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Open access

Monika M. Połczyńska, Lilian Beck, Taylor Kuhn, Christopher F. Benjamin, Timothy K. Ly, Kevin Japardi, Lucia Cavanagh, and Susan Y. Bookheimer

OBJECTIVE

Brain tumors located close to the language cortex may distort functional MRI (fMRI)–based estimates of language dominance. The nature of this distortion, and whether this is an artifact of numerous confounders, remains unknown. The authors hypothesized tumor bias based on laterality estimates independent of confounders and that the effects are the greatest for tumors proximal to Broca's area.

METHODS

To answer this question, the authors reviewed more than 1113 patients who underwent preoperative fMRI to match samples on 11 known confounders (tumor location, size, type, and grade; seizure history; prior neurosurgery; aphasia presence and severity; and patient age, sex, and handedness). The samples included 30 patients with left hemisphere tumors (15 anterior and 15 posterior) and 30 with right hemisphere tumors (15 anterior and 15 posterior), thus totaling 60 patients (25 women; 18 left-handed and 4 ambidextrous; mean age 47 [SD 14.1] years). Importantly, the authors matched not only patients with left and right hemisphere tumors but also those with anterior and posterior tumors. Standard fMRI laterality indices (LIs) were calculated using whole-brain and region of interest (ROI) approaches (Broca's and Wernicke's areas).

RESULTS

Tumors close to Broca's area in the left hemisphere decreased LIs independently of known confounders. At the whole-brain level, this appeared to reflect a decrease in LI values in patients with left anterior tumors compared with patients with right anterior tumors. ROI analysis replicated these findings. Broca's area LIs were significantly lower (p = 0.02) in patients with left anterior tumors (mean LI 0.28) when compared with patients with right anterior tumors (mean LI 0.70). Changes in Wernicke's area–based LIs did not differ as a function of the tumor hemisphere. Therefore, in patients with left anterior tumors, it is essential to assess language laterality using left posterior ROIs. In all remaining tumor groups (left posterior tumors and right hemisphere tumors), language laterality derived from the anterior language ROI was the most robust measure of language dominance.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with tumors close to Broca's area showed more bilateral fMRI language maps independent of known confounders. The authors caution against the assumption that this reduced language laterality suggests no or little risk to language function following tumor resection in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Their results address how to interpret fMRI data for neurosurgical purposes, along with theoretical questions of contralesional functional compensation and disinhibition.

Free access

Pierre-Aurélien Beuriat, Alexandru Szathmari, Julie Chauvel-Picard, Arnaud Gleizal, Christian Paulus, Carmine Mottolese, and Federico Di Rocco

OBJECTIVE

Different types of surgical procedures are utilized to treat craniosynostosis. In most procedures, the fused suture is removed. There are only a few reports on the evolution of sutures after surgical correction of craniosynostosis. To date, no published study describes neosuture formation after total cranial vault remodeling. The objective of this study was to understand the evolution of the cranial bones in the area of coronal and lambdoid sutures that were removed for complete vault remodeling in patients with sagittal craniosynostosis. In particular, the investigation aimed to confirm the possibility of neosuture formation.

METHODS

CT images of the skulls of children who underwent operations for scaphocephaly at the Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon University Hospital, Lyon, France, from 2004 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of isolated sagittal synostosis, age between 4 and 18 months at surgery, and availability of reliable postoperative CT images obtained at a minimum of 1 year after surgical correction. Twenty-six boys and 11 girls were included, with a mean age at surgery of 231.6 days (range 126–449 days). The mean interval between total vault reconstruction and CT scanning was 5.3 years (range 1.1–12.2 years).

RESULTS

Despite the removal of both the coronal and lambdoid sutures, neosutures were detected on the 3D reconstructions. All combinations of neosuture formation were seen: visible lambdoid and coronal neosutures (n = 20); visible lambdoid neosutures with frontoparietal bony fusion (n = 12); frontoparietal and parietooccipital bony fusion (n = 3); and visible coronal neosutures with parietooccipital bony fusion (n = 2).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to report the postoperative skull response after the removal of normal patent sutures following total vault remodeling in patients with isolated sagittal synostosis. The reappearance of a neosuture is rather common, but its incidence depends on the type of suture. The outcome of the suture differs with the incidence of neosuture formation between these transverse sutures. This might imply genetic and functional differences among cranial sutures, which still have to be elucidated.

