted access

Irene Kim, Betsy Hopson, Inmaculada Aban, Elias B. Rizk, Mark S. Dias, Robin Bowman, Laurie L. Ackerman, Michael D. Partington, Heidi Castillo, Jonathan Castillo, Paula R. Peterson, Jeffrey P. Blount and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of decompression for Chiari malformation type II in individuals with myelomeningocele in the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR). In addition, the authors explored the variation in rates of Chiari II decompression across NSBPR institutions, examined the relationship between Chiari II decompression and functional lesion level of the myelomeningocele, age, and need for tracheostomy, and they evaluated for temporal trends in rates of Chiari II decompression.

METHODS

The authors queried the NSBPR to identify all individuals with myelomeningocele between 2009 and 2015. Among these patients, they identified individuals who had undergone at least 1 Chiari II decompression as well as those who had undergone tracheostomy. For each participating NSBPR institution, the authors calculated the proportion of patients enrolled at that site who underwent Chiari II decompression. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the relationship between Chiari II decompression, functional lesion level, age at decompression, and history of tracheostomy.

RESULTS

Of 4448 individuals with myelomeningocele identified from 26 institutions, 407 (9.15%) had undergone at least 1 Chiari II decompression. Fifty-one patients had undergone tracheostomy. Logistic regression demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between Chiari II decompression and functional lesion level of the myelomeningocele, with a more rostral lesion level associated with a higher likelihood of posterior fossa decompression. Similarly, children born before 2005 and those with history of tracheostomy had a significantly higher likelihood of Chiari II decompression. There was no association between functional lesion level and need for tracheostomy. However, among those children who underwent Chiari II decompression, the likelihood of also undergoing tracheostomy increased significantly with younger age at decompression.

CONCLUSIONS

The rate of Chiari II decompression in patients with myelomeningocele in the NSBPR is consistent with that in previously published literature. There is a significant relationship between Chiari II decompression and functional lesion level of the myelomeningocele, which has not previously been reported. Younger children who undergo Chiari II decompression are more likely to have undergone tracheostomy. There appears to be a shift away from Chiari II decompression, as children born before 2005 were more likely to undergo Chiari II decompression than those born in 2005 or later.

Restricted access

Irene Kim, Betsy Hopson, Inmaculada Aban, Elias B. Rizk, Mark S. Dias, Robin Bowman, Laurie L. Ackerman, Michael D. Partington, Heidi Castillo, Jonathan Castillo, Paula R. Peterson, Jeffrey P. Blount and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Although the majority of patients with myelomeningocele have hydrocephalus, reported rates of hydrocephalus treatment vary widely. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of surgical treatment for hydrocephalus in patients with myelomeningocele in the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR). In addition, the authors explored the variation in shunting rates across NSBPR institutions, examined the relationship between hydrocephalus, and the functional lesion level of the myelomeningocele, and evaluated for temporal trends in rates of treated hydrocephalus.

METHODS

The authors queried the NSBPR to identify all patients with myelomeningoceles. Individuals were identified as having been treated for hydrocephalus if they had undergone at least 1 hydrocephalus-related operation. For each participating NSBPR institution, the authors calculated the proportion of patients with treated hydrocephalus who were enrolled at that site. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the relationship between hydrocephalus and the functional lesion level of the myelomeningocele and to compare the rate of treated hydrocephalus in children born before 2005 with those born in 2005 or later.

RESULTS

A total of 4448 patients with myelomeningocele were identified from 26 institutions, of whom 3558 patients (79.99%) had undergone at least 1 hydrocephalus-related operation. The rate of treated hydrocephalus ranged from 72% to 96% among institutions enrolling more than 10 patients. This difference in treatment rates between centers was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Insufficient data were available in the NSBPR to analyze reasons for the different rates of hydrocephalus treatment between sites. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that more rostral functional lesion levels were associated with higher rates of treated hydrocephalus (p < 0.001) but demonstrated no significant difference in hydrocephalus treatment rates between children born before versus after 2005.

CONCLUSIONS

The rate of hydrocephalus treatment in patients with myelomeningocele in the NSBPR is 79.99%, which is consistent with the rates in previously published literature. The authors’ data demonstrate a clear association between functional lesion level of the myelomeningocele and the need for hydrocephalus treatment.

