Browse

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 35,605 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Sulmaz Zahedi, Miles Hudson, Xin Jin, Richard Justin Garling, Jacob Gluski, Caden Nowak, Neena I. Marupudi, Paul Begeman, and Carolyn A. Harris

OBJECTIVE

This investigation is aimed at gaining a better understanding of the factors that lead to mechanical failure of shunts used for the treatment of hydrocephalus, including shunt catheter-valve disconnection and shunt catheter fracture.

METHODS

To determine the root cause of mechanical failure, the authors created a benchtop mechanical model to mimic mechanical stressors on a shunt system. To test shunt fracture, cyclical loading on the catheter-valve connection site was tested with the shunt catheter held perpendicular to the valve. Standard methods were used to secure the catheter and valves with Nurolon. These commercial systems were compared to integrated catheters and valves (manufactured as one unit). To test complete separation/disconnection of the shunt catheter and valve, a parallel displacement test was conducted using both Nurolon and silk sutures. Finally, the stiffness of the catheters was assessed. All mechanical investigations were conducted on shunts from two major shunt companies, assigned as either company A or company B.

RESULTS

Cyclical loading experiments found that shunts from company B fractured after a mean of 4936 ± 1725 cycles (95% CI 2990–6890 cycles), while those of company A had not failed after 8000 cycles. The study of parallel displacement indicated complete disconnection of company B’s shunt catheter-valve combination using Nurolon sutures after being stretched an average 32 ± 5.68 mm (95% CI 25.6–38.4 mm), whereas company A’s did not separate using either silk or Nurolon sutures. During the stiffness experiments, the catheters of company B had statistically significantly higher stiffness of 13.23 ± 0.15 N compared to those of company A, with 6.16 ± 0.29 N (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Mechanical shunt failure from shunt catheter-valve disconnection or fracture is a significant cause of shunt failure. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a correlation between shunt catheters that are less mechanically stiff and those that are less likely to disconnect from the valve when outstretched and are also less likely to tear when held at an angle from the valve outlet. The authors propose an intervention to the standard of care wherein less stiff catheters are trialed to reduce disconnection.

Restricted access

Alfio Spina, Nicola Boari, and Pietro Mortini

Restricted access

Donald K. Detchou, Gregory Glauser, Ryan Dimentberg, Eileen Maloney Wilensky, Daniel Yoshor, and Neil R. Malhotra

Restricted access

Chih-Chang Chang, Dean Chou, Brenton Pennicooke, Joshua Rivera, Lee A. Tan, Sigurd Berven, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

Potential advantages of using expandable versus static cages during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) are not fully established. The authors aimed to compare the long-term radiographic outcomes of expandable versus static TLIF cages.

METHODS

A retrospective review of 1- and 2-level TLIFs over a 10-year period with expandable and static cages was performed at the University of California, San Francisco. Patients with posterior column osteotomy (PCO) were subdivided. Fusion assessment, cage subsidence, anterior and posterior disc height, foraminal dimensions, pelvic incidence (PI), segmental lordosis (SL), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch (PI-LL), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were assessed.

RESULTS

A consecutive series of 178 patients (with a total of 210 levels) who underwent TLIF using either static (148 levels) or expandable cages (62 levels) was reviewed. The mean patient age was 60.3 ± 11.5 years and 62.8 ± 14.1 years for the static and expandable cage groups, respectively. The mean follow-up was 42.9 ± 29.4 months for the static cage group and 27.6 ± 14.1 months for the expandable cage group. Within the 1-level TLIF group, the SL and PI-LL improved with statistical significance regardless of whether PCO was performed; however, the static group with PCOs also had statistically significant improvement in LL and SVA. The expandable cage with PCO subgroup had significant improvement in SL only. All of the foraminal parameters improved with statistical significance, regardless of the type of cages used; however, the expandable cage group had greater improvement in disc height restoration. The incidence of cage subsidence was higher in the expandable group (19.7% vs 5.4%, p = 0.0017). Within the expandable group, the unilateral facetectomy-only subgroup had a 5.6 times higher subsidence rate than the PCO subgroup (26.8% vs 4.8%, p = 0.04). Four expandable cages collapsed over time.

