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Josh Neman, Meredith Franklin, Zachary Madaj, Krutika Deshpande, Timothy J. Triche Jr., Gal Sadlik, John D Carmichael, Eric Chang, Cheng Yu, Ben A Strickland, and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Brain metastasis is the most common intracranial neoplasm. Although anatomical spatial distributions of brain metastasis may vary according to primary cancer subtype, these patterns are not understood and may have major implications for treatment.

METHODS

To test the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of brain metastasis varies according to cancer origin in nonrandom patterns, the authors leveraged spatial 3D coordinate data derived from stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedures performed to treat 2106 brain metastases arising from 5 common cancer types (melanoma, lung, breast, renal, and colorectal). Two predictive topographic models (regional brain metastasis echelon model [RBMEM] and brain region susceptibility model [BRSM]) were developed and independently validated.

RESULTS

RBMEM assessed the hierarchical distribution of brain metastasis to specific brain regions relative to other primary cancers and showed that distinct regions were relatively susceptible to metastasis, as follows: bilateral temporal/parietal and left frontal lobes were susceptible to lung cancer; right frontal and occipital lobes to melanoma; cerebellum to breast cancer; and brainstem to renal cell carcinoma. BRSM provided probability estimates for each cancer subtype, independent of other subtypes, to metastasize to brain regions, as follows: lung cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bilateral temporal lobes; breast cancer to right cerebellar hemisphere; melanoma to left temporal lobe; renal cell carcinoma to brainstem; and colon cancer to right cerebellar hemisphere. Patient topographic data further revealed that brain metastasis demonstrated distinct spatial patterns when stratified by patient age and tumor volume.

CONCLUSIONS

These data support the hypothesis that there is a nonuniform spatial distribution of brain metastasis to preferential brain regions that varies according to cancer subtype in patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. These topographic patterns may be indicative of the abilities of various cancers to adapt to regional neural microenvironments, facilitate colonization, and establish metastasis. Although the brain microenvironment likely modulates selective seeding of metastasis, it remains unknown how the anatomical spatial distribution of brain metastasis varies according to primary cancer subtype and contributes to diagnosis. For the first time, the authors have presented two predictive models to show that brain metastasis, depending on its origin, in fact demonstrates distinct geographic spread within the central nervous system. These findings could be used as a predictive diagnostic tool and could also potentially result in future translational and therapeutic work to disrupt growth of brain metastasis on the basis of anatomical region.

Open access

Yoshiteru Shimoda, Shinya Sonobe, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Toshiki Endo, Hidenori Endo, Mayuko Otomo, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal arteriovenous shunt between an artery and a vein, which often leads to venous congestion in the central nervous system. The blood flow near the fistula is different from normal artery flow. A novel method to detect the abnormal shunting flow or pressure near the fistula is needed.

OBSERVATIONS

A 76-year-old woman presented to the authors’ institute with progressive right upper limb weakness. Right vertebral angiography showed a fistula between the right extracranial vertebral artery (VA) and the right vertebral venous plexus at the C7 level. The patient underwent endovascular treatment for shunt flow reduction. Before the procedure, blood pressures were measured at the proximal VA, distal VA near the fistula, and just at the fistula and drainer using a microcatheter. The blood pressure waveforms were characteristically different in terms of resistance index, half-decay time, and appearance of dicrotic notch. The fistula was embolized with coils and N-butyl cyanoacrylate solution.

LESSONS

During endovascular treatment, the authors were able to digitally record the vascular pressure waveform from the tip of the microcatheter and succeeded in calculating several parameters that characterize the shunting flow. Furthermore, these parameters could help recognize the abnormal blood flow, allowing a safer endovascular surgery.

Open access

Sadahiro Nomura, Takao Inoue, Hirochika Imoto, Hirokazu Sadahiro, Kazutaka Sugimoto, Yuichi Maruta, Hideyuki Ishihara, and Michiyasu Suzuki

BACKGROUND

Functional mapping in awake craniotomy has the potential risk of electrical stimulation-related seizure. The authors have developed a novel mapping technique using a brain-cooling device. The cooling probe is cylindrical in shape with a thermoelectric cooling plate (10 × 10 mm) at the bottom. A proportional integration and differentiation-controlled system adjusts the temperature accurately (Japan patent no. P5688666). The authors used it in two patients with glioblastoma. Broca’s area was identified by electrical stimulation, and then the cooling probe set at 5°C was attempted on it.

