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Open access

Marwah A. Elsehety, Hussein A. Zeineddine, Andrew D. Barreto, and Spiros L. Blackburn

BACKGROUND

Large pituitary adenomas can rarely cause compression of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) due to chronic tumor compression or invasion. Here, the authors present a case of pituitary apoplexy causing acute bilateral ICA occlusion with resultant stroke. Our middle-aged patient presented with sudden vision loss and experienced rapid deterioration requiring intubation. Computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large pituitary mass causing severe stenosis of the bilateral ICAs. CT perfusion revealed a significant perfusion delay in the anterior circulation. The patient was taken for cerebral angiography, and balloon angioplasty was attempted with no improvement in arterial flow. Resection of the tumor was then performed, with successful restoration of blood flow. Despite restoration of luminal patency, the patient experienced bilateral ICA infarcts.

OBSERVATIONS

Pituitary apoplexy can present as an acute stroke due to flow-limiting carotid compression. Balloon angioplasty is ineffective for the treatment of this type of compression. Surgical removal of the tumor restores the flow and luminal caliber of the ICA.

LESSONS

Pituitary apoplexy can be a rare presentation of acute stroke and should be managed with immediate surgical decompression rather than attempted angioplasty in order to restore blood flow and prevent the development of cerebral ischemia.

Open access

Robert T. Chung, Julio D. Montejo, Darcy A. Kerr, and Jennifer Hong

BACKGROUND

Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (JPOF) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion that only rarely presents in the calvaria.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported a case of JPOF in the left parietal bone of a 20-year-old patient and reviewed the 27 other cases of JPOF occurring in the calvaria as reported in the literature.

LESSONS

JPOF rarely presents in the calvaria, and because diagnosis is a histopathologic one, clinicians should consider this entity when presented with a lytic, expansile mass on imaging. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving development of JPOF. MDM2 amplification may play a role, although this was not seen in the case presented herein.

Open access

Hannah K. Weiss, Donato R. Pacione, Steven Galetta, and Douglas Kondziolka

BACKGROUND

Disruptions of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in the nondominant temporal lobe can lead to the rare but significant higher visual-processing disturbance of prosopagnosia. Here, the authors describe a 57-year-old right hand-dominant female with a large breast cancer brain metastasis in the right temporal lobe who underwent resection and subsequent Gamma Knife radiosurgery. She presented with difficulty with facial recognition, but following surgical intervention, the prosopagnosia became more profound.

OBSERVATIONS

Even in nondominant cortex, significant deficits can arise when operating near higher visual-processing centers, including the ILF.

LESSONS

This case highlights the utility of imaging-based tractography obtained from preoperative imaging for resective surgical planning even when operating in areas that do not involve what is traditionally considered elegant areas of the brain. To optimize neurological outcomes in metastatic tumor resection, awareness and diffusion tensor imaging of neighboring, displaced white matter tracts may prevent permanent deficits in higher visual processing.

Open access

Jacob S. Young, Ramin A. Morshed, John P. Andrews, Soonmee Cha, and Mitchel S. Berger

BACKGROUND

Prosopagnosia is a rare neurological condition characterized by the impairment of face perception with preserved visual processing and cognitive functioning and is associated with injury to the fusiform gyrus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Reports of this clinical impairment following resection of right temporal lobe diffuse gliomas in the absence of contralateral injury are exceedingly scarce and not expected as a complication of surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe the case of a young female patient found to have an incidental diffuse glioma in the right inferior temporal lobe despite evidence of preoperative ILF disruption by the tumor. Following resection of the lesion, despite the preoperative disruption to the ILF by the tumor, the patient developed prosopagnosia. There was no evidence of contralateral, left-sided ILF injury.

LESSONS

Given the significant functional impairment associated with prosopagnosia, neurosurgeons should be aware of the exceedingly rare possibility of a visual-processing deficit following unilateral and, in this case, right-sided inferior temporal lobe glioma resections. More investigation is needed to determine whether preoperative testing can determine dominance of facial-processing networks for patients with lesions in the right inferior posterior temporooccipital lobe and whether intraoperative mapping could help prevent this complication.

Open access

Yusuke Ikeuchi, Noriaki Ashida, Masamitsu Nishihara, and Kohkichi Hosoda

BACKGROUND

Limb-shaking transient ischemic attacks (LS-TIAs) are a rare form of TIAs that present as involuntary movements of the limbs and indicate severe cerebral hypoperfusion. LS-TIAs are often reported in patients with carotid artery stenosis but can also affect patients with intracranial artery stenosis and moyamoya disease (MMD).