CONCLUSIONS

Expandable TLIF cages may initially restore disc height better than static cages, but they also have higher rates of subsidence. Unilateral facetectomy alone may result in more subsidence with expandable cages than using bilateral PCO, potentially because of insufficient facet release. Although expandable cages may have more power to induce lordosis and restore disc height than static cages, subsidence and endplate violation may negate any significant gains compared to static cages.

Restricted access

Ako Matsuhashi, Keisuke Takai, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are caused by abnormalities of the spinal dura mater. Although most cases are treated conservatively or with an epidural blood patch, some intractable cases require neurosurgical treatment. However, previous reports are limited to a small number of cases. Preoperative detection and localization of spinal dural defects are difficult, and surgical repair of these defects is technically challenging. The authors present the anatomical characteristics of dural defects and surgical techniques in treating spontaneous CSF leaks.

METHODS

Among the consecutive patients who were diagnosed with spontaneous CSF leaks at the authors’ institution between 2010 and 2020, those who required neurosurgical treatment were included in the study. All patients’ clinical information, radiological studies, surgical notes, and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes of two different procedures in repairing dural defects were compared.

RESULTS

Among 77 patients diagnosed with spontaneous CSF leaks, 21 patients (15 men; mean age 57 years) underwent neurosurgery. Dural defects were detected by FIESTA MRI in 7 patients, by CT myelography in 12, by digital subtraction myelography in 1, and by dynamic CT myelography in 1. The spinal levels of the defects were localized at the cervicothoracic junction in 16 patients (76%) and thoracolumbar junction in 4 (19%). Intraoperative findings revealed that the dural defects were small, circumscribed longitudinal slits located at the ventral aspect of the dura mater. The median dural defect size was 5 × 2 mm. The presence of dural defects at the thoracolumbar junction was associated with manifestation of an altered mental status, which was an unusual manifestation of CSF leaks (p = 0.003). Eight patients were treated via the posterior transdural approach with watertight primary sutures of the ventral defects, and 13 were treated with muscle or fat grafting. Regardless of the two different procedures, postoperative MRI showed either complete disappearance or significant reduction of the extradural CSF collection. No patient experienced postoperative neurological deficits. Clinical symptoms improved or stabilized in 20 patients with a median follow-up of 12 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Dural defects in spontaneous CSF leaks were small, circumscribed longitudinal slits located ventral to the spinal cord at either the cervicothoracic or thoracolumbar junction. Muscle/fat grafting may be an alternative treatment to watertight primary sutures of ventral dural defects with a good outcome.

Open access

Keisuke Takai, Toshiki Endo, Takao Yasuhara, Toshitaka Seki, Kei Watanabe, Yuki Tanaka, Ryu Kurokawa, Hideaki Kanaya, Fumiaki Honda, Takashi Itabashi, Osamu Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Murata, Takahiro Tanaka, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshihiro Takami, Yusuke Watanabe, Takeo Nishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Tatsuya Ohtonari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Seishi Matsui, Hisaaki Uchikado, Gohsuke Hattori, Hitoshi Yamahata, and Makoto Taniguchi

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of the present study was to compare the treatment success rates of primary neurosurgical and endovascular treatments in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs).

METHODS

Data from 199 consecutive patients with thoracic and lumbosacral spinal dAVFs were collected from 18 centers. Angiographic and clinical findings, the rate of initial treatment failure or recurrence by procedures, risk factors for treatment failure, complications, and neurological outcomes were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS

Spinal dAVFs were frequently detected in the thoracic region (81%), fed by a single feeder (86%), and shunted into an intradural vein via the dura mater. The fistulous connection between the feeder(s) and intradural vein was located at a single spinal level in 195 patients (98%) and at 2 independent levels in 4 patients (2%). Among the neurosurgical (n = 145), and endovascular (n = 50) treatment groups of single dAVFs (n = 195), the rate of initial treatment failure or recurrence was significantly higher in the index endovascular treatment group (0.68% and 36%). A multivariate analysis identified endovascular treatment as an independent risk factor with significantly higher odds of initial treatment failure or recurrence (OR 69; 95% CI 8.7–546). The rate of complications did not significantly differ between the two treatment groups (4.1% for neurosurgical vs 4.0% for endovascular treatment). With a median follow-up of 26 months, improvements of ≥ 1 point in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and Aminoff-Logue gait and Aminoff-Logue micturition grades were observed in 111 (56%), 121 (61%), and 79 (40%) patients, respectively. Independent risk factors for lack of improvement in the Aminoff-Logue gait grades were multiple treatments due to initial treatment failure or recurrence (OR 3.1) and symptom duration (OR 1.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on data obtained from the largest and most recently assessed multicenter cohort, the present study shows that primary neurosurgery is superior to endovascular treatment for the complete obliteration of spinal dAVFs by a single procedure.

