Jason Ku, Johnson Ku, Hsuan-Kan Chang, and Jau-Ching Wu
Since the beginning of the 21st century, cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been accepted as an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for surgical management of disc problems. The published clinical trials of CDA have included patients with radiculopathy or myelopathy caused by one- or two-level disc herniation at C3–7. However, it remains uncertain whether CDA is a viable option for C2–3 disc herniation.
In this report, a 52-year-old man presented with hand numbness, arm pain, and myelopathic symptoms that were refractory to medical treatment for more than 6 months. The magnetic resonance images demonstrated herniated discs at C2–3, C3–4, and C4–5, causing stenosis. There was no ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and the spine was mobile, so he received anterior discectomies with artificial disc replacement at each of the C2–3, C3–4, and C4–5 levels. The surgery went smoothly, and his neurological symptoms were promptly relieved. The postoperative radiographs at 24 months demonstrated a preserved range of motion at each level.
To date, this was the first report of CDA performed at C2–3, which also involved three consecutive levels of disc replacement. The report suggested that both C2–3 and three-consecutive-level CDA may be a viable option for cervical disc disease.
Jeffrey M. Breton, Knarik Arkun, Arthur S. Tischler, Adnan S. Qamar, Jonathan S. Sillman, and Carl B. Heilman
Paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare neoplasms that may be associated with hereditary PGL syndromes and variable risk of metastasis. Middle ear adenomas are extremely rare tumors with no known hereditary predisposition and extremely low risk of metastasis. Although often easily differentiated, they may share clinical and pathological features that misdirect and confuse the diagnosis.
The authors discussed a 35-year-old woman with left-sided hearing loss and bleeding from the external ear canal who presented to an outside hospital. She underwent resection of a middle ear and mastoid mass, initially diagnosed as a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine features, with later mastoidectomy and ligation of the sigmoid sinus with microsurgical excision of persistent tumor in the jugular foramen and temporal bone. Histopathologically, her tumor was vascular, composed of benign-appearing epithelioid cells with “salt and pepper” neuroendocrine chromatin arranged in vague nests. Lesional cells were GATA3-immunopositive, glucagon-negative, and succinate dehydrogenase-immunonegative, consistent with PGL rather than middle ear adenoma, and required further workup for hereditary PGL syndromes.
This case demonstrates potential challenges in differentiating a PGL from a middle ear adenoma. The authors offer clinical, histopathological, and imaging principles to aid in diagnosis and workup.
Pushkaran Jayapaul, Shameer Aslam, Bindhu Mangalath Rajamma, Siby Gopinath, and Ashok Pillai
The reevaluation and management of seizure relapse following resective surgery in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative pharmacoresistant epilepsy remains a significant challenge.
A 25-year-old right-handed male with medically refractory epilepsy presented with nonlocalizing electroencephalography (EEG) and MRI. Stereo-EEG (SEEG) implantation based on semiology and positron emission tomography imaging revealed a left frontal opercular focus with rapid bilateral insular ictal synchrony. The initial epileptogenic zone was resected and pathologically proven to be type 2A focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Seizure relapse after 9 months was eventually reinvestigated, and repeat SEEG revealed a secondary epileptogenic focus in the contralateral insula. A novel technique of volumetric stereotactic radiofrequency ablation (vRFA) was utilized for the right insular focus, following which, the patient remains seizure-free for 20 months. He suffered a transient bilateral opercular syndrome following the second intervention that eventually resolved.
The authors present clinical evidence to suggest epileptogenic nodes distant from the primary focus as a mechanism for seizure relapse following FCD surgery and the importance of bilateral insular SEEG coverage. The authors also describe a novel technique of minimally invasive vRFA that allows ablation of a larger volume of cerebral cortex when compared to conventional bedside SEEG electrode thermocoagulation.
José Piquer-Belloch, Ruben Rodríguez-Mena, José Luis Llácer-Ortega, Pedro Riesgo-Suárez, Vicente Rovira-Lillo, Alain Flor-Goikoetxea Gamo, Antonio Cremades-Mira, and Eva Llopis-San Juan
Spinal extradural hemangioblastomas (HBs) are quite uncommon, with most reported cases involving the thoracic and lumbar areas. Therefore, the presence of a dumbbell-shaped pure extradural cervical HB is exceptional, making preoperative diagnosis particularly challenging.
The authors report a case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to their outpatient clinic with progressive cervicobrachialgia and numbness in the left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a C5–6 intradural extramedullary lesion, and, despite some atypical features, the diagnosis of a possible neurogenic tumor was made. A multidetector computed tomography scan and angiography confirmed the expansion and remodeling of the left neural foramen as well as the highly vascularized nature of the mass. Preoperative embolization of the lesion was performed. Complete tumor resection was accomplished, followed by a C5–6 posterior fusion. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed an HB.
HBs should be considered among the differential diagnosis of cervical extradural tumors. Exhaustive preoperative workup and surgical planning are decisive in order to attain gross-total resection with favorable outcomes.
Jian-Dong Zhu, Sungel Xie, Ling Xu, Ming-Xiang Xie, and Shun-Wu Xiao
Approximately 0.6% to 12% of cases of pituitary adenoma are complicated by apoplexy, and nearly 6% of pituitary adenomas are comorbid aneurysms. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) with hidden intracranial aneurysm due to compression by an apoplectic pituitary adenoma is extremely rare; thus, the surgical strategy is also unknown.
