Browse

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 36,058 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Open access

David S. Hersh, William A. Lambert, Markus J. Bookland, and Jonathan E. Martin

Surgical options for metopic craniosynostosis include the traditional open approach or a minimally invasive approach that typically involves an endoscopy-assisted strip craniectomy. The minimally invasive approach has been associated with less blood loss and operative time, a lower transfusion rate, and a shorter length of stay. Additionally, it is more cost-effective than open reconstruction, despite the need for a postoperative cranial orthosis and multiple follow-up visits. The authors describe a variation of the minimally invasive approach using a lighted retractor to perform a strip craniectomy of the metopic suture in a 2-month-old patient with metopic craniosynostosis.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/511237503.

Open access

Masahiro Kameda, Eijiro Tokuyama, Takaya Senoo, and Isao Date

The multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO) procedure, which uses an external distraction device, enables tailor-made distraction in an arbitrary direction, eliminating the disadvantage of unidirectional distraction with an internal distraction device. Multiple-suture synostosis cases for syndromic craniosynostosis patients are better indicated for this procedure. Here the authors describe seven cases in which the MCDO procedure was used to treat syndromic craniosynostosis. In each case, the MCDO procedure and postoperative distraction, with reference to midsagittal vector analysis of normal morphology in Japanese children, resulted in morphological improvement.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/519006555

Free access

Nicole Frank, Joerg Beinemann, Florian M. Thieringer, Benito K. Benitez, Christoph Kunz, Raphael Guzman, and Jehuda Soleman

OBJECTIVE

The main indication for craniofacial remodeling of craniosynostosis is to correct the deformity, but potential increased intracranial pressure resulting in neurocognitive damage and neuropsychological disadvantages cannot be neglected. The relapse rate after fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) seems to be high; however, to date, objective measurement techniques do not exist. The aim of this study was to quantify the outcome of FOA using computer-assisted design (CAD) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) to create individualized 3D-printed templates for correction of craniosynostosis, using postoperative 3D photographic head and face surface scans during follow-up.

METHODS

The authors included all patients who underwent FOA between 2014 and 2020 with individualized, CAD/CAM-based, 3D-printed templates and received postoperative 3D photographic face and head scans at follow-up. Since 2016, the authors have routinely planned an additional “overcorrection” of 3 mm to the CAD-based FOA correction of the affected side(s). The virtually planned supraorbital angle for FOA correction was compared with the postoperative supraorbital angle measured on postoperative 3D photographic head and face surface scans. The primary outcome was the delta between the planned CAD/CAM FOA correction and that achieved based on 3D photographs. Secondary outcomes included outcomes with and those without “overcorrection,” time of surgery, blood loss, and morbidity.

RESULTS

Short-term follow-up (mean 9 months after surgery; 14 patients) showed a delta of 12° between the planned and achieved supraorbital angle. Long-term follow-up (mean 23 months; 8 patients) showed stagnant supraorbital angles without a significant increase in relapse. Postsurgical supraorbital angles after an additionally planned overcorrection (of 3 mm) of the affected side showed a mean delta of 11° versus 14° without overcorrection. The perioperative and postoperative complication rates of the whole cohort (n = 36) were very low, and the mean (SD) intraoperative blood loss was 128 (60) ml with a mean (SD) transfused red blood cell volume of 133 (67) ml.

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative measurement of the applied FOA on 3D photographs is a feasible and objective method for assessment of surgical results. The delta between the FOA correction planned with CAD/CAM and the achieved correction can be analyzed on postoperative 3D photographs. In the future, calculation of the amount of “overcorrection” needed to avoid relapse of the affected side(s) after FOA may be possible with the aid of these techniques.

