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Jie Lu, Alexander Ksendzovsky, Chunzhang Yang, Gautam U. Mehta, Raymund L. Yong, Robert J. Weil, Deric M. Park, Harry M. Mushlin, Xueping Fang, Brian M. Balgley, Dae-Hee Lee, Cheng S. Lee, Russell R. Lonser, and Zhengping Zhuang

Object

Tumor-initiating cells are uniquely resilient to current treatment modalities and play an important role in tumor resistance and recurrence. The lack of specific tumor-initiating cell markers to identify and target these cells presents a major obstacle to effective directed therapy.

Methods

To identify tumor-initiating cell markers in primary brain tumors, the authors compared the proteomes of glioma tumor-initiating cells to their differentiated progeny using a novel, nongel/shotgun-based, multidimensional liquid-chromatography protein separation technique. An in vivo xenograft model was used to demonstrate the tumorigenic and stem cell properties of these cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses were used to confirm findings of upregulated ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit–α (CNTFRα) in undifferentiated tumor-initiating cells and gliomas of increasing tumor grade. Sequencing of the CNTFRα coding regions was performed for mutation analysis. Finally, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was used to establish the role of CNTFRα as a potential immunotherapeutic target.

Results

Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit–α expression was increased in tumor-initiating cells and was decreased in the cells' differentiated progeny, and expression levels increased with glioma grade. Mutations of CNTFRα are not common in gliomas. Functional studies using CNTF treatment in glioma tumor-initiating cells showed induction of differentiation through the CNTFRα pathway. Treatment with anti-CNTFRα antibody resulted in increased antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in CNTFRα expressing DAOY cells but not in cell lines that lack CNTFRα.

Conclusions

These data indicate that CNTFRα plays a role in the formation or maintenance of tumor-initiating cells in gliomas, is a marker that correlates with histological grade, may underlie treatment resistance in some cases, and is a potential therapeutic target.

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Alexander Ksendzovsky, Stuart Walbridge, Richard C. Saunders, Ashok R. Asthagiri, John D. Heiss, and Russell R. Lonser

Object

Recent studies indicate that M13 bacteriophage, a very large nanoparticle, binds to β-amyloid and α-synuclein proteins, leading to plaque disaggregation in models of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. To determine the feasibility, safety, and characteristics of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of M13 bacteriophage to the brain, the authors perfused primate brains with bacteriophage.

Methods

Four nonhuman primates underwent CED of M13 bacteriophage (900 nm) to thalamic gray matter (4 infusions) and frontal white matter (3 infusions). Bacteriophage was coinfused with Gd-DTPA (1 mM), and serial MRI studies were performed during infusion. Animals were monitored for neurological deficits and were killed 3 days after infusion. Tissues were analyzed for bacteriophage distribution.

Results

Real-time T1-weighted MRI studies of coinfused Gd-DTPA during infusion demonstrated a discrete region of perfusion in both thalamic gray and frontal white matter. An MRI-volumetric analysis revealed that the mean volume of distribution (Vd) to volume of infusion (Vi) ratio of M13 bacteriophage was 2.3 ± 0.2 in gray matter and 1.9 ± 0.3 in white matter. The mean values are expressed ± SD. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated mean Vd:Vi ratios of 2.9 ± 0.2 in gray matter and 2.1 ± 0.3 in white matter. The Gd-DTPA accurately tracked M13 bacteriophage distribution (the mean difference between imaging and actual bacteriophage Vd was insignificant [p > 0.05], and was –2.2% ± 9.9% in thalamic gray matter and 9.1% ± 9.5% in frontal white matter). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed evidence of additional spread from the initial delivery site in white matter (mean Vd:Vi, 16.1 ± 9.1). All animals remained neurologically intact after infusion during the observation period, and histological studies revealed no evidence of toxicity.

Conclusions

The CED method can be used successfully and safely to distribute M13 bacteriophage in the brain. Furthermore, additional white matter spread after infusion cessation enhances distribution of this large nanoparticle. Real-time MRI studies of coinfused Gd-DTPA (1 mM) can be used for accurate tracking of distribution during infusion of M13 bacteriophage.

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J. Bradley Elder and E. Antonio Chiocca

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Russell R. Lonser, Alexander Ksendzovsky, Joshua J. Wind, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, and Edward H. Oldfield

Object

Dural invasion by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenomas is a significant risk factor for incomplete resection and recurrence in Cushing disease (CD). Since ACTH-producing adenomas are often the smallest of the various types of pituitary tumors at the time of resection, examining their invasion provides the best opportunity to identify the precise sites of early dural invasion by pituitary adenomas. To characterize the incidence and anatomical distribution of dural invasion by ACTH-secreting adenomas, the authors prospectively and systematically analyzed features of dural invasion in patients with CD.

Methods

The authors prospectively studied consecutive patients with CD undergoing the systematic removal of ACTH-secreting adenoma and histological analysis of the anterior sella dura as well as other sites of dural invasion that were evident at surgery. Clinical, imaging, histological, and operative findings were analyzed.

Results

Eighty-seven patients with CD (58 females and 29 males) were included in the study. Overall, dural invasion by an ACTH-positive adenoma was histologically confirmed in 30 patients (34%). Eighteen patients (60% of dural invasion cases, 21% of all patients) had evidence of cavernous sinus wall invasion (4 of these patients also had other contiguous sites of invasion), and 12 patients (40% of dural invasion cases) had invasion of the sella dura excluding the cavernous sinus wall. Eleven patients (13% all patients) had invasion of the routinely procured anterior sella dura specimen. Preoperative MR imaging revealed an adenoma in 64 patients (74%) but accurately predicted dural invasion in only 4 patients (22%) with cavernous sinus invasion and none of the patients with non–cavernous sinus invasion. Adenomas associated with dural invasion (mean ± SD, 10.9 ± 7.8 mm, range 2–37 mm) were significantly larger than those not associated with dural invasion (5.7 ± 2.1 mm, range 2.5–12 mm; p = 0.0006, Mann-Whitney test).

Conclusions

Dural invasion by ACTH-producing adenomas preferentially occurs laterally into the wall of the cavernous sinus. Preoperative MR imaging infrequently detects dural invasion, including cavernous sinus invasion. Invasion is directly associated with tumor size. To provide a biochemical cure and avoid recurrence after resection, identification and removal of invaded sella dura, including the medial cavernous sinus wall, are necessary.