OBSERVATIONS

A 72-year-old woman presented with repeated episodes of involuntary shaking movements of the right upper limb. Cerebral angiography revealed complete occlusion of the M1 segment of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA), and the left hemisphere was supplied by moyamoya vessels. She was treated with left direct revascularization without complications, and her involuntary movements subsided. However, she demonstrated involuntary shaking movements of the right lower limb 2 months postoperatively. Cerebral angiography revealed complete occlusion of the A1 segment of the left anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The multiple burr hole opening (MBHO) procedure was performed to improve perfusion in the left ACA territory and after 3 months, the patient’s symptoms resolved.

LESSONS

This case demonstrated that LS-TIAs can also develop as ischemic symptoms due to MMD. Moreover, instances of LS-TIA of the upper and lower limbs developed separately in the same patient. The patient’s symptoms improved with direct revascularization and MBHO.

Open access

Christopher H. F. Sum, Lai-Fung Li, Benedict B. T. Taw, Wai-Man Lui, Ko-Yung Sit, Velda L. Y. Chow, and Yat-Wa Wong

BACKGROUND

Surgical treatment of intrathoracic meningoceles, commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), aims to reduce sac size for symptomatic relief. The procedures can be divided into cerebrospinal fluid diversion and definitive repair. The authors describe the management of an intrathoracic meningocele in a 56-year-old female with preexisting NF1.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with progressive dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left hemithoracic meningocele arising from the thecal sac at C7–T2. Two attempts at diversion by cystoperitoneal shunts resulted in recurrence. For definitive repair, T2–3 costotransversectomy was performed, and intradural closure of the meningocele opening was performed utilizing spinal dura and autologous fascia lata graft. Trapezius muscle regional flap was turned for reinforcement. Persistent leak warranted reoperation 7 days later. A transthoracic approach was undertaken using video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of the sac at aortic arch level, with reinforcement by latissimus dorsi flap and synthetic materials. Mechanical pleurodesis was performed. Intradural repair of the meningocele opening was revised.

LESSONS

Inherent dural abnormality makes repair difficult for meningoceles associated with NF1. A combined intradural and thoracoscopic approach with regional muscle flap and synthetic material reinforcement is a unique method for definitive treatment. Some essential points of perioperative management are highlighted.

Open access

Kishan S. Shah and Christopher M. Uchiyama

BACKGROUND

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) has been well characterized as a distinct entity but also in tandem with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in noncontiguous spinal regions. The majority of OLF cases are reported from East Asian countries where prevalent, but such cases are rarely reported in the North American population.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a Thai-Cambodian American who presented with symptomatic thoracic OLF in tandem with asymptomatic cervical OPLL. A “floating” thoracic laminectomy, resection of OLF, and partial dural ossification (DO) resection with circumferential release of ossified dura were performed. Radiographic dural reexpansion and spinal cord decompression occurred despite the immediate intraoperative appearance of persistent thecal sac compression from retained DO.

LESSONS

Entire spinal axis imaging should be considered for patients with spinal ligamentous ossification disease, particularly in those of East Asian backgrounds. A floating laminectomy is one of several surgical approaches for OLF, but no consensus approach has been clearly established. High surgical complication rates are associated with thoracic OLF, most commonly dural tears/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. DO commonly coexists with OLF, is recognizable on computed tomographic scans, and increases the risk of CSF leaks.

Restricted access

Christopher T. Martin, David W. Polly Jr., Kenneth J. Holton, Jose E. San Miguel-Ruiz, Melissa Albersheim, Paul Lender, Jonathan N. Sembrano, Matthew A. Hunt, and Kristen E. Jones

OBJECTIVE

Pelvic fixation with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws is an established technique in adult deformity surgery. The authors’ objective was to report the incidence and risk factors for an underreported acute failure mechanism of S2AI screws.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of ambulatory adults with fusions extending 3 or more levels, and which included S2AI screws. Acute failure of S2AI screws was defined as occurring within 6 months of the index surgery and requiring surgical revision.

RESULTS

Failure occurred in 6 of 125 patients (5%) and consisted of either slippage of the rods or displacement of the set screws from the S2AI tulip head, with resultant kyphotic fracture. All failures occurred within 6 weeks postoperatively. Revision with a minimum of 4 rods connecting to 4 pelvic fixation points was successful. Two of 3 (66%) patients whose revision had less fixation sustained a second failure. Patients who experienced failure were younger (56.5 years vs 65 years, p = 0.03). The magnitude of surgical correction was higher in the failure cohort (number of levels fused, change in lumbar lordosis, change in T1–pelvic angle, and change in coronal C7 vertical axis, each p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, younger patient age and change in lumbar lordosis were independently associated with increased failure risk (p < 0.05 for each). There was a trend toward the presence of a transitional S1–2 disc being a risk factor (OR 8.8, 95% CI 0.93–82.6). Failure incidence was the same across implant manufacturers (p = 0.3).