The authors reported the case of a 48-year-old man with a large pituitary adenoma with coexisting ICA occlusion. After endoscopic transnasal surgery, repeated computed tomography angiography (CTA) demonstrated reperfusion of the left ICA but with a new-found aneurysm in the left posterior communicating artery; thus, interventional aneurysm embolization was performed. With stable recovery and improved neurological condition, the patient was discharged for rehabilitation training.
For patients with pituitary apoplexy accompanied by a rapid decrease of neurological conditions, emergency decompression through endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal resection can achieve satisfactory results. However, with occlusion of the ICA by enlarged pituitary adenoma or pituitary apoplexy, a hidden but rare intracranial aneurysm may be considered when patients are at high risk of such vascular disease as aneurysm, and gentle intraoperative manipulations are required. Performing CTA or digital subtraction angiography before and after surgery can effectively reduce the missed diagnosis of comorbidity and thus avoid life-threatening bleeding events from the accidental rupture of an aneurysm.
San Diego, California • July 28–31, 2021
Florian Bernard, Julien Haemmerli, Gregory Zegarek, Daniel Kiss-Bodolay, Karl Schaller, and Philippe Bijlenga
Visualizing major periventricular anatomical landmarks intraoperatively during brain tumor removal is a decisive measure toward preserving such structures and thus the patient's postoperative quality of life. The aim of this study was to describe potential standardized preoperative planning using standard landmarks and procedures and to demonstrate the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist in performing surgery according to these “roadmaps.” The authors have depicted stepwise AR surgical roadmaps applied to periventricular brain surgery with the aim of preserving major cognitive function. In addition to the technological aspects, this study highlights the importance of using emerging technologies as potential tools to integrate information and to identify and visualize landmarks to be used during tumor removal.
Michael E. Ivan, Daniel G. Eichberg, Long Di, Ashish H. Shah, Evan M. Luther, Victor M. Lu, Ricardo J. Komotar, and Timur M. Urakov
Monitor and wand–based neuronavigation stations (MWBNSs) for frameless intraoperative neuronavigation are routinely used in cranial neurosurgery. However, they are temporally and spatially cumbersome; the OR must be arranged around the MWBNS, at least one hand must be used to manipulate the MWBNS wand (interrupting a bimanual surgical technique), and the surgical workflow is interrupted as the surgeon stops to “check the navigation” on a remote monitor. Thus, there is need for continuous, real-time, hands-free, neuronavigation solutions. Augmented reality (AR) is poised to streamline these issues. The authors present the first reported prospective pilot study investigating the feasibility of using the OpenSight application with an AR head-mounted display to map out the borders of tumors in patients undergoing elective craniotomy for tumor resection, and to compare the degree of correspondence with MWBNS tracing.
Eleven consecutive patients undergoing elective craniotomy for brain tumor resection were prospectively identified and underwent circumferential tumor border tracing at the time of incision planning by a surgeon wearing HoloLens AR glasses running the commercially available OpenSight application registered to the patient and preoperative MRI. Then, the same patient underwent circumferential tumor border tracing using the StealthStation S8 MWBNS. Postoperatively, both tumor border tracings were compared by two blinded board-certified neurosurgeons and rated as having an excellent, adequate, or poor correspondence degree based on a subjective sense of the overlap. Objective overlap area measurements were also determined.
Eleven patients undergoing craniotomy were included in the study. Five patient procedures were rated as having an excellent correspondence degree, 5 had an adequate correspondence degree, and 1 had poor correspondence. Both raters agreed on the rating in all cases. AR tracing was possible in all cases.
In this small pilot study, the authors found that AR was implementable in the workflow of a neurosurgery OR, and was a feasible method of preoperative tumor border identification for incision planning. Future studies are needed to identify strategies to improve and optimize AR accuracy.
Simon Skyrman, Marco Lai, Erik Edström, Gustav Burström, Petter Förander, Robert Homan, Flip Kor, Ronald Holthuizen, Benno H. W. Hendriks, Oscar Persson, and Adrian Elmi-Terander
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy (deviation from the target or intended path) and efficacy (insertion time) of an augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN) system for insertion of biopsy needles and external ventricular drains (EVDs), two common neurosurgical procedures that require high precision.
The hybrid operating room–based ARSN system, comprising a robotic C-arm with intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) and integrated video tracking of the patient and instruments using nonobtrusive adhesive optical markers, was used. A 3D-printed skull phantom with a realistic gelatinous brain model containing air-filled ventricles and 2-mm spherical biopsy targets was obtained. After initial CBCT acquisition for target registration and planning, ARSN was used for 30 cranial biopsies and 10 EVD insertions. Needle positions were verified by CBCT.
The mean accuracy of the biopsy needle insertions (n = 30) was 0.8 mm ± 0.43 mm. The median path length was 39 mm (range 16–104 mm) and did not correlate to accuracy (p = 0.15). The median device insertion time was 149 seconds (range 87–233 seconds). The mean accuracy for the EVD insertions (n = 10) was 2.9 mm ± 0.8 mm at the tip with a 0.7° ± 0.5° angular deviation compared with the planned path, and the median insertion time was 188 seconds (range 135–400 seconds).
This study demonstrated that ARSN can be used for navigation of percutaneous cranial biopsies and EVDs with high accuracy and efficacy.