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Meng Huang, Avery Buchholz, Anshit Goyal, Erica Bisson, Zoher Ghogawala, Eric Potts, John Knightly, Domagoj Coric, Anthony Asher, Kevin Foley, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Paul Park, Mark Shaffrey, Kai-Ming Fu, Jonathan Slotkin, Steven Glassman, Mohamad Bydon, and Michael Wang

OBJECTIVE

Surgical treatment for degenerative spondylolisthesis has been proven to be clinically challenging and cost-effective. However, there is a range of thresholds that surgeons utilize for incorporating fusion in addition to decompressive laminectomy in these cases. This study investigates these surgeon- and site-specific factors by using the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD).

METHODS

The QOD was queried for all cases that had undergone surgery for grade 1 spondylolisthesis from database inception to February 2019. In addition to patient-specific covariates, surgeon-specific covariates included age, sex, race, years in practice (0–10, 11–20, 21–30, > 30 years), and fellowship training. Site-specific variables included hospital location (rural, suburban, urban), teaching versus nonteaching status, and hospital type (government, nonfederal; private, nonprofit; private, investor owned). Multivariable regression and predictor importance analyses were performed to identify predictors of the treatment performed (decompression alone vs decompression and fusion). The model was clustered by site to account for site-specific heterogeneity in treatment selection.

RESULTS

A total of 12,322 cases were included with 1988 (16.1%) that had undergone decompression alone. On multivariable regression analysis clustered by site, adjusting for patient-level clinical covariates, no surgeon-specific factors were found to be significantly associated with the odds of selecting decompression alone as the surgery performed. However, sites located in suburban areas (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09–4.84, p = 0.03) were more likely to perform decompression alone (reference = urban). Sites located in rural areas had higher odds of performing decompression alone than hospitals located in urban areas, although the results were not statistically significant (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.59–2.61, p = 0.49). Nonteaching status was independently associated with lower odds of performing decompression alone (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19–0.97, p = 0.04). Predictor importance analysis revealed that the most important determinants of treatment selection were dominant symptom (Wald χ2 = 34.7, accounting for 13.6% of total χ2) and concurrent diagnosis of disc herniation (Wald χ2 = 31.7, accounting for 12.4% of total χ2). Hospital teaching status was also found to be relatively important (Wald χ2 = 4.2, accounting for 1.6% of total χ2) but less important than other patient-level predictors.

CONCLUSIONS

Nonteaching centers were more likely to perform decompressive laminectomy with supplemental fusion for spondylolisthesis. Suburban hospitals were more likely to perform decompression only. Surgeon characteristics were not found to influence treatment selection after adjustment for clinical covariates. Further large database registry experience from surgeons at high-volume academic centers at which surgically and medically complex patients are treated may provide additional insight into factors associated with treatment preference for degenerative spondylolisthesis.

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Timothy J. Yee, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Michael J. Strong, Ayobami L. Ward, Clay M. Elswick, Sudharsan Srinivasan, Paul Park, Mark E. Oppenlander, Daniel E. Spratt, William C. Jackson, and Nicholas J. Szerlip

OBJECTIVE

Decompression with instrumented fusion is commonly employed for spinal metastatic disease. Arthrodesis is typically sought despite limited knowledge of fusion outcomes, high procedural morbidity, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to describe survival, fusion, and hardware failure after decompression and fusion for spinal metastatic disease.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively examined a prospectively collected, single-institution database of adult patients undergoing decompression and instrumented fusion for spinal metastases. Patients were followed clinically until death or loss to follow-up. Fusion was assessed using CT when performed for oncological surveillance at 6-month intervals through 24 months postoperatively. Estimated cumulative incidences for fusion and hardware failure accounted for the competing risk of death. Potential risk factors were analyzed with univariate Fine and Gray proportional subdistribution hazard models.

RESULTS

One hundred sixty-four patients were identified. The mean age ± SD was 62.2 ± 10.8 years, 61.6% of patients were male, 98.8% received allograft and/or autograft, and 89.6% received postoperative radiotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of median survival was 11.0 months (IQR 3.5–37.8 months). The estimated cumulative incidences of any fusion and of complete fusion were 28.8% (95% CI 21.3%–36.7%) and 8.2% (95% CI 4.1%–13.9%). Of patients surviving 6 and 12 months, complete fusion was observed in 12.5% and 16.1%, respectively. The estimated cumulative incidence of hardware failure was 4.2% (95% CI 1.5–9.3%). Increasing age predicted hardware failure (HR 1.2, p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

Low rates of complete fusion and hardware failure were observed due to the high competing risk of death. Further prospective, case-control studies incorporating nonfusion instrumentation techniques may be warranted.

