Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 36,435 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Andrew Hersh, Robert Young, Zach Pennington, Jeff Ehresman, Andy Ding, Srujan Kopparapu, Ethan Cottrill, Daniel M. Sciubba, and Nicholas Theodore

OBJECTIVE

Currently, no consensus exists as to whether patients who develop infection of the surgical site after undergoing instrumented fusion should have their implants removed at the time of wound debridement. Instrumentation removal may eliminate a potential infection nidus, but removal may also destabilize the patient’s spine. The authors sought to summarize the existing evidence by systematically reviewing published studies that compare outcomes between patients undergoing wound washout and instrumentation removal with outcomes of patients undergoing wound washout alone. The primary objectives were to determine 1) whether instrumentation removal from an infected wound facilitates infection clearance and lowers morbidity, and 2) whether the chronicity of the underlying infection affects the decision to remove instrumentation.

METHODS

PRISMA guidelines were used to review the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to identify studies that compared patients with implants removed and patients with implants retained. Outcomes of interest included mortality, rate of repeat wound washout, and loss of correction.

RESULTS

Fifteen articles were included. Of 878 patients examined in these studies, 292 (33%) had instrumentation removed. Patient populations were highly heterogeneous, and outcome data were limited. Available data suggested that rates of reoperation, pseudarthrosis, and death were higher in patients who underwent instrumentation removal at the time of initial washout. Three studies recommended that instrumentation be uniformly removed at the time of wound washout. Five studies favored retaining the original instrumentation. Six studies favored retention in early infections but removal in late infections.

CONCLUSIONS

The data on this topic remain heterogeneous and low in quality. Retention may be preferred in the setting of early infection, when the risk of underlying spine instability is still high and the risk of mature biofilm formation on the implants is low. However, late infections likely favor instrumentation removal. Higher-quality evidence from large, multicenter, prospective studies is needed to reach generalizable conclusions capable of guiding clinical practice.

Restricted access

Richard G. Fessler, Charles Y. Liu, Stephen McKenna, R. David Fessler, Jane S. Lebkowski, Catherine A. Priest, and Edward D. Wirth III

OBJECTIVE

This study was conducted as a final proof-of-safety direct injection of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells into the uninjured spinal cord prior to translation to the human clinical trials.

METHODS

In this study, 107 oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (LCTOPC1, also known as AST-OPC1 and GRNOPC1) in 50-μL suspension were injected directly into the uninjured spinal cords of 8 immunosuppressed Göttingen minipigs using a specially designed stereotactic delivery device. Four additional Göttingen minipigs were given Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution and acted as the control group.

RESULTS

Cell survival and no evidence of histological damage, abnormal inflammation, microbiological or immunological abnormalities, tumor formation, or unexpected morbidity or mortality were demonstrated.

CONCLUSIONS

These data strongly support the safety of intraparenchymal injection of LCTOPC1 into the spinal cord using a model anatomically similar to that of the human spinal cord. Furthermore, this research provides guidance for future clinical interventions, including mechanisms for precise positioning and anticipated volumes of biological payloads that can be safely delivered directly into uninjured portions of the spinal cord.

Restricted access

Tomohiro Banno, Yu Yamato, Hiroki Oba, Tetsuro Ohba, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Go Yoshida, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara, Hiroki Ushirozako, Jun Takahashi, Hirotaka Haro, and Yukihiro Matsuyama

OBJECTIVE

L3 is most often selected as the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) to conserve mobile segments in fusion surgery; however, in cases with the lowest end vertebra (LEV) at L4, LIV selection as L3 could have a potential risk of correction loss and coronal decompensation. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes depending on the LEV in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with Lenke type 5C curves.

METHODS

Data from 49 AIS patients with Lenke type 5C curves who underwent selective thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) fusion to L3 as the LIV were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were classified according to their LEVs into L3 and L4 groups. In the L4 group, subanalysis was performed according to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) level toward the upper end vertebra (UEV and 1 level above the UEV [UEV+1] subgroups). Radiographic parameters and clinical outcomes were compared between these groups.

RESULTS

Among 49 patients, 32 and 17 were in the L3 and L4 groups, respectively. The L4 group showed a lower TL/L curve correction rate and a higher subjacent disc angle postoperatively than the L3 group. Although no intergroup difference was observed in coronal balance (CB), the L4 group showed a significantly higher main thoracic (MT) and TL/L curve progression during the postoperative follow-up period than the L3 group. In the L4 group, the UEV+1 subgroup showed a higher absolute value of CB at 2 years than the UEV subgroup.

