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Russell R. Lonser, Alexander Ksendzovsky, Joshua J. Wind, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, and Edward H. Oldfield

Object

Dural invasion by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenomas is a significant risk factor for incomplete resection and recurrence in Cushing disease (CD). Since ACTH-producing adenomas are often the smallest of the various types of pituitary tumors at the time of resection, examining their invasion provides the best opportunity to identify the precise sites of early dural invasion by pituitary adenomas. To characterize the incidence and anatomical distribution of dural invasion by ACTH-secreting adenomas, the authors prospectively and systematically analyzed features of dural invasion in patients with CD.

Methods

The authors prospectively studied consecutive patients with CD undergoing the systematic removal of ACTH-secreting adenoma and histological analysis of the anterior sella dura as well as other sites of dural invasion that were evident at surgery. Clinical, imaging, histological, and operative findings were analyzed.

Results

Eighty-seven patients with CD (58 females and 29 males) were included in the study. Overall, dural invasion by an ACTH-positive adenoma was histologically confirmed in 30 patients (34%). Eighteen patients (60% of dural invasion cases, 21% of all patients) had evidence of cavernous sinus wall invasion (4 of these patients also had other contiguous sites of invasion), and 12 patients (40% of dural invasion cases) had invasion of the sella dura excluding the cavernous sinus wall. Eleven patients (13% all patients) had invasion of the routinely procured anterior sella dura specimen. Preoperative MR imaging revealed an adenoma in 64 patients (74%) but accurately predicted dural invasion in only 4 patients (22%) with cavernous sinus invasion and none of the patients with non–cavernous sinus invasion. Adenomas associated with dural invasion (mean ± SD, 10.9 ± 7.8 mm, range 2–37 mm) were significantly larger than those not associated with dural invasion (5.7 ± 2.1 mm, range 2.5–12 mm; p = 0.0006, Mann-Whitney test).

Conclusions

Dural invasion by ACTH-producing adenomas preferentially occurs laterally into the wall of the cavernous sinus. Preoperative MR imaging infrequently detects dural invasion, including cavernous sinus invasion. Invasion is directly associated with tumor size. To provide a biochemical cure and avoid recurrence after resection, identification and removal of invaded sella dura, including the medial cavernous sinus wall, are necessary.

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Russell R. Lonser, Martin Baggenstos, H. Jeffrey Kim, John A. Butman, and Alexander O. Vortmeyer

Object

Although endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) frequently destroy the posterior petrous bone and cause hearing loss, the anatomical origin of these neoplasms is unknown. To determine the precise topographic origin of ELSTs, the authors analyzed the imaging, operative, and pathological findings in patients with von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) and ELSTs.

Methods

Consecutive VHL patients with small (≤ 1.5 cm) ELSTs who underwent resection at the National Institutes of Health were included. Clinical, imaging, operative, and pathological findings were analyzed.

Results

Ten consecutive VHL patients (6 male and 4 female) with 10 small ELSTs (≤ 1.5 cm; 9 left, 1 right) were included. Serial imaging captured the development of 6 ELSTs and revealed that they originated within the intraosseous (vestibular aqueduct) portion of the endolymphatic duct/sac system. Imaging just before surgery demonstrated that the epicenters of 9 ELSTs (1 ELST was not visible on preoperative imaging) were in the vestibular aqueduct. Inspection during surgery established that all 10 ELSTs were limited to the intraosseous endolymphatic duct/sac and the immediately surrounding region. Histological analysis confirmed tumor within the intraosseous portion (vestibular aqueduct) of the endolymphatic duct/sac in all 10 patients.

Conclusions

ELSTs originate from endolymphatic epithelium within the vestibular aqueduct. High-resolution imaging through the region of the vestibular aqueduct is essential for diagnosis. Surgical exploration of the endolymphatic duct and sac is required for complete resection.