CONCLUSIONS

All failures involved large-magnitude correction and resulted from stresses that exceeded the failure loads of the set plugs in the S2AI tulip, with resultant rod displacement and kyphotic fractures. Patients with large corrections may benefit from 4 total S2AI screws at the time of the index surgery, particularly if a transitional segment is present. Salvage with a minimum of 4 rods and 4 pelvic fixation points can be successful.

Restricted access

Florence R. A. Hogg, Siobhan Kearney, Eskinder Solomon, Mathew J. Gallagher, Argyro Zoumprouli, Marios C. Papadopoulos, and Samira Saadoun

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to investigate the effect of acute, severe traumatic spinal cord injury on the urinary bladder and the hypothesis that increasing the spinal cord perfusion pressure improves bladder function.

METHODS

In 13 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grades A–C), a pressure probe and a microdialysis catheter were placed intradurally at the injury site. We varied the spinal cord perfusion pressure and performed filling cystometry. Patients were followed up for 12 months on average.

RESULTS

The 13 patients had 63 fill cycles; 38 cycles had unfavorable urodynamics, i.e., dangerously low compliance (< 20 mL/cmH2O), detrusor overactivity, or dangerously high end-fill pressure (> 40 cmH2O). Unfavorable urodynamics correlated with periods of injury site hypoperfusion (spinal cord perfusion pressure < 60 mm Hg), hyperperfusion (spinal cord perfusion pressure > 100 mm Hg), tissue glucose < 3 mM, and tissue lactate to pyruvate ratio > 30. Increasing spinal cord perfusion pressure from 67.0 ± 2.3 mm Hg (average ± SE) to 92.1 ± 3.0 mm Hg significantly reduced, from 534 to 365 mL, the median bladder volume at which the desire to void was first experienced. All patients with dangerously low average initial bladder compliance (< 20 mL/cmH2O) maintained low compliance at follow-up, whereas all patients with high average initial bladder compliance (> 100 mL/cmH2O) maintained high compliance at follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

We conclude that unfavorable urodynamics develop within days of traumatic spinal cord injury, thus challenging the prevailing notion that the detrusor is initially acontractile. Urodynamic studies performed acutely identify patients with dangerously low bladder compliance likely to benefit from early intervention. At this early stage, bladder function is dynamic and is influenced by fluctuations in the physiology and metabolism at the injury site; therefore, optimizing spinal cord perfusion is likely to improve urological outcome in patients with acute severe traumatic spinal cord injury.

Restricted access

Hai V. Le, Joseph B. Wick, Renaud Lafage, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Robert K. Eastlack, Shay Bess, Douglas C. Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Justin S. Smith, Peter G. Passias, Munish C. Gupta, Virginie Lafage, Eric O. Klineberg, and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to determine whether preoperative lateral extension cervical spine radiography can be used to predict osteotomy type and postoperative alignment parameters after cervical spine deformity surgery.

METHODS

A total of 106 patients with cervical spine deformity were reviewed. Radiographic parameters on preoperative cervical neutral and extension lateral radiography were compared with 3-month postoperative radiographic alignment parameters. The parameters included T1 slope, C2 slope, C2–7 cervical lordosis, cervical sagittal vertical axis, and T1 slope minus cervical lordosis. Associations of radiographic parameters with osteotomy type and surgical approach were also assessed.

RESULTS

On extension lateral radiography, patients who underwent lower grade osteotomy had significantly lower T1 slope, T1 slope minus cervical lordosis, cervical sagittal vertical axis, and C2 slope. Patients who achieved more normal parameters on extension lateral radiography were more likely to undergo surgery via an anterior approach. Although baseline parameters were significantly different between neutral lateral and extension lateral radiographs, 3-month postoperative lateral and preoperative extension lateral radiographs were statistically similar for T1 slope minus cervical lordosis and C2 slope.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiographic parameters on preoperative extension lateral radiography were significantly associated with surgical approach and osteotomy grade and were similar to those on 3-month postoperative lateral radiography. These results demonstrated that extension lateral radiography is useful for preoperative planning and predicting postoperative alignment.