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Open access

Mikiko Takahashi, Yusuke Tomita, Shoko Merrit Yamada, Kazuto Yamazaki, Hideaki Yokoo, Tatsuya Aso, and Masashi Kawamoto

BACKGROUND

Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M-mutant is a distinct subtype of glial tumors newly introduced in the revised fourth edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. They are aggressive pediatric tumors with a poor prognosis but have also been reported in adults.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a man in his 60s who presented with rotatory vertigo, taste disorder, and right facial paralysis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor expanding from the cerebellum to the pons, which was histologically identified as glioblastoma, grade IV, IDH wild type. After tumor resection, the patient received chemoradiotherapy but showed only a partial response. His condition gradually worsened, and he died of progressive disease 12 months postoperation, after which an autopsy was performed. Tumor cells with a high nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio were immunohistochemically analyzed and found to test positive for H3 K27M and negative for H3 K27me3. Furthermore, mutational analysis revealed HIST1H3B K27M mutation, and the tumor was finally identified as a high-grade glioma H3 K27M-mutant. The tumor invaded widely along the cerebral ventricle and disseminated to the spinal cord.

LESSONS

When a glioblastoma shows localization or dissemination patterns different from those of typical glioblastoma, an H3 K27M-mutant glioma should be suspected.

Open access

Giuseppe Talamonti, Erika Ferrari, and Giuseppe D’Aliberti

BACKGROUND

Classic treatment of Chiari malformation type 1 consists of foramen magnum decompression. Selected patients may require occipitocervical fixation, transoral odontoidectomy, tonsillectomy, and so forth. Treatment standardization does not yet exist, and some patients risk being overtreated.

OBSERVATIONS

A 20-year-old man with headache and Chiari malformation type 1 underwent extradural bone decompression. One year later, he was managed with the extradural section of his filum terminale. Eighteen months later, the patient underwent monitoring of intracranial pressure, occipitocervical stabilization, transoral odontoidectomy, minimally invasive subpial tonsillectomy, and occipital cranioplasty. His headache never changed, and he progressively developed hemiparesis and swallowing and respiratory disturbances. Two years later, a new magnetic resonance imaging scan showed extended syringomyelia with scarce peritonsillar subarachnoid space. The umpteenth operation consisted of the removal of a constricting epidural scar, arachnoid dissection, total tonsillectomy, creation of a wide subarachnoid space, and dural sac augmentation. The patient’s initial postoperative course was smooth, and his headache improved. However, 8 days after surgery, the patient acutely presented with vegetative disturbances and died because of malignant brainstem edema of unknown origin.

LESSONS

The story of this patient is not so uncommon. He underwent all the possible surgical treatments rather than a timely adequate osteodural decompression. Probably, he received less with more.

Open access

Melissa M. J. Chua, Stanley F. Bazarek, David M. Meredith, Liangge Hsu, and Stephen C. Saris

BACKGROUND

Chondromas are benign cartilaginous tumors that are rarely seen in the brain.

OBSERVATIONS

A 58-year-old woman had undergone routine brain imaging after a motor vehicle accident and was incidentally found to have a right falcine lesion. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging showed a mostly nonenhancing mass with discontinuous rim enhancement. She was taken to the operating room and pathology revealed a chondroma.

LESSONS

Falcine intracranial chondromas are rare and typically misdiagnosed as meningiomas. Chondromas should be in the differential for patients presenting with nonenhancing falcine lesions.

Open access

Vit Kotheeranurak, Phattareeya Pholprajug, Guang-Xun Lin, Pritsanai Pruttikul, Wicharn Yingsakmongkol, Tawechai Tejapongvorachai, and Jin-Sung Kim

BACKGROUND

This study aimed to describe the least invasive surgical technique of endoscopic decompression for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and to review the literature available on the diagnosis and treatment of OLF.

OBSERVATIONS

The mean age of the patients was 51.2 (range, 40–62) years, and the mean preoperative, 2-week postoperative, and last follow-up modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores were 6.6 (range, 4–10), 9.6 (range, 7–11), and 13 (range, 10–14), respectively. All patients were discharged within 48 hours after the surgery. The mean follow-up period was 13.2 (range, 7–18) months. No complication was found perioperatively, and none of the patients had postoperative instability during the follow-up period.

LESSONS

Based on this clinical case series and literature review, the authors conclude that endoscopic decompression surgery is feasible and effective for managing thoracic myelopathy caused by OLF while minimizing surrounding tissue damage. Additionally, it enables shorter periods of hospital stay.

Open access

Leonidas Trakolis, Georgios Naros, Vassilios Vougioukas, and Marcos Tatagiba

BACKGROUND

Herpes is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in the young population. Herpes meningitis following brain surgery is very rare, however. Only a few cases are reported in the literature, and only one concerned an infection after vestibular schwannoma surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a 44-year-old patient who developed severe herpes meningitis a few days after removal of a large cystic vestibular schwannoma.

LESSONS

Herpes simplex virus meningitis following a posterior fossa surgery must be considered when patients develop atypical symptoms a few days after surgery.

Open access

Jamieson Glasser and Ryan Glasser

BACKGROUND

Multiple myeloma (MM) has the propensity to spread to vertebral bodies; however, extramedullary plasmacytomas involving the central nervous system are extremely rare.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the first intradural extramedullary plasmacytoma in the lumbar region of the spine in a patient with preexisting MM. They present a 50-year-old female with severe back and radicular pain and progressive neurological deficit.

LESSONS

MM is typically treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, in this unique case, resection proved to be a key part of treatment.