CONCLUSIONS

In Lenke type 5C AIS patients with posterior selective TL/L fusion to L3 as the LIV, patients with their LEVs at L4 showed postoperative MT and TL/L curve progression; however, no significant differences were observed in global alignment and clinical outcome.

Restricted access

Kee-Yong Ha, Eung-Ha Kim, Young-Hoon Kim, Hae-Dong Jang, Hyung-Youl Park, Chang-Hee Cho, Ryu-Kyoung Cho, and Sang-Il Kim

OBJECTIVE

The most catastrophic symptom of proximal junctional failure (PJF) following long instrumented fusion surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is neurological deficits. Although previous reports have shown that PJF usually developed during the early postoperative period, some patients showed late neurological deficits. The aim of this study was to report the incidence, characteristics, and surgical outcomes of PJF with late neurological deficits.

METHODS

Patients surgically treated for ASD at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, the patients requiring revision surgery for newly developed neurological deficits at least 6 months after the initial surgery were included. Patient demographic, radiographic, surgical, and clinical data were investigated. Neurological status was assessed using the Frankel grading system.

RESULTS

PJF with late neurological deficits developed in 18 of 385 patients (4.7%). The mean age at the onset of neurological deficits was 72.0 ± 6.0 years, and the median time from the initial surgery was 4.5 years. The most common pathology of PJF was adjacent disc degeneration and subsequent canal stenosis (11 patients). Five patients showed disc degeneration with aseptic bone destruction. Fractures at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), UIV + 1, and UIV + 2 occurred in 2, 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Ossification of the yellow ligament, which had not been found at the first surgery, was identified in 6 patients. Eight patients showed improvement of their neurological deficits and 10 patients showed no improvement by the final follow-up. Perioperative major complications occurred in 8 of 18 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of PJF with late neurological deficits following ASD surgery was 4.7% in this cohort. The patients showed several morphological features. After revision surgery, perioperative complications were common and the prognosis for improved neurological status was not favorable.

Open access

Reinier Alvarez, Rupesh Kotecha, Michael W. McDermott, and Vitaly Siomin

BACKGROUND

Providing the standard of care to patients with glioblastoma (GBM) during the novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge, particularly if a patient tests positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Further difficulties occur in eloquent cortex tumors because awake speech mapping can theoretically aerosolize viral particles and expose staff. Moreover, microscopic neurosurgery has become difficult because the use of airborne-level personal protective equipment (PPE) crowds the space between the surgeon and the eyepiece. However, delivering substandard care will inevitably lead to disease progression and poor outcomes.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old man with a left insular and frontal operculum GBM was found to be COVID-19 positive. Treatment was postponed pending a negative SARS-CoV-2 result, but in the interim, he developed intratumoral hemorrhage with progressive expressive aphasia. Because the tumor was causing dominant hemisphere language symptomatology, an awake craniotomy was the recommended surgical approach. With the use of airborne-level PPE and a surgical drape to protect the surgeon from the direction of potential aerosolization, near-total gross resection was achieved.

LESSONS

Delaying the treatment of patients with GBM who test positive for COVID-19 will lead to further neurological deterioration. Optimal and timely treatment such as awake speech mapping for COVID-19–positive patients with GBM can be provided safely.

Open access

J. Manuel Sarmiento, Daniel Chang, Peyton L. Nisson, Julie L. Chan, and Tiffany G. Perry

BACKGROUND

Patients who survive traumatic atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) may present with normal neurological examinations and near-normal-appearing diagnostic images, such as cervical radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors described a neurologically intact 64-year-old female patient with a degenerative autofusion of her right C4–5 facet joints who presented to their center after a motor vehicle collision. Prevertebral soft tissue swelling and craniocervical subarachnoid hemorrhage prompted awareness and consideration for traumatic AOD. An abnormal occipital condyle–C1 interval (4.67 mm) on CT and craniocervical junction ligamentous injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the diagnosis of AOD. Her autofused right C4–5 facet joints were incorporated into the occipitocervical fusion construct.

LESSONS

Traumatic AOD can be easily overlooked in patients with a normal neurological examination and no associated upper cervical spine fractures. A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating CT scans because normal values for craniocervical parameters are significantly different from the accepted ranges of normal on radiographs in the adult population. MRI of the cervical spine is helpful to evaluate for atlanto-occipital ligamentous injury and confirm the diagnosis. Occipitocervical fusion construct may need to be extended to incorporate spinal levels with degenerative autofusion to prevent adjacent level degeneration.

