Browse

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Schwartz, Theodore H. x
  • By Author: Rumalla, Kavelin x
Clear All
Free access

Mina M. Gerges, Kavelin Rumalla, Saniya S. Godil, Iyan Younus, Walid Elshamy, Georgiana A. Dobri, Ashutosh Kacker, Abtin Tabaee, Viay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are benign, slow-growing tumors. After gross-total resection (GTR) or subtotal resection (STR), tumors can recur or progress and may ultimately require additional intervention. A greater understanding of long-term recurrence and progression rates following complete or partial resection and the need for further intervention will help clinicians provide meaningful counsel for their patients and assist data-driven decision-making.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed their institutional database for patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (2003–2014). Only patients with follow-up of at least 5 years after surgery were included. Tumor volumes were measured on pre- and postoperative MRI. Tumor recurrence was defined as the presence of a 0.1-cm3 tumor volume after GTR, and tumor progression was defined as a 25.0% increase in residual tumor after STR.

RESULTS

A total of 190 patients were included, with a mean age of 63.8 ± 13.2 years; 79 (41.6%) were female. The mean follow-up was 75.0 ± 18.0 months. GTR was achieved in 127 (66.8%) patients. In multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.04), preoperative tumor volume (p = 0.03), Knosp score (p < 0.001), and Ki-67 (p = 0.03) were significant predictors of STR. In patients with GTR, the probability of recurrence at 5 and 10 years was 3.9% and 4.7%, and the probability of requiring treatment for recurrence was 0.79% and 1.6%, respectively. In 63 patients who underwent STR, 6 (9.5%) received early postoperative radiation and did not experience progression, while the remaining 57 (90.5%) were observed. Of these, the probability of disease progression at 5 and 10 years was 21% and 24.5%, respectively, and the probability of requiring additional treatment for progression was 17.5% and 21%. Predictors of recurrence or progression in the entire group were Knosp score (p < 0.001) and elevated Ki-67 (p = 0.03). Significant predictors of progression after STR in those who did not receive early radiotherapy were cavernous sinus location (p < 0.05) and tumor size > 1.0 cm3 (p = 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS

Following GTR for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, the 10-year chance of recurrence is low and the need for treatment even lower. After STR, although upfront radiation therapy may prevent progression, even without radiotherapy, the need for intervention at 10 years is only approximately 20% and a period of observation may be warranted to prevent unnecessary prophylactic radiation therapy. Tumor volume > 1 cm3, Knosp score ≥ 3, and Ki-67 ≥ 3% may be useful metrics to prompt closer follow-up or justify early prophylactic radiation therapy.

Full access

Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Iyan Younus, Shlomo Minkowitz, Apostolos John Tsiouris, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Resection of supratentorial meningiomas is generally considered a low-risk procedure, but tumors involving the rolandic cortex present a unique challenge. The rate of motor function deterioration associated with resecting such tumors is not well described in the literature. Thus, the authors sought to report the rates and predictors of postoperative motor deficit following the resection of rolandic meningiomas to assist with patient counseling and surgical decision-making.

METHODS

An institution’s pathology database was screened for meningiomas removed between 2000 and 2017, and patients with neuroradiological evidence of rolandic involvement were identified. Parameters screened as potential predictors included patient age, sex, preoperative motor severity, tumor location, tumor origin (falx vs convexity), histological grade, FLAIR signal (T2-weighted MRI), venous involvement (T1-weighted MRI with contrast), intratumoral hemorrhage, embolization, and degree of resection (Simpson grade). Variables of interest included preoperative weakness and postoperative motor decline (novel or worsened permanent deficit). The SPSS univariate and bivariate analysis functions were used, and statistical significance was determined with alpha < 0.05.

RESULTS

In 89 patients who had undergone resection of convexity (80.9%) or parasagittal (19.1%) rolandic meningiomas, a postoperative motor decline occurred in 24.7%. Of 53 patients (59.6%) with preoperative motor deficits, 60.3% improved, 13.2% were unchanged, and 26.4% worsened following surgery. Among the 36 patients without preoperative deficits, 22.2% developed new weakness. Predictors of preoperative motor deficit included tumor size (41.6 vs 33.2 cm3, p = 0.040) and presence of FLAIR signal (69.8% vs 50.0%, p = 0.046). Predictors of postoperative motor decline were preoperative motor deficit (47.2% vs 22.2%, p = 0.017), minor (compared with severe) preoperative weakness (25.6% vs 21.4%, p < 0.001), and preoperative embolization (54.5% vs 20.5%, p = 0.014). Factors that trended toward significance included parafalcine tumor origin (41.2% vs 20.8% convexity, p = 0.08), significant venous involvement (44.4% vs 23.5% none, p = 0.09), and Simpson grade II+ (34.2% vs 17.6% grade I, p = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS

Resection of rolandic area meningiomas carries a high rate of postoperative morbidity and deserves special preoperative planning. Large tumor size, peritumoral edema, preoperative embolization, parafalcine origin, and venous involvement may further increase the risk. Alternative surgical strategies, such as aggressive internal debulking, may prevent motor decline in a subset of high-risk patients.

