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Karen Monuszko, Michael Malinzak, Lexie Zidanyue Yang, Donna Niedzwiecki, Herbert Fuchs, Carrie R. Muh, Krista Gingrich, Robert Lark, and Eric M. Thompson

OBJECTIVE

Patients with shunted hydrocephalus often accumulate high levels of radiation over their lifetimes during evaluation of hardware integrity. Current practice involves the use of a series of conventional radiographs for this purpose. Newer low-dose EOS radiography is currently used to evaluate scoliosis but has not been explored to evaluate shunt integrity on a large scale. The goal of this study was to compare the quality of imaging using EOS low-dose radiography to conventional radiography to evaluate shunt tubing.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was performed on 57 patients who previously had both conventional radiographs and low-dose EOS images of their cerebral shunt tubing from 2000 to 2018. Patient demographics (age, sex, type of shunt tubing, primary diagnosis) were collected. Conventional radiographic images and low-dose EOS images were independently analyzed by a neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist in three categories: image quality, delineation of shunt, and distinction of shunt compared to adjacent anatomy.

RESULTS

All patients had shunted hydrocephalus due to spina bifida and Chiari type II malformation. Ratings of EOS and conventional radiographic images by both raters did not differ significantly in terms of image quality (rater 1, p = 0.499; rater 2, p = 0.578) or delineation of shunt (p = 0.107 and p = 0.256). Conventional radiographic images received significantly higher ratings than EOS on the ability to distinguish the shunt versus adjacent anatomy by rater 1 (p = 0.039), but not by rater 2 (p = 0.149). The overall score of the three categories combined was not significantly different between EOS and conventional radiography (rater 1, p = 0.818; rater 2, p = 0.186). In terms of cost, an EOS image was less costly than a conventional radiography shunt series ($236–$366 and $1300–$1547, respectively). The radiation dose was also lower for EOS images, with an effective dose of 0.086–0.140 mSv compared to approximately 1.6 mSv for a similar field of view with conventional radiography.

CONCLUSIONS

The image quality of low-dose EOS radiography does not significantly differ from conventional radiography for the evaluation of cerebral shunts. In addition, EOS affords a much lower radiation dose and a lower cost.

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Hiroki Ushirozako, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Yu Yamato, Go Yoshida, Tatsuya Yasuda, Tomohiro Banno, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara, Tomohiro Yamada, Koichiro Ide, Yuh Watanabe, Keichi Nakai, Takaaki Imada, and Yukihiro Matsuyama

OBJECTIVE

Surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior spinal surgery is one of the severe complications that may occur despite administration of prophylactic antibiotics and the use of intraoperative aseptic precautions. The use of intrawound vancomycin powder for SSI prevention is still controversial, with a lack of high-quality and large-scale studies. The purpose of this retrospective study using a propensity score–matched analysis was to clarify whether intrawound vancomycin powder prevents SSI occurrence after spinal surgery.

METHODS

The authors analyzed 1261 adult patients who underwent posterior spinal surgery between 2010 and 2018 (mean age 62.3 years; 506 men, 755 women; follow-up period at least 1 year). Baseline and surgical data were assessed. After a preliminary analysis, a propensity score model was established with adjustments for age, sex, type of disease, and previously reported risk factors for SSI. The SSI rates were compared between patients with intrawound vancomycin powder treatment (vancomycin group) and those without (control group).

RESULTS

In a preliminary analysis of 1261 unmatched patients (623 patients in the vancomycin group and 638 patients in the control group), there were significant differences between the groups in age (p = 0.041), body mass index (p = 0.013), American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (p < 0.001), malnutrition (p = 0.001), revision status (p < 0.001), use of steroids (p = 0.019), use of anticoagulation (p = 0.033), length of surgery (p = 0.003), estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), and use of instrumentation (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in SSI rates between the vancomycin and control groups (21 SSIs [3.4%] vs 33 SSIs [5.2%]; OR 0.640, 95% CI 0.368–1.111; p = 0.114). Using a one-to-one propensity score–matched analysis, 444 pairs of patients from the vancomycin and control groups were selected. There was no significant difference in the baseline and surgical data, except for height (p = 0.046), between both groups. The C-statistic for the propensity score model was 0.702. In the score-matched analysis, 12 (2.7%) and 24 (5.4%) patients in the vancomycin and control groups, respectively, developed SSIs (OR 0.486, 95% CI 0.243–0.972; p = 0.041). There were no systemic complications related to the use of vancomycin.

CONCLUSIONS

The current study showed that intrawound vancomycin powder was useful in reducing the risk of SSI after posterior spinal surgery by half, without adverse events. Intrawound vancomycin powder use is a safe and effective procedure for SSI prevention.

