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Open access

Kevin Zhao, Joseph Quillin, and James K. Liu

In this illustrative video, the authors demonstrate resection of a superior vermian arteriovenous malformation (AVM) using the endoscopic-assisted parieto-occipital interhemispheric precuneal transtentorial approach. Lateral positioning allows for gravity-assisted access to the interhemispheric fissure without retractors. The parieto-occipital trajectory is useful in patients who have a steep tentorial angle and avoids manipulation of the occipital lobe and visual cortex. In addition, the authors utilize an angled endoscope, which allows full inspection of the resection bed after AVM removal to visualize areas hidden from the microsurgical view to minimize the chance of residual disease in a deep corridor with multiple visual obstructions.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/hk9nIIdtqbI

Restricted access

Grégoire Boulouis, Sarah Stricker, Sandro Benichi, Jean-François Hak, Florent Gariel, Quentin Alias, Timothée de Saint Denis, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Fanny Bajolle, Lorenzo Garzelli, Kevin Beccaria, Giovanna Paternoster, Marie Bourgeois, Nicolas Garcelon, Annie Harroche, Rossella Letizia Mancusi, Nathalie Boddaert, Stephanie Puget, Francis Brunelle, Thomas Blauwblomme, and Olivier Naggara

OBJECTIVE

Understanding the etiological spectrum of nontraumatic pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH) is key to the diagnostic workup and care pathway. The authors aimed to evaluate the etiological spectrum of diseases underlying pICH.

METHODS

Children treated at the authors’ institution for a pICH were included in an inception cohort initiated in 2008 and retrospectively inclusive to 2000, which was analyzed in October 2019. They then conducted a systematic review of relevant articles in PubMed published between 1990 and 2019, identifying cohorts with pICH. Identified populations and patients from the authors’ cohort were pooled in a multicategory meta-analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 243 children with pICH were analyzed in the cohort study. The final primary diagnosis was an intracranial vascular lesion in 190 patients (78.2%), a complication of a cardiac disease in 17 (7.0%), and a coagulation disorder in 14 (5.8%). Hematological and cardiological etiologies were disproportionately more frequent in children younger than 2 years (p < 0.001). The systematic review identified 1309 children in 23 relevant records pooled in the meta-analysis. Overall, there was significant heterogeneity. The dominant etiology was vascular lesion, with an aggregate prevalence of 0.59 (95% CI 0.45–0.64; p < 0.001, Q = 302.8, I2 = 92%). In 18 studies reporting a detailed etiological spectrum, arteriovenous malformation was the dominant etiology (68.3% [95% CI 64.2%–70.9%] of all vascular causes), followed by cavernoma (15.7% [95% CI 13.0%–18.2%]).

CONCLUSIONS

The most frequent etiology of pICH is brain arteriovenous malformation. The probability of an underlying vascular etiology increases with age, and, conversely, hematological and cardiac causes are dominant causes in children younger than 2 years.

Free access

Julien Haemmerli, Alioucha Davidovic, Torstein R. Meling, Lara Chavaz, Karl Schaller, and Philippe Bijlenga

OBJECTIVE

Augmented reality (AR) in cranial surgery allows direct projection of preregistered overlaid images in real time on the microscope surgical field. In this study, the authors aimed to compare the precision of AR-assisted navigation and standard pointer-based neuronavigation (NV) by using a 3D-printed skull in surgical conditions.

METHODS

A commercial standardized 3D-printed skull was scanned, fused, and referenced with an MR image and a CT scan of a patient with a 2 × 2–mm right frontal sinus defect. The defect was identified, registered, and integrated into NV. The target was physically marked on the 3D-printed skull replicating the right frontal sinus defect. Twenty-six subjects participated, 25 of whom had no prior NV or AR experience and 1 with little AR experience. The subjects were briefly trained in how to use NV, AR, and AR recalibration tools. Participants were asked to do the following: 1) “target the center of the defect in the 3D-printed skull with a navigation pointer, assisted only by NV orientation,” and 2) “use the surgical microscope and AR to focus on the center of the projected object” under conventional surgical conditions. For the AR task, the number of recalibrations was recorded. Confidence regarding NV and AR precision were assessed prior to and after the experiment by using a 9-level Likert scale.