Full access

Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Iyan Younus, Shlomo Minkowitz, Apostolos John Tsiouris, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Resection of supratentorial meningiomas is generally considered a low-risk procedure, but tumors involving the rolandic cortex present a unique challenge. The rate of motor function deterioration associated with resecting such tumors is not well described in the literature. Thus, the authors sought to report the rates and predictors of postoperative motor deficit following the resection of rolandic meningiomas to assist with patient counseling and surgical decision-making.

METHODS

An institution’s pathology database was screened for meningiomas removed between 2000 and 2017, and patients with neuroradiological evidence of rolandic involvement were identified. Parameters screened as potential predictors included patient age, sex, preoperative motor severity, tumor location, tumor origin (falx vs convexity), histological grade, FLAIR signal (T2-weighted MRI), venous involvement (T1-weighted MRI with contrast), intratumoral hemorrhage, embolization, and degree of resection (Simpson grade). Variables of interest included preoperative weakness and postoperative motor decline (novel or worsened permanent deficit). The SPSS univariate and bivariate analysis functions were used, and statistical significance was determined with alpha < 0.05.

RESULTS

In 89 patients who had undergone resection of convexity (80.9%) or parasagittal (19.1%) rolandic meningiomas, a postoperative motor decline occurred in 24.7%. Of 53 patients (59.6%) with preoperative motor deficits, 60.3% improved, 13.2% were unchanged, and 26.4% worsened following surgery. Among the 36 patients without preoperative deficits, 22.2% developed new weakness. Predictors of preoperative motor deficit included tumor size (41.6 vs 33.2 cm3, p = 0.040) and presence of FLAIR signal (69.8% vs 50.0%, p = 0.046). Predictors of postoperative motor decline were preoperative motor deficit (47.2% vs 22.2%, p = 0.017), minor (compared with severe) preoperative weakness (25.6% vs 21.4%, p < 0.001), and preoperative embolization (54.5% vs 20.5%, p = 0.014). Factors that trended toward significance included parafalcine tumor origin (41.2% vs 20.8% convexity, p = 0.08), significant venous involvement (44.4% vs 23.5% none, p = 0.09), and Simpson grade II+ (34.2% vs 17.6% grade I, p = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS

Resection of rolandic area meningiomas carries a high rate of postoperative morbidity and deserves special preoperative planning. Large tumor size, peritumoral edema, preoperative embolization, parafalcine origin, and venous involvement may further increase the risk. Alternative surgical strategies, such as aggressive internal debulking, may prevent motor decline in a subset of high-risk patients.

Free access

Malte Ottenhausen, Kavelin Rumalla, Andrew F. Alalade, Prakash Nair, Emanuele La Corte, Iyan Younus, Jonathan A. Forbes, Atef Ben Nsir, Matei A. Banu, Apostolos John Tsiouris, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Anterior skull base meningiomas are benign lesions that cause neurological symptoms through mass effect on adjacent neurovascular structures. While traditional transcranial approaches have proven to be effective at removing these tumors, minimally invasive approaches that involve using an endoscope offer the possibility of reducing brain and nerve retraction, minimizing incision size, and speeding patient recovery; however, appropriate case selection and results in large series are lacking.

METHODS

The authors developed an algorithm for selecting a supraorbital keyhole minicraniotomy (SKM) for olfactory groove meningiomas or an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for tuberculum sella (TS) or planum sphenoidale (PS) meningiomas based on the presence or absence of olfaction and the anatomical extent of the tumor. Where neither approach is appropriate, a standard transcranial approach is utilized. The authors describe rates of gross-total resection (GTR), olfactory outcomes, and visual outcomes, as well as complications, for 7 subgroups of patients. Exceptions to the algorithm are also discussed.

RESULTS

The series of 57 patients harbored 57 anterior skull base meningiomas; the mean tumor volume was 14.7 ± 15.4 cm3 (range 2.2–66.1 cm3), and the mean follow-up duration was 42.2 ± 37.1 months (range 2–144 months). Of 19 patients with olfactory groove meningiomas, 10 had preserved olfaction and underwent SKM, and preservation of olfaction in was seen in 60%. Of 9 patients who presented without olfaction, 8 had cribriform plate invasion and underwent combined SKM and EEA (n = 3), bifrontal craniotomy (n = 3), or EEA (n = 2), and one patient without both olfaction and cribriform plate invasion underwent SKM. GTR was achieved in 94.7%. Of 38 TS/PS meningiomas, 36 of the lesions were treated according to the algorithm. Of these 36 meningiomas, 30 were treated by EEA and 6 by craniotomy. GTR was achieved in 97.2%, with no visual deterioration and one CSF leak that resolved by placement of a lumbar drain. Two patients with tumors that, based on the algorithm, were not amenable to an EEA underwent EEA nonetheless: one had GTR and the other had a residual tumor that was followed and removed via craniotomy 9 years later.

CONCLUSIONS

Utilizing a simple algorithm aimed at preserving olfaction and vision and based on maximizing use of minimally invasive approaches and selective use of transcranial approaches, the authors found that excellent outcomes can be achieved for anterior skull base meningiomas.