Free access

Alexander T. Wilson, Linda Gaillard, Sarah L. Versnel, Jochem K. H. Spoor, Marie-Lise C. van Veelen, and Irene M. J. Mathijssen

The aim of this study was to report on a single center’s experience with spring-assisted cranial vault expansion (SAE) in patients with Crouzon syndrome and sagittal suture synostosis. Strip craniotomy with SAE has resulted in successful outcomes with low complication and revision rates in patients with isolated scaphocephaly. However, recent experience suggests that outcomes in patients with Crouzon syndrome and sagittal synostosis (SS) who undergo SAE are less favorable compared with the outcomes of those who undergo frontobiparietal (FBP) expansion. The authors reviewed both operations performed at a single center and noticed an upward expansion of the skull, which may be related to ventriculomegaly, with concurrent intracranial hypertension and poor aesthetic outcome. All patients diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome and SS who were treated with SAE required a revision FBP operation. Based on this outcome, the authors consider Crouzon syndrome a contraindication for correcting SS with springs.

Open access

Phuong D. Nguyen, Ahmed Belal, George N. Washington, Matthew R. Greives, David I. Sandberg, Stephen A. Fletcher, and Manish N. Shah

Unicoronal craniosynostosis correction with fronto-orbital advancement and cranial vault remodeling has traditionally been the gold standard. Distraction osteogenesis has the advantage of increased size of movement without constriction of the scalp and decreased morbidity. Although fronto-orbital advancement and cranial vault remodeling are usually performed at 6 months of age or later, distraction osteogenesis is performed at a younger age, between 3 and 6 months, to take advantage of the infant bony physiology. Herein, the authors demonstrate a case of distraction osteogenesis for unicoronal craniosynostosis in a 3-month-old female with significant improvement of her orbital, nasal, and frontal symmetry.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/519047922

Open access

Michael M. McDowell, Robert Kellogg, Jesse A. Goldstein, and Taylor J. Abel

Endoscopic suturectomy combined with supplementary techniques such as spring-assisted expansion and cranial molding helmets for the correction of craniosynostosis is growing in popularity due to the reduced scar burdened, decreased morbidity, and reduced overall cost. The authors present their technique for the correction of isolated coronal craniosynostosis. The use of dedicated endoscopic tools and lit endoscopes permits enhanced visualization and technical ability, particularly at the distal portions of the suturectomy, and may reduce operative time and cerebrospinal fluid leak risk.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/515401366.

Open access

Matthew D. Smyth and Kamlesh B. Patel

The craniofacial team at St. Louis Children's Hospital has been performing endoscopy-assisted synostosis surgery since 2006. Most infants with single-suture synostosis younger than 6 months of age are candidates. The sphinx position is used, with two incisions: one posterior to the bregma and one anterior to the lambda. The endoscope is incorporated primarily for epidural dissection and bone edge cauterization. Blood products are available but rarely needed with single suturectomies. Patients are managed on the floor after surgery and discharged to home on postoperative day 1, with helmet therapy coordinated and initiated immediately after surgery and continued until about 12 months of age.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/513939623

Open access

Yasser Jeelani and Mark R. Proctor

Endoscopic surgery for single-suture synostosis has been widely adopted since its introduction over 2 decades ago. Its role in syndromic synostosis is emerging, both as a primary treatment and as the first stage in a multimodal treatment paradigm aimed at preventing the vexing turribrachycephaly seen in these children. In this video, the authors review the technique for endoscopic treatment of bilateral coronal craniosynostosis and discuss both the benefits and some of the concerns to look out for over time. They also review the long-term outcomes in a consecutive series of patients treated in this fashion.

The video can be found here: https://vimeo.com/516351348.