Open access

Nathan J. Pertsch, Owen P. Leary, Joaquin Q. Camara-Quintana, David D. Liu, Tianyi Niu, Albert S. Woo, Thomas T. Ng, Adetokunbo A. Oyelese, Jared S. Fridley, and Ziya L. Gokaslan

BACKGROUND

Cervicothoracic junction chordomas are uncommon primary spinal tumors optimally treated with en bloc resection. Although en bloc resection is the gold standard for treatment of mobile spinal chordoma, tumor location, size, and extent of involvement frequently complicate the achievement of negative margins. In particular, chordoma involving the thoracic region can require a challenging anterior access, and en bloc resection can lead to a highly destabilized spine.

OBSERVATIONS

Modern technological advances make en bloc resection more technically feasible than ever before. In this case, the successful en bloc resection of a particularly complex cervicothoracic junction chordoma was facilitated by a multidisciplinary surgical approach that maximized the use of intraoperative computed tomography–guided spinal navigation and patient-specific three-dimensional–printed modeling.

LESSONS

The authors review the surgical planning and specific techniques that facilitated the successful en bloc resection of this right-sided chordoma via image-guided parasagittal osteotomy across 2 stages. The integration of emerging visualization technologies into complex spinal column tumor management may help to provide optimal oncological care for patients with challenging primary tumors of the mobile spine.

Open access

Kerrin S. Sunshine, Theresa A. Elder, and Krystal L. Tomei

BACKGROUND

The complex Chiari malformation has been identified in a subset of Chiari patients at higher risk for worsening symptoms following Chiari decompression. Although parameters such as the clivoaxial angle and the perpendicular distance of the dens to the line from the basion to the inferoposterior part of the C2 body (pBC2) have been evaluated to help with the prediction of risk, the decision to pursue an occipitocervical fusion in lower-risk patients does not come without inherent risk.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present 2 patients who had symptoms of worsening ventral brainstem compression following Chiari decompression, neither of whom was categorized in the highest risk category for occipitocervical instability. In addition, neither patient had gross instability on radiographic imaging. A trial with rigid C-collar immobilization provided relief of symptoms in both patients and allowed reassurance of the likelihood of success of occipitocervical fusion.

LESSONS

In patients without clear radiographic instability following Chiari decompression, a C-collar trial may provide a noninvasive option for assessing the potential success of occipitocervical fusion.

Open access

David Fustero de Miguel, Laura Beatriz López López, Amanda Avedillo Ruidíaz, Javier Orduna Martínez, Juan Casado Pellejero, and Jesús Adrián Moles Herbera

BACKGROUND

One of the most feared and dangerous scenarios that can appear during an endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) is the iatrogenic injury of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Several methods, along with a variety of outcomes, have been described to deal with this complication. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a Yasargil-type aneurysm clip to solve an ICA injury, preserving the artery’s patency and having a long-term follow-up. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of other vessel preservation techniques compared with clipping.

OBSERVATIONS

A visually impaired 56-year-old woman was diagnosed with a giant nonfunctional pituitary tumor that invaded the sphenoidal sinus, anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells, and both cavernous sinuses, with suprasellar extension and optochiasmatic compression. The patient underwent EES, and during the final resection phase her left ICA was injured, with massive hemorrhage.

LESSONS

ICA injury during endoscopic skull base surgery carries high mortality and morbidity; it is essential to maintain carotid flow when possible to avoid short-term and long-term consequences. There are several techniques depicted in the literature to deal with this situation. The authors report the use of a Yasargil mini-clip to deal with the injury for a positive outcome: primary hemostasis, vessel preservation, and no postoperative complications.

Restricted access

Weihong Yuan, Charles B. Stevenson, Mekibib Altaye, Blaise V. Jones, James Leach, Mykhailo Lovha, Noa Rennert, and Francesco T. Mangano

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), an objective and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, for its potential as an imaging biomarker to predict the need and timing of CSF diversion surgery in patients after prenatal myelomeningocele (MMC) repair.

METHODS

This was a retrospective analysis of data based on 35 pediatric patients after prenatal MMC repair (gestational age at birth 32.68 ± 3.42 weeks, range 24–38 weeks; 15 females and 20 males). A logistic regression analysis was used to classify patients to determine the need for CSF diversion surgery. The model performance was compared between using the frontooccipital horn ratio (FOHR) alone and using the FOHR combined with DTI values (the genu of the corpus callosum [gCC] and the posterior limb of the internal capsule [PLIC]). For patients who needed to be treated surgically, timing of the procedure was used as the clinical outcome to test the predictive value of DTI acquired prior to surgery based on a linear regression analysis.

RESULTS

Significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the gCC (p = 0.014) and PLIC (p = 0.037) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) values in the gCC (p = 0.013) were found in patients who required CSF diversion surgery compared with those who did not require surgery (all p values adjusted for age). Based on the logistic regression analysis, the FOHR alone showed an accuracy of performance of 0.69 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.60. The performance of the model was higher when DTI measures were used in the logistic regression model (accuracy = 0.77, AUC = 0.84 for using DTI values in gCC; accuracy = 0.75, AUC = 0.84 for using DTI values in PLIC). Combining the DTI values of the gCC or PLIC and FOHR did not improve the model performance when compared with using the DTI values alone. In patients who needed CSF diversion surgery, significant correlation was found between DTI values in the gCC and the time interval between imaging and surgery (FA: ρ = 0.625, p = 0.022; MD: ρ = −0.6830, p = 0.010; both adjusted for age and FOHR).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ data demonstrated that DTI could potentially serve as an objective biomarker differentiating patients after prenatal MMC repair regarding those who may require surgery for MMC-associated hydrocephalus. The predictive value for the need and timing of CSF diversion surgery is highly clinically relevant for improving and optimizing decision-making for the treatment of hydrocephalus in this patient population.