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Jay Jagannathan, John A. Butman, Russell R. Lonser, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Christopher K. Zalewski, Carmen Brewer, Edward H. Oldfield, and H. Jeffrey Kim

✓ Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are locally invasive neoplasms that arise in the posterior petrous bone and are associated with von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size (below the threshold for detectability on imaging studies) and can lead to symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and facial nerve dysfunction. While the mechanisms of audiovestibular dysfunction in patients harboring ELSTs are incompletely understood, they have critical implications for management. The authors present the case of a 33-year-old man with VHL disease and a 10-year history of progressive tinnitus, vertigo, and left-sided hearing loss. Serial T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography scans revealed no evidence of tumor, but fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging sequences obtained after hearing loss demonstrated evidence of left intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. On the basis of progressive disabling audiovestibular dysfunction (tinnitus and vertigo), FLAIR imaging findings, and VHL disease status, the patient underwent surgical exploration of the posterior petrous region, and a small (2-mm) ELST was identified and completely resected. Postoperatively, the patient had improvement of the tinnitus and vertigo. Intralabyrinthine hemorrhage may be an early and the only neuroimaging sign of an ELST in patients with VHL disease and audiovestibular dysfunction. These findings support tumor-associated hemorrhage as a mechanism underlying the audiovestibular dysfunction associated with ELSTs.

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S. Taylor Jarrell, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, W. Marston Linehan, Edward H. Oldfield, and Russell R. Lonser

Object

Patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may be at increased risk for the development of tumor-to-tumor metastases. To gain insight into the biological nature of these lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), to determine their prevalence in a familial neoplasia syndrome, and to better define their management, the authors retrospectively examined a series of cases in which metastatic lesions developed within hemangioblastomas in patients with von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease.

Methods

The study included all cases of VHL disease in which patients underwent resection of a CNS hemangioblastoma that contained a metastasis or were found at autopsy to have a metastasis to a hemangioblastoma between January 2002 and December 2005 at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Clinical, histopathological, imaging, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were analyzed.

Metastasis to a CNS hemangioblastoma was found in six resected tumors (8% of all hemangioblastomas resected from patients with VHL disease at the NINDS during the study period) from six patients (five women, one man; mean age at surgery 42.5 years). The primary site of metastatic disease was the kidney in five patients (renal cell carcinoma) and the pancreas in one (a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor). Only one patient had systemic metastases at the time of resection of the hemangioblastoma containing the metastasis. Neurologically, all patients had remained at baseline or were improved at last clinical follow-up examination (mean follow-up duration 16.5 months, range 3–40 months). In all cases, postoperative imaging revealed that the hemangioblastoma resection was complete, and there was no evidence of recurrence in any of the patients at the last follow up. Two patients (including one who was also in the surgical group) were found at autopsy to have CNS metastases exclusively to spinal hemangioblastomas.

Conclusions

Hemangioblastomas are an early and preferred site for metastasis in VHL disease. Emerging histopathological techniques may lead to recognition of an increasing number of cases of tumor-to-hemangioblastoma metastasis. Management of cases involving tumor-to-hemangioblastoma metastases in VHL disease should be based on the histological characteristics of the primary tumor, extent of the primary disease, and completeness of the resection.

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Timothy W. A. Vogel, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Irina A. Lubensky, Youn-Soo Lee, Makoto Furuta, Barbara Ikejiri, H. Jeffrey Kim, Russell R. Lonser, Edward H. Oldfield, and Zhengping Zhuang

Object. Von Hippel—Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by multiple tumors in specific organs. The cell of origin and the reason for the particular organ distribution of the tumors remains unknown. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is one of the lesions associated with VHL disease. Data from previous studies of VHL disease—associated hemangioblastomas (HBs) and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) have indicated that VHL gene deficiency causes coexpression of erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (Epo-R), which facilitates tumor growth.

Methods. The authors studied ELSTs from five patients with VHL germline mutations. Analysis of the five ELST samples revealed loss of the wild-type allele, consistent with Knudson's two-hit hypothesis for tumorigenesis. All five ELST specimens were characterized microscopically and by immunohistochemical analysis. Coexpression of Epo and Epo-R was found in all five tumors on immunohistochemical studies and confirmed through reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.

Conclusions. Expression of Epo appears to be a result of VHL gene deficiency, whereas the simultaneous coexpression of Epo-R may reflect a developmental mechanism of tumorigenesis. Coexpression of Epo and Epo-R in ELSTs together with the morphological and genetic similarities of these lesions with other VHL disease—associated tumors indicates that VHL disease—associated tumors in different organs share common pathogenetic pathways.

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H. Jeffrey Kim, John A. Butman, Brewer Carmen, Christopher Zalewski, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Gladys Glenn, Edward H. Oldfield, and Russell R. Lonser

Object

Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs), which often are associated with von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease, cause irreversible hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Clinical and imaging surveillance protocols provide new insights into the natural history, mechanisms of symptom formation, and indications for the treatment of ELSTs. To clarify the uncertainties associated with the pathophysiology and treatment of ELSTs, the authors describe a series of patients with VHL disease in whom serial examinations recorded the development of ELSTs.