OBSERVATIONS

Electrocorticogram was suppressed, and the temperature dropped to 8°C in 50 sec. A positive aphasic reaction was reproduced on Broca’s area at a latency of 7 sec. A negative reaction appeared on the adjacent cortices despite the temperature decrease. The sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 100%, respectively. No seizures or other adverse events related to the cooling were recognized, and no histological damage to the cooled cortex was observed.

LESSONS

The cooling probe suppressed topographical brain function selectively and reversibly. Awake functional mapping based on thermal neuromodulation technology could substitute or compensate for the conventional electrical mapping.

Open access

Stacey Podkovik, Jonathon Cavaleri, Carli Bullis, and Susan Durham

BACKGROUND

Intracranial subdural hematomas (SDHs) due to intracranial hypotension after pediatric spine surgeries are an uncommon pathology. Such findings have typically been associated with intraoperative durotomies that are complicated by a subsequent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient is a 17-year-old boy with a complex past medical history who received an uncomplicated S1–2 laminectomy for repair of his closed neural tube defect (CNTD), cord untethering, and resection of a lipomatous malformation. He returned to the hospital with consistent headaches and a 2-day history of intermittent left-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated multiple subdural collections without a surgical site pseudomeningocele.

LESSONS

The case was unique because there have been no documented cases of acute intracranial SDH after CNTD repair. There was no CSF leak, and spine imaging did not demonstrate any evidence of pseudomeningocele. The authors believed that intraoperative CSF loss may have created enough volume depletion to cause tearing of bridging veins. In younger adolescents, it is possible that an even smaller volume may cause similar effects. Additionally, the authors’ case involved resection of the lipomatous malformation and an expansile duraplasty. Hypothetically, both can increase the lumbar cisternal compartment, which can collect a larger amount of CSF with gravity, despite no pseudomeningocele being present.

Open access

Takayuki Ito, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Shimei Tanida, Takeshi Okamoto, and Shuichi Matsuda

BACKGROUND

Pelvic deformity after resection of malignant pelvic tumors causes scoliosis. Although the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) is often used to evaluate the coronal alignment and determine the treatment strategy for scoliosis, it is not clear whether the CSVL is a suitable coronal reference axis in cases with pelvic deformity. This report proposes a new coronal reference axis for use in cases with pelvic deformity and discusses the pathologies of spinal deformity remaining after revision surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

A 14-year-old boy who had undergone internal hemipelvectomy and pelvic ring reconstruction 2 years prior was referred to our hospital with severe back pain. His physical and radiographic examinations revealed severe scoliosis with pelvic deformity. The authors planned a surgical strategy based on the CSVL and performed pelvic ring reconstruction using free vascularized fibula graft and spinopelvic fixation from L5 to the pelvis. After the procedure, although the patient’s back pain was relieved, his scoliosis persisted. At the latest follow-up, his spinal deformity correction was acceptable with corset bracing. Therefore, the authors did not perform additional surgeries.

LESSONS

The CSVL may not be appropriate for evaluating coronal alignment in cases with pelvic deformity. Accurate preoperative planning is required to correct spinal deformities with pelvic deformity.

Open access

Jake Jasinski, Doris Tong, Connor Hanson, and Teck Soo

BACKGROUND

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and its connective tissue laxity often result in high-grade lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Patients present with debilitating symptoms and neurological deficits. Reports of surgical techniques in non-EDS patients for the treatment of high-grade lumbosacral spondylolisthesis mainly described an open approach, multilevel fusions, and multiple stages with different circumferential approaches. Sagittal adjusting screws (SASs) can be used in a minimally invasive (MI) fashion, allowing intraoperative reduction.

OBSERVATIONS

A 17-year-old female with EDS presented to the authors’ institute with severe lower back and left L5 radicular pain in 2017. She presented with a left foot drop and difficulty ambulating. Magnetic resonance imaging showed grade IV L5–S1 spondylolisthesis. She underwent lumbar fusion for intractable back pain with radiculopathy. Intraoperatively, percutaneous SASs and extension towers were used to distract the L5–S1 disc space and reduce the spondylolisthesis. MI transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion was completed with significant symptomatic relief postoperatively. The patient was discharged to home 3 days postoperatively. Routine follow-up visits up to 3 years later demonstrated solid fusion radiographically and favorable patient-reported outcomes.