Open access

Edward R. Bader, Adam Ammar, Adisson N. Fortunel, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Oren Tepper, and Andrew J. Kobets

Here the authors demonstrate open craniofacial reconstruction for the correction of craniosynostosis, using techniques refined by Dr. James T. Goodrich at Montefiore Medical Center. They present the operative management of a case of unilateral coronal synostosis in a 12-month-old child, who presented with right forehead prominence and calvarial asymmetry. The patient had an excellent correction of her head shape with an uneventful postoperative course. This video highlights the authors’ multidisciplinary approach to complete cranial vault remodeling, utilizing a Marchac bandeau construct and split calvarial graft mosaic technique.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/519489422.

Free access

David C. Lobb, Smruti K. Patel, Brian S. Pan, and Jesse Skoch

OBJECTIVE

Patients presenting with head shape changes phenotypical for craniosynostosis may have incomplete fusion of the involved sutures. The surgical literature is lacking in appropriate management strategies for these patients. In this paper, the authors evaluate their experience with a novel treatment strategy: suturectomy of only the fused portion followed by helmeting therapy in patients with skull deformity secondary to incomplete suture synostosis.

METHODS

Patients with craniosynostosis with incomplete suture fusion requiring operative intervention between 2018 and 2020 were included for evaluation. Patients were selected for partial suturectomy if the patent portion of the suture had a normal appearance. All patients underwent craniectomy of the involved portion of the synostosed suture. Intraoperative ultrasound was used to reassess the degree of fusion at the time of surgery and incision planning. A 2- to 3-cm strip craniectomy was performed under direct visualization through a single minimal access incision. Postoperative helmeting was utilized for all patients. Demographic and perioperative data were collected, including laser scan data in the form of cranial index (CI) and cranial vault asymmetry (CVA), defined as the difference between two diagonal measurements, from the frontozygomaticus to the opposite eurion.

RESULTS

Four males and 1 female with a mean age of 2.8 months (range 1.1–3.9 months) at presentation were included. All patients had incomplete sagittal synostosis (one patient also had an incomplete left lambdoid synostosis and another had an incomplete left coronal synostosis). The mean age at surgery was 3.5 months (range 2.0–4.7 months) without any major complications. All patients were compliant with postoperative helmeting. The average age at the last follow-up was 12.8 months (range 5.3–23.7 months) with a mean follow-up duration of 9.3 months (range 0.5–19.6 months). Final laser scan evaluations were available for 3 patients and showed an improvement of the CI from an average of 71.3 (range 70–73) to 84.3 (range 82–86). The CVA improved from an average of 9.67 mm (range 2–22 mm) to 1.67 mm (range 1–2 mm).

CONCLUSIONS

Minimally invasive direct excision of the involved portion of fused cranial sutures followed by helmet therapy for phenotypical craniosynostosis is a safe and effective treatment strategy. This technique is suitable for very young patients and appears to offer similar outcomes to complete suturectomy. Further studies are required to see if this approach reduces the deformity severity for patients requiring vault remodeling later in life.

Free access

Matthias Schulz, Linda Liebe-Püschel, Karl Seelbach, Laura Paulikat, Felix Fehlhaber, Karin Schwarz, Christoph Blecher, and Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale

OBJECTIVE

Surgical correction for sagittal and metopic craniosynostosis (SCS and MCS) aims to alter the abnormal cranial shape to resemble that of the normal population. The achieved correction can be assessed by morphometric parameters. The purpose of the presented study was to compare craniometric parameters of control groups to those same parameters after endoscopic and conventional (open) correction.

METHODS

The authors identified 4 groups of children undergoing surgical treatment for either SCS or MCS, with either endoscopic (SCS, n = 17; MCS, n = 16) or conventional (SCS, n = 29; MCS, n = 18) correction. In addition, normal control groups of nonaffected children who were 6 (n = 30) and 24 (n = 18) months old were evaluated. For all groups, several craniometric indices calculated from 3D photographs were compared for quantitative analysis. For qualitative comparison, averages of all 3D photographs were generated for all groups and superimposed to visualize relative changes.