RESULTS

The median distance to target was statistically lower for AR than for NV (1 mm [Q1: 1 mm, Q3: 2 mm] vs 3 mm [Q1: 2 mm, Q3: 4 mm] [p < 0.001]). In the AR task, the median number of recalibrations was 4 (Q1: 4, Q3: 4.75). The number of recalibrations was significantly correlated with the precision (Spearman rho: −0.71, p < 0.05). The trust assessment after performing the experiment scored a median of 8 for AR and 5.5 for NV (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

This study shows for the first time the superiority of AR over NV in terms of precision. AR is easy to use. The number of recalibrations performed using reference structures increases the precision of the navigation. The confidence regarding precision increases with experience.

Restricted access

Anna L. Huguenard, Vivek P. Gupta, Alan C. Braverman, and Ralph G. Dacey

Open access

Benjamin K. Hendricks and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

Surgery within the posterior cranial fossa uniquely requires excellence in microsurgical technique, given the complexity of the neurovascular structures housed within this region. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) within this region represent the greatest surgical challenge because of the difficulty in resecting an AVM completely while preserving the highly eloquent surrounding structures. The AVM in this video exemplifies a surgeon’s “most challenging case,” a surgery that spanned two stages, including 14 hours of resection, but concluded with complete resection despite the complexity of deep arterial and dural feeders.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/WNBuwFHSrQ0

Free access

Amol Raheja, Shashwat Mishra, Kanwaljeet Garg, Varidh Katiyar, Ravi Sharma, Vivek Tandon, Revanth Goda, Ashish Suri, and Shashank S. Kale

OBJECTIVE

Extracorporeal telescopes (exoscopes) have been the latest addition to the neurosurgeons’ armamentarium, acting as a bridge between operating microscopes and endoscopes. However, to the authors’ knowledge there are no published preclinical laboratory studies of the accuracy, efficiency, and dexterity of neurosurgical training for the use of 2D or 3D exoscopes compared with microscopes.

METHODS

In a controlled experimental setup, 22 participating neurosurgery residents performed simple (2D) and complex (3D) motor tasks with three visualization tools in alternating sequence: a 2D exoscope, 3D exoscope, and microscope, using a block randomization model based on the neurosurgeons’ prior training experience (novice, intermediate, and senior: n = 6, 12, and 4, respectively). Performance scores (PS; including error and efficiency scores) and dexterity scores (DS) were calculated to objectify the accuracy, efficiency, and finesse of task performance. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to compare the PS, DS, and cumulative scores (CS) of candidates using the three visualization aids. Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients were generated to quantify intraobserver and interobserver agreement for DS. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the impact of participants’ prior training. A postexercise survey was conducted to assess the comfort level (on a 10-point analog scale) of the participants while using each visualization tool for performing the suturing task.

RESULTS

PS, DS, and CS were significantly impacted by the visualization tool utilized for 2D motor tasks (p < 0.001 for each), with the microscope faring better than the 2D exoscope (p = 0.04) or 3D exoscope (p = 0.008). The PS for the 3D object transfer task was significantly influenced by the visualization aid used (p = 0.007), with the microscope and 3D exoscope faring better than the 2D exoscope (p = 0.04 for both). The visualization instrument used significantly affected the DS and CS for the suturing task (p < 0.001 for both), with the microscope again scoring better than the 2D exoscope (p < 0.001) or 3D exoscope (p = 0.005). The impact of the visualization aid was more apparent in participants with a shorter duration of residency (novice, p = 0.03; intermediate, p = 0.0004). Participants also felt the greatest operational comfort while working with a microscope, 3D exoscope, and 2D exoscope, in that order (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with 3D and 2D exoscopes, an operating microscope provides better dexterity and performance and a greater operational comfort level for neurosurgeons while they are performing 2D or 3D motor tasks. For performing complex 3D motor tasks, 3D exoscopes offer selective advantages in dexterity, performance, and operational comfort level over 2D exoscopes. The relative impact of visualization aids on surgical proficiency gradually weakens as the participants’ residency duration increases.