LESSONS

The authors used SASs in a MI approach to successfully correct and stabilize grade IV spondylolisthesis in an EDS patient with a favorable long-term patient-reported outcome.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Amber Valeri, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Alexander M. Tucker, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Benjamin W. Kozyak, Anjuli Sinha, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (CHD) in pediatric patients with Glenn and Fontan physiology represents a unique physiology requiring the surgical diversion of the systemic venous return from the superior vena cava (Glenn) and then the inferior vena cava (Fontan) directly to the pulmonary arteries. Because many of these patients are on chronic anticoagulation therapy and may have right-to-left shunts, arrhythmias, or lymphatic disorders that predispose them to bleeding and/or clotting, they are at risk of experiencing neurological injury requiring intubation and positive pressure ventilation, which can significantly hamper pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output. The aim of this study was to describe the complex neurological and cardiopulmonary interactions of these pediatric patients after acute central nervous system (CNS) injury.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of pediatric patients who had been admitted to a quaternary children’s hospital with CHD palliated to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) or Fontan circulation and acute CNS injury and who had undergone intubation and mechanical ventilation. Patients who had been admitted from 2005 to 2019 were included in the study. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, cardiovascular and pulmonary data, and intracranial pressure data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

Nine pediatric single-ventricle patients met the study inclusion criteria. All had undergone the BDG procedure, and the majority (78%) were status post Fontan palliation. The mean age was 7.4 years (range 1.3–17.3 years). At the time of acute CNS injury, which included traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral infarct, the median time interval from the most recent cardiac surgical procedure was 3 years (range 2 weeks–11 years). Maintaining normocarbia to mild hypercarbia for most patients during intubation periods did not cause neurological deterioration, and hemodynamic profiles were more favorable as compared to periods of hypocarbia. Hypocarbia was associated with unfavorable hemodynamics but was necessary to decrease intracranial hypertension. Most patients were managed using low mean airway pressure (MAWP) in order to minimize the impact on preload and cardiac output.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors highlight the complex neurological and cardiopulmonary interactions with respect to partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and MAWP when pediatric CHD patients with single-ventricle physiology require mechanical ventilation. The study data demonstrated that tight control of PaCO2 and minimizing MAWP with the goal of early extubation may be beneficial in this population. A multidisciplinary team of pediatric critical care intensivists, cardiac intensivists and anesthesiologists, and pediatric neurosurgeons and neurologists are recommended to ensure the best possible outcomes.

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Aymeric Amelot, Maximilien Riche, Samuel Latreille, Vincent Degos, Alexandre Carpentier, Bertrand Mathon, and Anne-Marie Korinek

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to evaluate the roles of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in noninstrumented spine surgery (NISS), both in postoperative infections and the impact on the selection of resistant bacteria. To the authors’ knowledge, only one prospective study recommending preoperative intravenous (IV) antibiotics for prophylaxis has been published previously.

METHODS

Two successive prospective IV antibiotic prophylaxis protocols were used: from 2011 to 2013 (group A: no prophylactic antibiotic) and from 2014 to 2016 (group B: prophylactic cefazolin). Patient infection rates, infection risk factors, and bacteriological status were determined.

RESULTS

In total, 2250 patients (1031 in group A and 1219 in group B) were followed for at least 1 year. The authors identified 72 surgical site infections, 51 in group A (4.9%) and 21 in group B (1.7%) (p < 0.0001). A multiple logistic regression hazard model identified male sex (HR 2.028, 95% CI 1.173–3.509; p = 0.011), cervical laminectomy (HR 2.078, 95% CI 1.147–3.762; p = 0.016), and postoperative CSF leak (HR 43.782, 95% CI 10.9–189.9; p < 0.0001) as independent predictive risk factors of infection. In addition, preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis was the only independent favorable factor (HR 0.283, 95% CI 0.164–0.488; p < 0.0001) that significantly reduced infections for NISS. Of 97 bacterial infections, cefazolin-resistant bacteria were identified in 26 (26.8%), with significantly more in group B (40%) than in group A (20.9%) (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

A single dose of preoperative cefazolin is effective and mandatory in preventing surgical site infections in NISS. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis has an immediate impact on cutaneous flora by increasing cefazolin-resistant bacteria.

