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Zach Pennington, Ethan Cottrill, Daniel Lubelski, Jeff Ehresman, Kurt Lehner, Mari L. Groves, Paul Sponseller, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVES

More than 7500 children undergo surgery for scoliosis each year, at an estimated annual cost to the health system of $1.1 billion. There is significant interest among patients, parents, providers, and payors in identifying methods for delivering quality outcomes at lower costs. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols have been suggested as one possible solution. Here the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature describing the clinical and economic benefits of ERAS protocols in pediatric spinal deformity surgery.

METHODS

The authors identified all English-language articles on ERAS protocol use in pediatric spinal deformity surgery by using the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL, and OVID MEDLINE. Quantitative analyses of comparative articles using random effects were performed for the following clinical outcomes: 1) length of stay (LOS); 2) complication rate; 3) wound infection rate; 4) 30-day readmission rate; 5) reoperation rate; and 6) postoperative pain scores.

RESULTS

Of 950 articles reviewed, 7 were included in the qualitative analysis and 6 were included in the quantitative analysis. The most frequently cited benefits of ERAS protocols were shorter LOS, earlier urinary catheter removal, and earlier discontinuation of patient-controlled analgesia pumps. Quantitative analyses showed ERAS protocols to be associated with shorter LOS (mean difference −1.12 days; 95% CI −1.51, −0.74; p < 0.001), fewer postoperative complications (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.20, 0.68; p = 0.001), and lower pain scores on postoperative day (POD) 0 (mean −0.92; 95% CI −1.29, −0.56; p < 0.001) and POD 2 (−0.61; 95% CI −0.75, −0.47; p < 0.001). There were no differences in reoperation rate or POD 1 pain scores. ERAS-treated patients had a trend toward higher 30-day readmission rates and earlier discontinuation of patient-controlled analgesia (both p = 0.06). Insufficient data existed to reach a conclusion about cost differences.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this systematic review suggest that ERAS protocols may shorten hospitalizations, reduce postoperative complication rates, and reduce postoperative pain scores in children undergoing scoliosis surgery. Publication biases exist, and therefore larger, prospective, multicenter data are needed to validate these results.

Free access

Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, C. Rory Goodwin, Gezzer Ortega, Fizan Abdullah, Edward Cornwell, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Mari L. Groves, Michael Ain, Paul D. Sponseller, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Spinal arthrodesis is routinely performed in the pediatric population. However, there is limited information on the short-term outcomes of pediatric patients who have undergone spine fusion. Thus, the authors conducted a retrospective review of the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to determine the short-term mortality, complication, reoperation, and readmission rates of pediatric patients who underwent spinal arthrodesis for all indications.

METHODS

The Pediatric NSQIP database was queried for all patients who underwent spinal arthrodesis between 2012 and 2014. Patient demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, and operative time were abstracted. Short-term mortality, reoperation, and readmission rates and complications were also noted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to delineate patient risk factors that influence short-term mortality, complications, reoperation, and readmission rates.

RESULTS

A total of 4420 pediatric patients who underwent spinal fusion were identified. Common indications for surgical intervention included acquired/idiopathic scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis (71.2%) and genetic/syndromic scoliosis (10.7%). The mean patient age was 13.7 ± 2.9 years, and 70% of patients were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 0.14%. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex and pulmonary comorbidities significantly increased the odds of reoperation, with odds ratios of 1.43 and 1.78, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

In the NSQIP database for pediatric patients undergoing spinal arthrodesis for all causes, there was a 3.6% unplanned reoperation rate, a 3.96% unplanned readmission rate, and a 9.0% complication rate. This analysis provides data for risk stratification of pediatric patients undergoing spinal arthrodesis, allowing for optimized care.