Open access

Burak Ozaydin, Demi W. Dawkins, Stephanie A. Armstrong, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, and Mustafa K. Baskaya

Although intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA), cone-beam CT, and rotational angiography are well-established technologies, using them in a single system in the hybrid operating room to acquire high-quality noninvasive 3D images is a recent development. This video demonstrates microsurgical excision of a ruptured cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a 66-year-old male followed by intraoperative IV-DSA acquisition using a new-generation system (Artis Icono). IV-DSA confirmed in real time that no residual remained following excision without the need to reposition the patient. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first surgical video to demonstrate the simplified workflow and application of this technology in neurovascular surgery.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/bo5ya9DQQPw

Free access

Julius Höhne, Karl-Michael Schebesch, Saida Zoubaa, Martin Proescholdt, Markus J. Riemenschneider, and Nils Ole Schmidt

OBJECTIVE

Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an established tool in basic research for tissue imaging at the level of microstructures. Miniaturization and refinement of the technology have made this modality available for operative imaging with a handheld device. Sufficient image contrast is provided by the preoperative application of fluorescein sodium. The authors report their first experiences in a clinical case series using the new confocal laser endomicroscope.

METHODS

Handling, operative workflow, and visualization of the CLE were critically evaluated in 12 cases of different CNS tumors. Three different imaging positions in relation to the tumor were chosen: the tumor border (I), tumor center (II), and perilesional zone (III). Respective diagnostic sampling with H & E staining and matching intraoperative neuronavigation and microscope images are provided.

RESULTS

CLE was found to be beneficial in terms of high-quality visualization of fine structures and for displaying hidden anatomical details. The handling of the device was good, and the workflow was easy.

CONCLUSIONS

Handling ergonomics and image acquisition are intuitive. The endomicroscope allows excellent additional visualization of microstructures in the surgical field with a minimally invasive technique and could improve safety and clinical outcomes. The new confocal laser endomicroscope is an advanced tool with the potential to change intracranial tumor surgery. Imaging of these microstructures is novel, and research with comparative validation with traditional neuropathological assessments is needed.

Free access

Sebastian Ille, Axel Schroeder, Arthur Wagner, Chiara Negwer, Kornelia Kreiser, Bernhard Meyer, and Sandro M. Krieg

OBJECTIVE

Tractography is a useful technique that is standardly applied to visualize subcortical pathways. However, brain shift hampers tractography use during the course of surgery. While intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) has been shown to be beneficial for use in oncology, intraoperative tractography can rarely be performed due to scanner, protocol, or head clamp limitations. Elastic fusion (EF), however, enables adjustment for brain shift of preoperative imaging and even tractography based on intraoperative images. The authors tested the hypothesis that adjustment of tractography by ioMRI-based EF (IBEF) correlates with the results of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) and clinical outcome and is therefore a reliable method.

METHODS

In 304 consecutive patients treated between June 2018 and March 2020, 8 patients, who made up the basic study cohort, showed an intraoperative loss of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) during motor-eloquent glioma resection for a subcortical lesion within the corticospinal tract (CST) as shown by ioMRI. The authors preoperatively visualized the CST using tractography. Also, IBEFs of pre- and intraoperative images were obtained and the location of the CST was compared in relation to a subcortical lesion. In 11 patients (8 patients with intraoperative loss of MEPs, one of whom also showed loss of MEPs on IBEF evaluation, plus 3 additional patients with loss of MEPs on IBEF evaluation), the authors examined the location of the CST by direct subcortical stimulation (DSCS). The authors defined the IONM results and the functional outcome data as ground truth for analysis.

RESULTS

The maximum mean ± SD correction was 8.8 ± 2.9 (range 3.8–12.0) mm for the whole brain and 5.3 ± 2.4 (range 1.2–8.7) mm for the CST. The CST was located within the lesion before IBEF in 3 cases and after IBEF in all cases (p = 0.0256). All patients with intraoperative loss of MEPs suffered from surgery-related permanent motor deficits. By approximation, the location of the CST after IBEF could be verified by DSCS in 4 cases.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study shows that tractography after IBEF accurately correlates with IONM and patient outcomes and thus demonstrates reliability in this initial study.