Methods

Patients with VHL disease were included if serial clinical and imaging studies captured the development of ELSTs, and the patients underwent tumor resection. The patients' clinical, audiological, and imaging characteristics as well as their operative results were analyzed.

Five consecutive patients (three men and two women) with a mean age at surgery of 34.8 years and a follow-up period of 6 to 18 months were included in this study. Audiovestibular symptoms were present in three patients before a tumor was evident on neuroimaging. Imaging evidence of an intralabyrinthine hemorrhage coincided with a loss of hearing in three patients. Successful resection of the ELSTs was accomplished by performing a retrolabyrinthine posterior petrosectomy (RLPP). Hearing stabilized and vestibular symptoms resolved after surgery in all patients. No patient has experienced a recurrence.

Conclusions

Audiovestibular symptoms, including hearing loss, in patients with VHL disease can be the result of microscopic ELSTs. Once an ELST has been detected, it can be completely resected via an RLPP with preservation of hearing and amelioration of vestibular symptoms. Early detection and surgical treatment of small ELSTs, when hearing is still present, should reduce the incidence and severity of hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and cranial nerve dysfunction, which are associated with these tumors.

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H. Jeffrey Kim, John A. Butman, Carmen Brewer, Christopher Zalewski, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Gladys Glenn, Edward H. Oldfield, and Russell R. Lonser

Object. Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs), which often are associated with von Hippel—Lindau (VHL) disease, cause irreversible hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Clinical and imaging surveillance protocols provide new insights into the natural history, mechanisms of symptom formation, and indications for the treatment of ELSTs. To clarify the uncertainties associated with the pathophysiology and treatment of ELSTs, the authors describe a series of patients with VHL disease in whom serial examinations recorded the development of ELSTs.

Methods. Patients with VHL disease were included if serial clinical and imaging studies captured the development of ELSTs, and the patients underwent tumor resection. The patients' clinical, audiological, and imaging characteristics as well as their operative results were analyzed.

Five consecutive patients (three men and two women) with a mean age at surgery of 34.8 years and a follow-up period of 6 to 18 months were included in this study. Audiovestibular symptoms were present in three patients before a tumor was evident on neuroimaging. Imaging evidence of an intralabyrinthine hemorrhage coincided with a loss of hearing in three patients. Successful resection of the ELSTs was accomplished by performing a retrolabyrinthine posterior petrosectomy (RLPP). Hearing stabilized and vestibular symptoms resolved after surgery in all patients. No patient has experienced a recurrence.

Conclusions. Audiovestibular symptoms, including hearing loss, in patients with VHL disease can be the result of microscopic ELSTs. Once an ELST has been detected, it can be completely resected via an RLPP with preservation of hearing and amelioration of vestibular symptoms. Early detection and surgical treatment of small ELSTs, when hearing is still present, should reduce the incidence and severity of hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and cranial nerve dysfunction, which are associated with these tumors.

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David Croteau, Stuart Walbridge, Paul F. Morrison, John A. Butman, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Dennis Johnson, Edward H. Oldfield, and Russell R. Lonser

Object. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is increasingly used to distribute therapeutic agents to locations in the central nervous system. The optimal application of convective distribution of various agents requires the development of imaging tracers to monitor CED in vivo in real time. The authors examined the safety and utility of an iodine-based low-molecular-weight surrogate tracer for computerized tomography (CT) scanning during CED.

Methods. Various volumes (total volume range 90–150 µ1) of iopamidol (MW 777 D) were delivered to the cerebral white matter of four primates (Macaca mulatta) by using CED. The distribution of this imaging tracer was determined by in vivo real-time and postinfusion CT scanning (≤ 5 days after infusion [one animal]) as well as by quantitative autoradiography (14C-sucrose [all animals] and 14C-dextran [one animal]), and compared with a mathematical model. Clinical observation (≤ 5 months) and histopathological analyses were used to evaluate the safety and toxicity of the tracer delivery.