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Ziya L. Gokaslan, Patricia L. Zadnik, Daniel M. Sciubba, Niccole Germscheid, C. Rory Goodwin, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Chetan Bettegowda, Mari L. Groves, Alessandro Luzzati, Laurence D. Rhines, Charles G. Fisher, Peter Pal Varga, Mark B. Dekutoski, Michelle J. Clarke, Michael G. Fehlings, Nasir A. Quraishi, Dean Chou, Jeremy J. Reynolds, Richard P. Williams, Norio Kawahara, and Stefano Boriani

OBJECT

A chordoma is an indolent primary spinal tumor that has devastating effects on the patient's life. These lesions are chemoresistant, resistant to conventional radiotherapy, and moderately sensitive to proton therapy; however, en bloc resection remains the preferred treatment for optimizing patient outcomes. While multiple small and largely retrospective studies have investigated the outcomes following en bloc resection of chordomas in the sacrum, there have been few large-scale studies on patients with chordomas of the mobile spine. The goal of this study was to review the outcomes of surgically treated patients with mobile spine chordomas at multiple international centers with respect to local recurrence and survival. This multiinstitutional retrospective study collected data between 1988 and 2012 about prognosis-predicting factors, including various clinical characteristics and surgical techniques for mobile spine chordoma. Tumors were classified according to the Enneking principles and analyzed in 2 treatment cohorts: Enneking-appropriate (EA) and Enneking-inappropriate (EI) cohorts. Patients were categorized as EA when the final pathological assessment of the margin matched the Enneking recommendation; otherwise, they were categorized as EI.

METHODS

Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data (Student t-test, chi-square, and Fisher exact tests). Recurrence and survival data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank tests, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling.

RESULTS

A total of 166 patients (55 female and 111 male patients) with mobile spine chordoma were included. The median patient follow-up was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 22.5 years). Fifty-eight (41%) patients were EA and 84 (59%) patients were EI. The type of biopsy (p < 0.001), spinal location (p = 0.018), and if the patient received adjuvant therapy (p < 0.001) were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Overall, 58 (35%) patients developed local recurrence and 57 (34%) patients died. Median survival was 7.0 years postoperative: 8.4 years postoperative for EA patients and 6.4 years postoperative for EI patients (p = 0.023). The multivariate analysis showed that the EI cohort was significantly associated with an increased risk of local recurrence in comparison with the EA cohort (HR 7.02; 95% CI 2.96–16.6; p < 0.001), although no significant difference in survival was observed.

CONCLUSIONS

EA resection plays a major role in decreasing the risk for local recurrence in patients with chordoma of the mobile spine.

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Patricia L. Zadnik, C. Rory Goodwin, Kristophe J. Karami, Ankit I. Mehta, Anubhav G. Amin, Mari L. Groves, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F. Witham, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECT

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary tumor of the spine and is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone. Although spinal myeloma is classically a radiosensitive lesion, clinical or radiographic signs of instability merit surgical intervention. The authors present the epidemiology, surgical indications, and outcome data of a series of consecutive cases involving 31 surgically treated patients with diagnoses of multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma of the spine (the largest such series reported to date).

METHODS

Surgical instability was the criterion for operative intervention in this patient cohort. The Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) was used to make this assessment of instability. The cases were analyzed using location of the lesion, spinal levels involved, Frankel score, adjuvant therapy, functional outcome, and patient survival.

RESULTS

All patients undergoing surgical intervention were determined to have indeterminate or gross spinal column instability according to SINS criteria. The median survival was 78.9 months. No significant difference in survival was seen for patients with higher SINS scores or for older patients (> 55 years). There was a statistically significant difference in survival benefit observed for patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation versus radiation alone as an adjuvant to surgery (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

In this 10-year analysis, the authors report outcomes of surgical intervention for patients with indeterminate or gross spinal instability due to multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma of the spine with improved neurological function following surgery and low rates of instrumentation failure.

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Michelle J. Clarke, Patricia L. Zadnik, Mari L. Groves, Daniel M. Sciubba, Timothy F. Witham, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan, and Jean-Paul Wolinsky

OBJECT

Recently, aggressive surgical techniques and a push toward en bloc resections of certain tumors have resulted in a need for creative spinal column reconstruction. Iatrogenic instability following these resections requires a thoughtful approach to adequately transfer load-bearing forces from the skull and upper cervical spine to the subaxial spine.