Restricted access

Laurie L. Ackerman, Daniel H. Fulkerson, Andrew Jea and Jodi L. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Patients with shunts often interact with providers distant from their primary hospital, making it important that the parent(s)/guardian(s) is well versed in the type of shunt implanted and symptoms of malfunction/infection. This is particularly important with magnetic-sensitive programmable valves, as the use of MRI becomes more prevalent.

METHODS

Over a 6-month period, primary caregivers of 148 consecutive patients who received shunts were prospectively administered questionnaires at clinic visits. Caregivers were asked to do the following: 1) identify shunt valve name, type, and setting if applicable; 2) list symptoms of shunt malfunction/infection; and 3) indicate whether they had access to references regarding shunt type/setting, booklets from the Hydrocephalus Association, and quick reference cards with symptoms of shunt malfunction/infection. One cohort of caregivers (n = 75) was asked to carry informational cards with shunt valve/setting information (group I); this cohort was compared with another subgroup of caregivers (n = 73) not carrying cards (group II).

RESULTS

The mean (± SD) age of patients at implantation/revision was 3.71 ± 4.91 years, and the age at follow-up was 6.12 ± 5.4 years. The average time from surgery to administration of the questionnaire was 2.38 ± 3.22 years. There were 86 new shunt insertions and 62 revisions. One hundred twenty-eight caregivers (87%) could identify the type of valve (programmable vs nonprogrammable). On the other hand, only 72 caregivers (49%) could identify the valve name. Fifty-four of 73 (74%) caregivers of patients who had shunts with programmable valves could correctly identify the valve setting. One hundred caregivers (68%) had a copy of the Hydrocephalus Association booklet, and 103 (70%) had quick reference cards. Eighty caregivers (54%) had references on shunt type/setting. Most caregivers (127 [86%]) could name ≥ 3 signs/symptoms of shunt malfunction, with vomiting (61%), headache (49%), and sleeps more/lethargic (35%) most frequently reported. Caregivers of patients in group I were more likely to have cards with symptoms of shunt infection or malfunction (p = 0.015); have information cards regarding shunt type/setting (p < 0.001); and correctly identify valve type (p = 0.001), name (p < 0.001), and setting if programmable (p = 0.0016). There were no differences in ability to list symptoms of shunt malfunction or infection (p = 0.8812) or in access to Hydrocephalus Association booklets (p = 0.1288). There were no significant demographic differences between the groups, except that group I patients had a shorter time from surgery to last follow-up (1.66 vs 3.17 years; p = 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Education regarding the care of patients with shunts by providing written cards with shunt type/setting and access to reference materials seems to be effective. Developing plans for guided instruction with assessment in the clinic setting of a caregiver’s knowledge is important for patient safety.

Full access

Andrea G. Scherer, Ian K. White, Kashif A. Shaikh, Jodi L. Smith, Laurie L. Ackerman and Daniel H. Fulkerson

OBJECTIVE

The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) from deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is significant in neurosurgical patients. VTE is considered a leading cause of preventable hospital deaths and preventing DVT is a closely monitored quality metric, often tied to accreditation, hospital ratings, and reimbursement. Adult protocols include prophylaxis with anticoagulant medications. Children’s hospitals may adopt adult protocols, although the incidence of DVT and the risk or efficacy of treatment is not well defined. The incidence of DVT in children is likely less than in adults, although there is very little prospectively collected information. Most consider the risk of DVT to be extremely low in children 12 years of age or younger. However, this consideration is based on tradition and retrospective reviews of trauma databases. In this study, the authors prospectively evaluated pediatric patients undergoing a variety of elective neurosurgical procedures and performed Doppler ultrasound studies before and after surgery.

METHODS

A total of 100 patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. All of the patients were between the ages of 1 month and 12 years and were undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures. The 91 patients who completed the protocol received a bilateral lower-extremity Doppler ultrasound examination within 48 hours prior to surgery. Patients did not receive either medical or mechanical DVT prophylaxis during or after surgery. The ultrasound examination was repeated within 72 hours after surgery. An independent, board-certified radiologist evaluated all sonograms. We prospectively collected data, including potential risk factors, details of surgery, and details of the clinical course. All patients were followed clinically for at least 1 year.

RESULTS

There was no clinical or ultrasound evidence of DVT or VTE in any of the 91 patients. There was no clinical evidence of VTE in the 9 patients who did not complete the protocol.

