Ophthalmic artery (OA) aneurysms are surgically challenging lesions that are now mostly treated using endovascular procedures. However, in specialized tertiary care centers with experienced neurosurgeons, controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment of these lesions. This study used propensity adjustment to compare microsurgical and endovascular treatment of unruptured OA aneurysms in experienced tertiary and quaternary settings.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent microsurgical treatment of an unruptured OA aneurysm at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1997 to 2017 and either microsurgical or endovascular treatment at Barrow Neurological Institute from 2011 to 2019. Patients were categorized into two cohorts for comparison: those who underwent open microsurgical clipping, and those who underwent endovascular flow diversion or coil embolization. Outcomes included neurological or visual outcomes, residual or recurrent aneurysms, retreatment, and severe complications.
A total of 345 procedures were analyzed: 247 open microsurgical clipping procedures (72%) and 98 endovascular procedures (28%). Of the 98 endovascular procedures, 16 (16%) were treated with primary coil embolization and 82 (84%) with flow diversion. After propensity adjustment, microsurgical treatment was associated with higher odds of a visual deficit (OR 8.5, 95% CI 1.1–64.9, p = 0.04) but lower odds of residual aneurysm (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01–0.28, p < 0.001) or retreatment (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02–0.58, p = 0.008) than endovascular therapy. No difference was found between the two cohorts with regard to worse modified Rankin Scale score, modified Rankin Scale score greater than 2, or severe complications.
Compared with endovascular therapy, microsurgical clipping of unruptured OA aneurysms is associated with a higher rate of visual deficits but a lower rate of residual and recurrent aneurysms. In centers experienced with both open microsurgical and endovascular treatment of these lesions, the treatment choice should be based on patient preference and aneurysm morphology.