METHODS

The authors present a series of 7 cases in which lateral mass reconstruction with a cage or fibular strut graft was used to provide load-bearing support, including 1 case of bilateral cage placement.

RESULTS

The authors discuss the surgical nuances of en bloc resection of high cervical tumors and explain their technique for lateral mass cage placement. Additionally, they provide their rationale for the use of these constructs throughout the craniocervical junction and subaxial spine.

CONCLUSIONS

Lateral mass reconstruction provides a potential alternative or adjuvant method of restoring the load-bearing capabilities of the cervical spine.

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Michelle J. Clarke, Patricia L. Zadnik, Mari L. Groves, Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Daniel M. Sciubba, Wesley Hsu, Timothy F. Witham, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan, and Jean-Paul Wolinsky

Object

Traditionally, hemisacrectomy and internal hemipelvectomy procedures have required both an anterior and a posterior approach. A posterior-only approach has the potential to complete an en bloc tumor resection and spinopelvic reconstruction while reducing surgical morbidity.

Methods

The authors describe 3 cases in which en bloc resection of the hemisacrum and ilium and subsequent lumbopelvic and pelvic ring reconstruction were performed from a posterior-only approach. Two more traditional anterior and posterior staged procedures are also included for comparison.

Results

In all 3 cases, an oncologically appropriate surgery and spinopelvic reconstruction were performed through a posterior-only approach.

Conclusions

The advantage of a midline posterior approach is the ability to perform a lumbosacral reconstruction, necessary in cases in which the S-1 body is iatrogenically disrupted during tumor resection.

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Paul E. Kaloostian, Patricia L. Zadnik, Jennifer E. Kim, Mari L. Groves, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Timothy F. Witham, Ali Bydon, and Daniel M. Sciubba

Pheochromocytomas of the spine are uncommon and require careful preoperative planning. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 5 patients with metastatic spinal pheochromocytoma who had undergone surgical treatment over the past 10 years at their medical center. They reviewed patient age, history of pheochromocytoma resection, extent and location of metastases, history of alpha blockage, surgical level, surgical procedure, postoperative complications, tumor recurrence, and survival. Metastases involved the cervical (1 patient), thoracic (3 patients), and lumbar (2 patients) levels. Preoperative treatment included primary pheochromocytoma resection, chemotherapy, alpha blockade, embolization, and radiation. Three patients had tumor recurrence, and 2 underwent 2-stage reoperations for tumor extension. Hemodynamic complications were common: 2 patients developed pulseless electrical activity arrest within 4 months after surgery, 1 patient had profound postoperative tachycardia with fever and an elevated creatine kinase level, and 1 patient experienced transient postoperative hypotension and paraplegia. One patient died of complications related to disseminated cerebral and spinal disease.

With careful preoperative and surgical management, patients with symptomatic metastatic spinal pheochromocytoma can benefit from aggressive surgical treatment. Postoperative cardiovascular complications are common even months after surgery, and patients should be closely monitored long term.

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Patricia Zadnik, Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Mari L. Groves, Camilo Molina, Christopher Jackson, Edward McCarthy, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Ali Bydon, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F. Witham, and Daniel M. Sciubba

Object

Metastatic spine disease is prevalent in cancer victims; 10%–30% of the 1.2 million new patients diagnosed with cancer in the US exhibit spinal metastases. Unfortunately, treatments are limited for these patients, as disseminated disease is often refractory to chemotherapy and is difficult to treat with surgical intervention alone. New animal models that accurately recapitulate the human disease process are needed to study the behavior of metastases in real time.

Methods

In this study the authors report on a cell line that reliably generates bony metastases following intracardiac injection and can be tracked in real time using optical bioluminescence imaging. This line, RBC3, was derived from a metastatic breast adenocarcinoma lesion arising in the osseous spine of a rat following intracardiac injection of MDA-231 human breast cancer cells.

Results

Upon culture and reinjection of RBC3, a statistically significantly increased systemic burden of metastatic tumor was noted. The resultant spine lesions were osteolytic, as demonstrated by small animal CT scanning.

Conclusions

This cell line generates spinal metastases that can be tracked in real time and may serve as a useful tool in the study of metastatic disease in the spine.