Restricted access

Kenya Miyoshi, Tsukasa Wada, Ikuko Uwano, Makoto Sasaki, Hiroaki Saura, Shunrou Fujiwara, Fumiaki Takahashi, Eiki Tsushima, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

OBJECTIVE

The consistency of meningiomas is a critical factor affecting the difficulty of resection, operative complications, and operative time. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and is calculated using two optimized b values. While the results of comparisons between the standard ADC and the consistency of meningiomas vary, the shifted ADC has been reported to be strongly correlated with liver stiffness. The purpose of the present prospective cohort study was to determine whether preoperative standard and shifted ADC maps predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

METHODS

Standard (b values 0 and 1000 sec/mm2) and shifted (b values 200 and 1500 sec/mm2) ADC maps were calculated using preoperative DWI in patients undergoing resection of intracranial meningiomas. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed within the tumor on standard and shifted ADC maps and registered on the navigation system. Tumor tissue located at the registered ROI was resected through craniotomy, and its stiffness was measured using a durometer. The cutoff point lying closest to the upper left corner of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined for the detection of tumor stiffness such that an ultrasonic aspirator or scissors was always required for resection. Each tumor tissue sample with stiffness greater than or equal to or less than this cutoff point was defined as hard or soft tumor, respectively.

RESULTS

For 76 ROIs obtained from 25 patients studied, significant negative correlations were observed between stiffness and the standard ADC (ρ = −0.465, p < 0.01) and the shifted ADC (ρ = −0.490, p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve for detecting hard tumor (stiffness ≥ 20.8 kPa) did not differ between the standard ADC (0.820) and the shifted ADC (0.847) (p = 0.39). The positive predictive value (PPV) for the combination of a low standard ADC and a low shifted ADC for detecting hard tumor was 89%. The PPV for the combination of a high standard ADC and a high shifted ADC for detecting soft tumor (stiffness < 20.8 kPa) was 81%.

CONCLUSIONS

A combination of standard and shifted ADC maps derived from preoperative DWI can be used to predict the consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

Restricted access

Mostafa Shahein, Daniel M. Prevedello, Thomas L. Beaumont, Khalid Ismail, Radwan Nouby, Marilly Palettas, Luciano M. Prevedello, Bradley A. Otto, and Ricardo L. Carrau

OBJECTIVE

The use of endoscope-integrated indocyanine green (E-ICG) has recently been introduced in skull base surgery. The quantitative correlation between E-ICG and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced (T1WGd) images for skull base tumors has not been previously assessed, to the authors’ knowledge. In this study, the authors investigated the indications for use and the limitations of E-ICG and sought to correlate the endoscopic fluorescence pattern with MRI contrast enhancement.

METHODS

Following IRB approval, 20 patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery between June 2017 and August 2018 were enrolled in the study. Tumor fluorescence was measured using a blue color value and blood fluorescence as a control. Signal intensities (SIs) of tumor T1WGd images were measured and the internal carotid artery (ICA) SI was used as a control. For pituitary adenoma, the pituitary gland fluorescence was also measured. The relationships between ICG fluorescence and MRI enhancement measurements were analyzed.

RESULTS

Data showed that in pituitary adenoma there was a strong correlation between the ratios of gland/blood fluorescence to gland/ICA SI (n = 8; r = 0.92; p = 0.001) and tumor/blood fluorescence to tumor/ICA SI (n = 9; r = 0.82; p = 0.006). In other pathologies there was a strong correlation between the ratios of tumor/blood fluorescence and tumor/ICA SI (n = 9; r = 0.74; p = 0.022). The ICG fluorescence allowed perfusion assessment of the pituitary gland as well as of the nasoseptal flaps. Visualization of the surrounding vasculature was also feasible.

CONCLUSIONS

Defining the indications and understanding the limitations are critical for the effective use of E-ICG. Tumor fluorescence seems to correlate with preoperative MRI contrast enhancement.