Real-time CT scanning of the tracer during infusion revealed a clearly definable region of perfusion. The volume of distribution (Vd) increased linearly (r2 = 0.97) with an increasing volume of infusion (Vi). The overall Vd/Vi ratio was 4.1 ± 0.7 (mean ± standard deviation) and the distribution of infusate was homogeneous. Quantitative autoradiography confirmed the accuracy of the imaged distribution for a small (sucrose, MW 359 D) and a large (dextran, MW 70 kD) molecule. The distribution of the infusate was identifiable up to 72 hours after infusion. There was no clinical or histopathological evidence of toxicity in any animal.

Conclusions. Real-time in vivo CT scanning of CED of iopamidol appears to be safe, feasible, and suitable for monitoring convective delivery of drugs with certain features and low infusion volumes.

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Jeffrey W. Degen, Stuart Walbridge, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Edward H. Oldfield, and Russell R. Lonser

Object. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can be used safely to perfuse regions of the central nervous system (CNS) with therapeutic agents in a manner that bypasses the blood—brain barrier (BBB). These features make CED a potentially ideal method for the distribution of potent chemotherapeutic agents with certain pharmacokinetic properties to tumors of the CNS. To determine the safety and efficacy of the CED of two chemotherapeutic agents (with properties ideal for this method of delivery) into the CNS, the authors perfused naive rats and those harboring 9L gliomas with carboplatin or gemcitabine.

Methods. Dose-escalation toxicity studies were performed by perfusing the striatum (10 µl, 24 rats) and brainstem (10 µl, 16 rats) of naive rats with carboplatin (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/ml) or gemcitabine (0.4, 4, and 40 mg/ml) via CED. Efficacy trials involved the intracranial implantation of 9L tumor cells in 20 Fischer 344 rats. The tumor and surrounding regions were perfused with 40 µl of saline (control group, four rats), 1 mg/ml of carboplatin (four rats), or 4 mg/ml of gemcitabine (four rats) 7 days after implantation. Eight rats harboring the 9L glioma were treated with the systemic administration of 60 mg/kg of carboplatin (four rats) or 150 mg/kg of gemcitabine (four rats) 7 days postimplantation. Clinical, gross, and histological analyses were used to determine toxicity and efficacy.

Toxicity occurred in rats that had received only the highest dose of the CED of carboplatin or gemcitabine. Among rats with 9L gliomas, all control and systemically treated animals died within 26 days of tumor implantation. Long-term survival (120 days) and eradication of the tumor occurred in both CED-treated groups (75% of rats in the carboplatin group and 50% of rats in the gemcitabine group). Furthermore, animals harboring the 9L glioma and treated with intratumoral CED of carboplatin or gemcitabine survived significantly longer than controls treated with intratumoral saline (p < 0.01) or systemic chemotherapy (p < 0.01).

Conclusions. The perfusion of sensitive regions of the rat brain can be accomplished without toxicity by using therapeutic concentrations of carboplatin or gemcitabine. In addition, CED of carboplatin or gemcitabine to tumors in this glioma model is safe and has potent antitumor effects. These findings indicate that similar treatment paradigms may be useful in the treatment of glial neoplasms in humans.

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Ryszard M. Pluta, Scott D. Wait, John A. Butman, Kathleen A. Leppig, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Edward H. Oldfield, and Russell R. Lonser

Hemangioblastomas are histologically benign neoplasms that occur sporadically or as part of von Hippel–Lindau disease. Hemangioblastomas may occur anywhere along the neuraxis, but sacral hemangioblastomas are extremely rare. To identify features that will help guide the operative and clinical management of these lesions, the authors describe the management of a large von Hippel–Lindau disease–associated sacral hemangioblastoma and review the literature.

The authors present the case of a 38-year-old woman with von Hippel–Lindau disease and a 10-year history of progressive back pain, as well as left lower-extremity pain and numbness. Neurological examination revealed decreased sensation in the left S-1 and S-2 dermatomes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large enhancing lesion in the sacral region, with associated erosion of the sacrum. The patient underwent arteriography and embolization of the tumor and then resection. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hemangioblastoma and showed intrafascicular tumor infiltration of the S-2 nerve root. At 1-year follow-up examination, pain had resolved and numbness improved.

Sacral nerve root hemangioblastomas may be safely removed in most patients, resulting in stabilization or improvement in symptomatology. Generally, hemangioblastomas of the sacral nerve roots should be removed when they cause symptoms. Because they originate from the nerve root, the nerve root from which the hemangioblastoma originates must be sacrificed to achieve complete resection.