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Masahiro Funaba, Yasuaki Imajo, Hidenori Suzuki, Norihiro Nishida, Yuji Nagao, Takuya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Fujimoto, and Takashi Sakai

OBJECTIVE

Neurological and imaging findings play significant roles in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). Consistency between neurological and imaging findings is important for diagnosing DCM. The reasons why neurological findings exhibit varying sensitivity for DCM and their associations with radiological findings are unclear. This study aimed to identify associations between radiological parameters and neurological findings in DCM and elucidate the utility of concordance between imaging and neurological findings for diagnosing DCM.

METHODS

One hundred twenty-one patients with DCM were enrolled. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, radiological parameters, MRI and kinematic CT myelography (CTM) parameters, and the affected spinal level (according to multimodal spinal cord evoked potential examinations) were assessed. Kinematic CTM was conducted with neutral positioning or at maximal extension or flexion of the cervical spine. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the spinal cord, dynamic change in the CSA, C2–7 range of motion, and C2–7 angle were measured. The associations between radiological parameters and hyperreflexia, the Hoffmann reflex, the Babinski sign, and positional sense were analyzed via multiple logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

In univariate analyses, the upper- and lower-limb JOA scores were found to be significantly associated with a positive Hoffmann reflex and a positive Babinski sign, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a positive Hoffmann reflex was associated with a higher MRI grade (p = 0.026, OR 2.23) and a responsible level other than C6–7 (p = 0.0017, OR 0.061). A small CSA during flexion was found to be significantly associated with a positive Babinski sign (p = 0.021, OR 0.90). The presence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (p = 0.0045, OR 0.31) and a larger C2–7 angle during flexion (p = 0.01, OR 0.89) were significantly associated with abnormal great toe proprioception (GTP).

CONCLUSIONS

This study found that the Hoffmann reflex is associated with chronic and severe spinal cord compression but not the dynamic factors. The Babinski sign is associated with severe spinal cord compression during neck flexion. The GTP is associated with large cervical lordosis. These imaging features can help us understand the characteristics of the neurological findings.

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Steven J. Schiff, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Edith Mbabazi-Kabachelor, John Mugamba, Peter Ssenyonga, Ruth Donnelly, Jody Levenbach, Vishal Monga, Mallory Peterson, Venkateswararao Cherukuri, and Benjamin C. Warf

OBJECTIVE

Hydrocephalus in infants, particularly that with a postinfectious etiology, is a major public health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors of this study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of infant postinfectious hydrocephalus in Uganda results in sustained, long-term brain growth and improved cognitive outcome.

METHODS

The authors performed a trial at a single center in Mbale, Uganda, involving infants (age < 180 days old) with postinfectious hydrocephalus randomized to endoscopic third ventriculostomy plus choroid plexus cauterization (ETV+CPC; n = 51) or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS; n = 49). After 2 years, they assessed developmental outcome with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-III), and brain volume (raw and normalized for age and sex) with CT scans.

RESULTS

Eighty-nine infants were assessed for 2-year outcome. There were no significant differences between the two surgical treatment arms in terms of BSID-III cognitive score (p = 0.17) or brain volume (p = 0.36), so they were analyzed together. Raw brain volumes increased between baseline and 2 years (p < 0.001), but this increase occurred almost exclusively in the 1st year (p < 0.001). The fraction of patients with a normal brain volume increased from 15.2% at baseline to 50.0% at 1 year but then declined to 17.8% at 2 years. Substantial normalized brain volume loss was seen in 21.3% patients between baseline and year 2 and in 76.7% between years 1 and 2. The extent of brain growth in the 1st year was not associated with the extent of brain volume changes in the 2nd year. There were significant positive correlations between 2-year brain volume and all BSID-III scores and BSID-III changes from baseline.

CONCLUSIONS

In Sub-Saharan Africa, even after successful surgical treatment of infant postinfectious hydrocephalus, early posttreatment brain growth stagnates in the 2nd year. While the reasons for this finding are unclear, it further emphasizes the importance of primary infection prevention and mitigation strategies along with optimizing the child’s environment to maximize brain growth potential.