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Daiana R. Pur, Roy Eagleson, Marcus Lo, Michael T. Jurkiewicz, Andrea Andrade, and Sandrine de Ribaupierre

OBJECTIVE

Epilepsy affects neural processing and often causes intra- or interhemispheric language reorganization, rendering localization solely based on anatomical landmarks (e.g., Broca’s area) unreliable. Preoperative brain mapping is necessary to weigh the risk of resection with the risk of postoperative deficit. However, the use of conventional mapping methods (e.g., somatosensory stimulation, task-based functional MRI [fMRI]) in pediatric patients is technically difficult due to low compliance and their unique neurophysiology. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), a “task-free” technique based on the neural activity of the brain at rest, has the potential to overcome these limitations. The authors hypothesized that language networks can be identified from rs-fMRI by applying functional connectivity analyses.

METHODS

Cases in which both task-based fMRI and rs-fMRI were acquired as part of the preoperative clinical protocol for epilepsy surgery were reviewed. Task-based fMRI consisted of 2 language tasks and 1 motor task. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired while the patients watched an animated movie and were analyzed using independent component analysis (i.e., data-driven method). The authors extracted language networks from rs-fMRI data by performing a similarity analysis with functionally defined language network templates via a template-matching procedure. The Dice coefficient was used to quantify the overlap.

RESULTS

Thirteen children underwent conventional task-based fMRI (e.g., verb generation, object naming), rs-fMRI, and structural imaging at 1.5T. The language components with the highest overlap with the language templates were identified for each patient. Language lateralization results from task-based fMRI and rs-fMRI mapping were comparable, with good concordance in most cases. Resting-state fMRI–derived language maps indicated that language was on the left in 4 patients (31%), on the right in 5 patients (38%), and bilateral in 4 patients (31%). In some cases, rs-fMRI indicated a more extensive language representation.

CONCLUSIONS

Resting-state fMRI–derived language network data were identified at the patient level using a template-matching method. More than half of the patients in this study presented with atypical language lateralization, emphasizing the need for mapping. Overall, these data suggest that this technique may be used to preoperatively identify language networks in pediatric patients. It may also optimize presurgical planning of electrode placement and thereby guide the surgeon’s approach to the epileptogenic zone.

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Valeri Borger, Motaz Hamed, Julia Taube, Gülsah Aydin, Inja Ilic, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Schuss, Erdem Güresir, Albert Becker, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E. Elger, and Hartmut Vatter

OBJECTIVE

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy. In approximately 30% of patients, seizures are refractory to drug treatment. Despite the achievements of modern presurgical evaluation in recent years, the presurgical prediction of seizure outcome remains difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seizure outcome in patients with drug-refractory TLE who underwent resective temporal lobe surgery (rTLS) and to determine features associated with unfavorable postsurgical seizure outcome.

METHODS

Patients with medically refractory TLE who underwent rTLS between 2012 and 2017 were reviewed from the prospectively collected epilepsy surgery database. A retrospective analysis of clinical, radiological, neuropsychological, histopathological, and perioperative findings of 161 patients was performed. The patients were divided into two groups according to seizure outcome (group I, International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] class 1; group II, ILAE class ≥ 2). For identification of independent risk factors for unfavorable postoperative seizure outcome (ILAE class ≥ 2), a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS

Seizure freedom (ILAE class 1) was achieved in 121 patients (75.2%). The neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that losses in cognitive performance were more pronounced in verbal memory after resections in the left temporal lobe and in nonverbal memory after right-sided resections, whereas attention improved after surgery. Overall, postoperative visual field deficits (VFDs) were common and occurred in 51% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of VFD in patients with selective surgical procedures compared to the patients with nonselective procedures. The lack of MRI lesions and placement of depth electrodes were preoperatively identified as predictors for unfavorable seizure outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

rTLS is an effective treatment method in patients with refractory TLE. However, patients with a lack of MRI lesions and placement of depth electrodes prior to rTLS are at higher risk for an unfavorable postsurgical seizure outcome.

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Fangke Xie, Qiang Tan, Anyong Yu, Peiwen Guo, Ling Wang, Zongwei Zeng, Liang Liang, Jishu Xian, Hua Feng, and Zhi Chen

OBJECTIVE

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) fibrinolysis did not improve functional outcomes of patients with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), largely because of the unsatisfactory clot clearance. The presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) within the clot has been confirmed to impair tPA fibrinolysis, but the mechanism has been unclear. The authors hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the main framework of NETs, might be the important reason for the fibrinolysis resistance, and they validated the hypothesis, hoping to provide a new target to promote intraventricular fibrinolysis.

METHODS

First, cfDNA was detected in IVH clots by immunofluorescence staining in a rat model of IVH. Second, after blood (with or without exogenous cfDNA) intraventricular injection, IVH rats were given intraventricular infusion of 2 μl of saline, tPA, or tPA + DNase1 randomly. Then, the ventricular volume, animal behavior, and reactive astrocyte proliferation were assessed. Third, the IVH clots were collected for fibrinolysis assay in vitro. Finally, the effects of exogenous cfDNA in IVH were evaluated.