Open access

Nyomi R. Washington, John L. Kiley, Hans Bakken, and Ryan Morton

BACKGROUND

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) is a rare and aggressive high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of blood-filled or empty cystic spaces resembling aneurysmal bone cysts. Uncommonly, TOSs can occur in the skull base.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a TOS that presented as a petrocavernous carotid pseudoaneurysm and then masqueraded as an intracranial abscess. The prognosis for TOSs with intracranial involvement is typically unfavorable and inversely related to the degree of intracranial involvement.

LESSONS

Skull-based malignancies should be part of the differential diagnosis for a rapidly progressing lesion. Recovery of polymicrobial organisms during endoscopic sinus surgery should prompt reconsideration of the differential diagnosis. Postinflammatory changes from endovascular coiling have been described and can confound imaging and clinical findings.

Open access

Kazuma Shinno, Yoshiki Arakawa, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Yukinori Terada, Masahiro Tanji, Yohei Mineharu, Takayuki Kikuchi, Hironori Haga, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

Papillary glioneuronal tumors (PGNTs) are classified as a type of World Health Organization grade I mixed neuronal-glial tumor. Most PGNTs involve cystic formations with mural nodules and solid components in the cerebral hemispheres, and PGNTs occur mainly in young adults. The long-term prognosis of PGNTs remains unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 38-year-old male had been diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst associated with epilepsy in a local hospital. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed the tumor as a heterogeneously enhanced nodule in the left postcentral gyrus. Subsequent MRI studies showed slow growth of the tumor for 26 years. He underwent gross total resection to control his epilepsy. The histopathological findings revealed pseudopapillary structures involving hyalinized blood vessels with a single or pseudostratified layer of cuboidal glial cells with round nuclei and scant cytoplasm. At the periphery of the lesion, Rosenthal fibers and acidophilic granule bodies were observed in the gliotic brain tissue. Immunohistochemically, some interpapillary cells were positive for NeuN. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a PGNT.

LESSONS

This PGNT showed slow growth for 26 years. When recognizing a slowly growing tumor in the cerebral hemispheres of relatively young people that is associated with epileptic seizures, PGNT should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

Open access

Siyuan Yu, Michael Karsy, Jeffrey Miller, Stephanie R. Beldick, Mark T. Curtis, Marc Rosen, and James J. Evans

BACKGROUND

Cushing’s disease (CD) remains a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. This case study highlights the challenges of diagnosing CD when faced with discrepant clinical, biochemical, and radiological findings.

OBSERVATIONS

A 62-year-old man presented with rapid evolution of symptoms, including depression, fatigue, and extreme muscle atrophy, which resulted in the patient being a wheelchair user over the course of a few months. His rapid clinical course in conjunction with hypercortisolemia in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma involving the cavernous sinus, two large pulmonary nodules, and urine-free cortisol levels in the thousands suggested an aggressive ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) source. After extensive testing ruled out CD from an ectopic source and because of the patient’s abrupt clinical deterioration, the authors concluded that the source was likely an aggressive pituitary adenoma. Therefore, the authors performed an endonasal transsphenoidal approach for resection of the pituitary adenoma involving the cavernous sinus, and the patient was scheduled for radiosurgery to control tumor progression.

LESSONS

Although extremely high levels of cortisol and ACTH are associated with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, they may also indicate an aggressive form of CD. Suspicion should be maintained for hypercortisolemia from a pituitary source even when faced with discrepant information that may suggest an ectopic source.

Open access

Matthew Triano, Islam Fayed, and Faheem A. Sandhu

BACKGROUND

Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction can lead to significant pain and disability, greatly impairing quality of life. Arthrodesis may take up to 1 year to occur, after which revision can be considered. There is a need for highly accurate and reproducible techniques for revision that allow for purchase through undisturbed bone to prevent prolonged pain and disability. Moreover, a minimally invasive technique for revision would be favorable for recovery, particularly in elderly patients.

OBSERVATIONS

An 84-year-old man with a prior history of lumbar fusion presented with severe buttock pain limiting ambulation and sitting because of the failure of arthrodesis after SIJ fusion 1 year earlier. He underwent revision using a triangular titanium implant (TTI) in an S2-alar-iliac (S2-AI) trajectory under robotic guidance, which is a novel technique not yet described in the literature. The patient’s pain largely resolved, he was able to ambulate independently, and his quality of life improved tremendously. There were no complications of surgery.

LESSONS

Placement of a TTI using an S2-AI trajectory is a safe and effective method for revision that can be considered for elderly patients. Robot-assisted navigation can be used to facilitate an accurate and reproducible approach using a minimally invasive approach.