RESULTS

For children with SCS, the cephalic index and coronal circumference index significantly differed preoperatively from those of the 6-month normal controls. The respective postoperative values were similar to those of the 24-month normal controls after both endoscopic and conventional correction. Similarly, for children with MCS, indices for circumference and diagonal dimension that were significantly different preoperatively became nonsignificantly different from those of 24-month normal controls after both endoscopic and conventional correction. The qualitative evaluation of superimposed average 3D head shapes confirmed changes toward normal controls after both treatment modalities for SCS and MCS. However, in SCS, the volume gain, especially in the biparietal area, was more noticeable after endoscopic correction, while in MCS, relative volume gain of the bilateral forehead was more pronounced after conventional correction. The average 3D head shapes matched more homogeneously with the average of normal controls after endoscopic correction for SCS and after conventional correction for MCS.

CONCLUSIONS

This quantitative analysis confirms that the performed surgical techniques of endoscopic and conventional correction of SCS and MCS alter the head shape toward those of normal controls. However, in a qualitative evaluation, the average head shape after endoscopic technique for SCS and conventional correction for MCS appears to be closer to that of normal controls than after the alternative technique. This study reports on morphometric outcomes after craniosynostosis correction. Only an assessment of the whole multiplicity of outcome parameters based on multicenter data acquisition will allow conclusions of superiority of one surgical technique.

Open access

Giselle Coelho, Eduardo Vieira, Jose Hinojosa, and Hans Delye

Craniosynostosis is a premature fusion of cranial sutures, and it requires surgery to decrease cranial pressure and remodel the affected areas. However, mastering these procedures requires years of supervised training. Several neurosurgical training simulators have been created to shorten the learning curve. Laboratory training is fundamental for acquiring familiarity with the necessary techniques and skills to properly handle instruments. This video presents a novel simulator for training on the endoscopic treatment for scaphocephaly and trigonocephaly, covering all aspects of the procedure, from patient positioning to performing osteotomies.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/512526147.

Open access

Christopher L. Kalmar, Jordan W. Swanson, Sameer Shakir, Alexander M. Tucker, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Scott P. Bartlett, Jesse A. Taylor, and Shih-Shan Lang

Cranial spring hardware is generally removed 3 months after placement for spring-mediated cranioplasty. Spring removal is performed as an outpatient procedure under general anesthesia in approximately 15 minutes through the incision locations of the index procedure. Herein, the authors provide a multimedia demonstration of cranial spring hardware removal after spring-mediated cranioplasty for sagittal craniosynostosis.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/511179695

Open access

Alvin Wong, Arvin R. Wali, Bryan Ryba, Mihir Gupta, Michael L. Levy, and Amanda A. Gosman

Unicoronal craniosynostosis is notoriously difficult to treat, with long-term studies demonstrating high rates of relapse and the need for reoperation using open fronto-orbital advancement. Applying the principles of distraction osteogenesis to cranial vault remodeling has demonstrated promising short-term results that compare favorably with traditional methods, with simultaneous correction of both frontofacial and endocranial morphology, along with significant increases in intracranial volume. Here, the authors demonstrate their technique for rotation flap distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of unicoronal synostosis and provide case examples.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/519505008.

Open access

Catherine Y. Wang, Alisha R. Bonaroti, Brandon A. Miller, and James Liau

Sagittal craniosynostosis, the most common form of craniosynostosis, affects 1 per 1000 live births. The main surgical treatments include endoscopic suturectomy and open cranial vault remodeling. This video describes an open reconstruction method, including strip resection of the sagittal suture, biparietal craniotomies with spiral cut cranioplasty, and barrel staves of the posterior occiput. Ideally used between 4 and 15 months of age, this approach takes advantage of the flexibility of the cranial bones to expand, allowing for immediate and long-term increases of the parietal width and correction of cosmetic deformity, without necessitating the use of cranial molding devices postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/516699203