CONCLUSIONS

In this prospective study, no DVTs were found in 91 patients evaluated by ultrasound and 9 patients followed clinically. While the study is underpowered to give a definitive incidence, the data suggest that the risk of DVT and VTE is very low in children undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures. Prophylactic protocols designed for adults may not apply to pediatric patients.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02037607 (clinicaltrials.gov)

Full access

Katarzyna Kania, Kashif Ajaz Shaikh, Ian Kainoa White and Laurie L. Ackerman

OBJECTIVE

Concerns about mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have increased in recent years, and neurosurgical consultation is often requested for patients with radiographic abnormalities or clinical findings suspicious for mTBI. However, to the authors' knowledge, no study has used the Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE) tool to systematically evaluate the evolution of symptoms in patients with mTBI during neurosurgical follow-up. The goal in this study was to evaluate symptom progression in pediatric patients referred for neurosurgical consultation by using the ACE, as endorsed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of records of consecutive pediatric patients who had presented to the emergency department, were diagnosed with possible mTBI, and were referred for neurosurgical consultation. Outpatient follow-up for these patients included serial assessment using the ACE. Data collected included the mechanisms of the patients' injuries, symptoms, follow-up duration, and premorbid conditions that might potentially contribute to protracted recovery.

RESULTS

Of 91 patients identified with mTBI, 58 met the inclusion criteria, and 33 of these had sufficient follow-up data to be included in the study. Mechanisms of injury included sports injury (15 patients), isolated falls (10), and motor vehicle collisions (8). Ages ranged from 5 to 17 years (mean age 11.6 years), and 29 of the 33 patients were male. Six patients had preinjury developmental and/or psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Seventeen had negative findings on head CT scans. The first follow-up evaluation occurred at a mean of 30 days after injury. The mean number of symptoms reported on the ACE inventory at first follow-up were 3.2; 12 patients were symptom free. Patients with positive head CT findings required longer follow-up: these patients needed 14.59 weeks, versus 7.87 weeks of follow-up in patients with negative findings on head CT scans (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

The data suggest that patients with mTBI, particularly those with developmental and/or psychiatric comorbidities and concurrent cerebral or extracranial injury, often report symptoms for several weeks after their initial injury. Serial ACE assessment permits systematic identification of patients who are experiencing continued symptoms, leading to appropriate patient management and referral.

Full access

Daniel H. Fulkerson, Ian K. White, Jacqueline M. Rees, Maraya M. Baumanis, Jodi L. Smith, Laurie L. Ackerman, Joel C. Boaz and Thomas G. Luerssen

OBJECT

Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with low presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores have very high morbidity and mortality rates. Neurosurgeons may be faced with difficult decisions in managing the most severely injured (GCS scores of 3 or 4) patients. The situation may be considered hopeless, with little chance of a functional recovery. Long-term data are limited regarding the clinical outcome of children with severe head injury. The authors evaluate predictor variables and the clinical outcomes at discharge, 1 year, and long term (median 10.5 years) in a cohort of children with TBI presenting with postresuscitation GCS scores of 3 and 4.

METHODS

A review of a prospectively collected trauma database was performed. Patients treated at Riley Hospital for Children (Indianapolis, Indiana) from 1988 to 2004 were reviewed. All children with initial GCS (modified for pediatric patients) scores of 3 or 4 were identified. Patients with a GCS score of 3 were compared with those with a GCS score of 4. The outcomes of all patients at the time of death or discharge and at 1-year and long-term follow-up were measured with a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) that included a “normal” outcome. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by contacting surviving patients. Statistical "classification trees" were formed for survival and outcome, based on predictor variables.

RESULTS

Sixty-seven patients with a GCS score of 3 or 4 were identified in a database of 1636 patients (4.1%). Three of the presenting factors differed between the GCS 3 patients (n = 44) and the GCS 4 patients (n = 23): presence of hypoxia, single seizure, and open basilar cisterns on CT scan. The clinical outcomes were statistically similar between the 2 groups. In total, 48 (71.6%) of 67 patients died, remained vegetative, or were severely disabled by 1 year. Eight patients (11.9%) were normal at 1 year. Ten of the 22 patients with long-term follow-up were either normal or had a GOS score of 5.

Multiple clinical, historical, and radiological factors were analyzed for correlation with survival and clinical outcome. Classification trees were formed to stratify predictive factors. The pupillary response was the factor most predictive of both survival and outcome. Other factors that either positively or negatively correlated with survival included hypothermia, mechanism of injury (abuse), hypotension, major concurrent symptoms, and midline shift on CT scan. Other factors that either positively or negatively predicted long-term outcome included hypothermia, mechanism of injury, and the assessment of the fontanelle.