RESULTS

The presence of cfDNA in clots was observed as early as 1 hour after IVH. Compared with the whole-blood model, blood + cfDNA caused more severe ventricular dilation (day 7: blood 32.47 ± 2.096 mm3 vs blood + DNA 40.09 ± 2.787 mm3, p < 0.05), increased fibrinolysis resistance to tPA (day 7: tPA + DNA 26.04 ± 1.318 mm3 vs tPA 22.15 ± 1.706 mm3, p < 0.05), and further deteriorated the functional defects in rats (blood vs blood + DNA, p < 0.05). Degradation of cfDNA by DNase1 further enhanced the fibrinolysis effects on relieving the ventricular dilation (day 7: tPA + DNase1 11.67 ± 2.023 mm3 vs tPA, p < 0.05), improving the functional outcome (tPA vs tPA + DNase1, p < 0.05) and reducing periventricular astrocyte proliferation.

CONCLUSIONS

cfDNA impaired tPA fibrinolysis for IVH, and degradation of cfDNA may be a new target to improve this condition.

Open access

Yasushi Miyagi and Eiichirou Urasaki

BACKGROUND

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a powerful surgical option for drug-resistant movement disorders; however, electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources poses a potential risk for implanted electronics.

OBSERVATIONS

A 61-year-old woman with Parkinson’s disease originally had two implantable pulse generators (IPGs) for bilateral subthalamic DBS, which were then replaced with one dual-channel IPG routed in a loop. After the replacement surgery, with the same DBS programming as before the IPG replacement (bipolar setting for right, unipolar setting for left), the patient began to complain of transient paroxysmal diplopia. After multiple attempts to adjust the stimulation parameters, the diplopia was resolved by changing the left unipolar setting to a bipolar setting. At the authors’ institution, before the present case, four other patients had undergone IPG replacement with loop routing. None of these previous patients complained of diplopia; however, two of the four presented with diplopia in an experimental unipolar setting.

LESSONS

Clinicians should be aware that loop-routed circuits may generate distortion of the stimulus field in DBS, even in the absence of external EMI sources.

Open access

Takeshi Satow, Masafumi Ogawa, and Taro Komuro

BACKGROUND

Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a very rare metabolic disorder involving the purine salvage pathway. LND manifests hyperuricemia, self-mutilation, cognitive impairment, and movement disorders such as spasticity and dystonia, whose control is difficult pharmaceutically.

OBSERVATIONS

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy was received by a 22-year-old male for generalized dystonia. His paroxysmal abnormal dystonic posturing reduced after surgery, making the task of caregivers easier despite the unchanged assignment on the dystonia scale during a follow-up period of 4 years.

LESSONS

ITB may be a safe and feasible option for dystonic symptoms and difficulty with nursing care in patients with LND.

Open access

Tomoya Suzuki, Shogo Kaku, Kostadin Karagiozov, and Yuichi Murayama

BACKGROUND

Negative-pressure hydrocephalus (NePH) is a rare clinical entity that presents on the background of ventriculomegaly with atypical symptoms. Its diagnosis is difficult, and some patients experience several shunt revisions until the proper solution is found.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a patient who developed acute deterioration due to iatrogenic NePH after surgery for a vertebral artery thrombosed giant aneurysm. The deterioration occurred after the insertion of a lumbar drain by which the authors intended to reduce a postoperative subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. The drainage created an unexpected negative-pressure gradient in the CSF spaces, which resulted in NePH. Interventions, such as extraventricular drainage and blood patch, corrected the negative transmantle pressure and stabilized the patient’s condition.

LESSONS

Because the pathophysiology of NePH is theoretically considered to be caused by negative transmantle pressure, the intervention should be performed in order to deal with the coexistence of obstruction in the CSF pathways and a CSF leak. A blood patch would be an effective option in treating the CSF leak when the site of leakage is certain. This is the first case in which a blood patch was effectively applied in the treatment for NePH with a favorable outcome without any permanent CSF diversion.

Open access

Takuya Kanemitsu, Naokado Ikeda, Masao Fukumura, Satoshi Sakai, Hidehiro Oku, Motomasa Furuse, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Ryo Hiramatsu, Shinji Kawabata, Akihisa Imagawa, Tsunehiko Ikeda, and Masahiko Wanibuchi

BACKGROUND

Calcifications in pituitary adenomas are rare, being found in only 5.4%–25% of reported cases. These are divided into eggshell-like calcifications around the tumor and nodular calcifications at the center of the tumor, the latter of which are called “pituitary stones” (PSs).

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 60-year-old male with a nonfunctional pituitary adenoma with PSs and asymptomatic ventricular dilatation who presented with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea and rapid visual aggravation without an increase in tumor size over the course of 4 years. After endoscopic transnasal surgery, his visual acuity immediately improved temporarily. It was believed that the increased intracranial pressure due to secondary hydrocephalus resulted in visual aggravation; thus, a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was created. After creation of the VP shunt, the patient’s visual acuity improved gradually and completely. Histological findings showed that adenoma cells were observed among the lamellar bone trabeculae. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report of osteoid metaplasia–type PSs in nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.

LESSONS

PSs formed near the sellar floor and caused spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea due to direct mechanical stress on the dura mater and optic nerves, which may have caused meningitis and secondary hydrocephalus that resulted in visual impairment independent of tumor size.