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort of 67 TBI patients with a presenting GCS score of 3 or 4, 56.6% died within 1 year. However, approximately 15% of patients had a good outcome at 10 or more years. Factors that correlated with survival and outcome included the pupillary response, hypothermia, and mechanism. The authors discuss factors that may help surgeons make critical decisions regarding their most serious pediatric trauma patients.

Full access

Melinda A. Costa, Laurie L. Ackerman, Sunil S. Tholpady, S. Travis Greathouse, Youssef Tahiri and Roberto L. Flores

Patients with multisutural craniosynostosis can develop anomalous venous connections between the intracranial sinuses and cutaneous venous system through enlarged emissary veins. Cranial vault remodeling in this subset of patients carries the risk of massive intraoperative blood loss and/or occlusion of collateral draining veins leading to intracranial venous hypertension and raised intracranial pressure, increasing the morbidity of cranial expansion. The authors report the use of spring-mediated expansion as a technique for cranial reconstruction in which the collateral intracranial venous drainage system can be preserved.

A patient with bilateral lambdoid, sagittal, and unicoronal synostosis presented for cranial reconstruction. A tracheostomy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt were placed prior to intervention. At the time of reconstruction, a Luckenschadel skull abnormality and Chiari malformation Type I were present. A preoperative CT venogram demonstrated large collateral superficial occipital veins, small bilateral internal jugular veins, and hypoplastic jugular foramina. Collateral flow from the transverse and sigmoid sinuses through large occipital emissary veins was seen. Spring-mediated cranial vault expansion was performed with care to preserve the large collateral veins at the occipital midline. Four springs were placed at each lambdoid and the posterior and anterior sagittal sutures following 1-cm strip suturectomies. Removal of the springs was performed 2 months postoperatively.

Cranial vault expansion was performed without disturbing the aberrant intracranial/extracranial venous collateral system. Estimated blood loss was 150 ml. A CT scan obtained 3 months postoperatively showed resolution of the Luckenschadel deformity and a 40% volumetric increase in the skull compared with the preoperative CT.

Patients with anomalous venous drainage patterns and multisutural synostosis can undergo spring-mediated cranial vault expansion while preserving the major emissary veins draining the intracranial sinuses. Risks of blood loss, intracranial venous hypertension, and increased intracranial pressure may be decreased compared with traditional techniques of repair.

Restricted access

Charles G. Kulwin, Neal B. Patel, Laurie L. Ackerman, Jodi L. Smith, Joel C. Boaz and Daniel H. Fulkerson

Object

The surgical management of patients with symptoms of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) who lack significant radiographic abnormalities is controversial. One potential MRI marker for TCS is a spinal cord syrinx or syringomyelia. Alternatively, a syrinx may be a benign and incidental finding. In this report the authors evaluated a highly selected cohort of patients with symptoms of TCS with minimal radiographic abnormalities other than syringomyelia. They analyzed clinical and radiographic outcomes after tethered cord release (TCR).

Methods

A retrospective review of data from 16 children who met the study inclusion criteria was performed. All patients had been surgically treated at Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis, Indiana, between 2006 and 2011. All children had clinical symptoms of TCS as well as available pre- and postoperative MRI data.

Results

The most common presentation (12 [75%] of 16 patients) was urinary dysfunction, defined as symptoms of urgency or incontinence with abnormal urodynamic studies. Clinical follow-up data were available in 11 of these 12 patients. All 11 had improvement in symptoms at an average follow-up of 17 months. Seven (87.5%) of 8 patients presenting with back or leg pain had improvement. Three patients had progressive scoliosis; 2 had stabilization of the curve or mild improvement, and 1 patient had worsening deformity.

Radiographic follow-up data were obtained an average of 14.5 months after surgery. Twelve patients (75%) had stable syringomyelia after TCR. Four patients showed improvement, with 2 having complete radiographic resolution.

Conclusions

Highly selected patients with symptoms of TCS did very well clinically. Patients with abnormal urodynamic studies, pain, and gait disturbances showed a high rate of symptomatic improvement. However, a smaller percentage of patients had radiographic improvement of the syrinx. Therefore, the authors suggest that the decision to perform TCR should be based on clinical symptoms in this population. Symptomatic improvement was not necessarily related to radiographic resolution of the syrinx.