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Paul Park, Victor Chang, Hsueh-Han Yeh, Jason M. Schwalb, David R. Nerenz, Lonni R. Schultz, Muwaffak M. Abdulhak, Richard Easton, Miguelangelo Perez-Cruet, Osama N. Kashlan, Mark E. Oppenlander, Nicholas J. Szerlip, Kevin N. Swong, and Ilyas S. Aleem

OBJECTIVE

In 2017, Michigan passed new legislation designed to reduce opioid abuse. This study evaluated the impact of these new restrictive laws on preoperative narcotic use, short-term outcomes, and readmission rates after spinal surgery.

METHODS

Patient data from 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of the new opioid laws (beginning July 1, 2018) were queried from the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative database. Before and after implementation of the major elements of the new laws, 12,325 and 11,988 patients, respectively, were treated.

RESULTS

Patients before and after passage of the opioid laws had generally similar demographic and surgical characteristics. Notably, after passage of the opioid laws, the number of patients taking daily narcotics preoperatively decreased from 3783 (48.7%) to 2698 (39.7%; p < 0.0001). Three months postoperatively, there were no differences in minimum clinically important difference (56.0% vs 58.0%, p = 0.1068), numeric rating scale (NRS) score of back pain (3.5 vs 3.4, p = 0.1156), NRS score of leg pain (2.7 vs 2.7, p = 0.3595), satisfaction (84.4% vs 84.7%, p = 0.6852), or 90-day readmission rate (5.8% vs 6.2%, p = 0.3202) between groups. Although there was no difference in readmission rates, pain as a reason for readmission was marginally more common (0.86% vs 1.22%, p = 0.0323).

CONCLUSIONS

There was a meaningful decrease in preoperative narcotic use, but notably there was no apparent negative impact on postoperative recovery, patient satisfaction, or short-term outcomes after spinal surgery despite more restrictive opioid prescribing. Although the readmission rate did not significantly increase, pain as a reason for readmission was marginally more frequently observed.

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Paul Park, Victor Chang, Hsueh-Han Yeh, Jason M. Schwalb, David R. Nerenz, Lonni R. Schultz, Muwaffak M. Abdulhak, Richard Easton, Miguelangelo Perez-Cruet, Osama N. Kashlan, Mark E. Oppenlander, Nicholas J. Szerlip, Kevin N. Swong, and Ilyas S. Aleem

OBJECTIVE

In 2017, Michigan passed new legislation designed to reduce opioid abuse. This study evaluated the impact of these new restrictive laws on preoperative narcotic use, short-term outcomes, and readmission rates after spinal surgery.

METHODS

Patient data from 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of the new opioid laws (beginning July 1, 2018) were queried from the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative database. Before and after implementation of the major elements of the new laws, 12,325 and 11,988 patients, respectively, were treated.

RESULTS

Patients before and after passage of the opioid laws had generally similar demographic and surgical characteristics. Notably, after passage of the opioid laws, the number of patients taking daily narcotics preoperatively decreased from 3783 (48.7%) to 2698 (39.7%; p < 0.0001). Three months postoperatively, there were no differences in minimum clinically important difference (56.0% vs 58.0%, p = 0.1068), numeric rating scale (NRS) score of back pain (3.5 vs 3.4, p = 0.1156), NRS score of leg pain (2.7 vs 2.7, p = 0.3595), satisfaction (84.4% vs 84.7%, p = 0.6852), or 90-day readmission rate (5.8% vs 6.2%, p = 0.3202) between groups. Although there was no difference in readmission rates, pain as a reason for readmission was marginally more common (0.86% vs 1.22%, p = 0.0323).

CONCLUSIONS

There was a meaningful decrease in preoperative narcotic use, but notably there was no apparent negative impact on postoperative recovery, patient satisfaction, or short-term outcomes after spinal surgery despite more restrictive opioid prescribing. Although the readmission rate did not significantly increase, pain as a reason for readmission was marginally more frequently observed.

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Michael J. Strong, Timothy J. Yee, Siri Sahib S. Khalsa, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Kevin N. Swong, Osama N. Kashlan, Nicholas J. Szerlip, Paul Park, and Mark E. Oppenlander

OBJECTIVE

The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) technique is used to treat many common spinal degenerative pathologies including kyphoscoliosis. The use of spinal navigation for LLIF has not been broadly adopted, especially in adult spinal deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility as well as the intraoperative and navigation-related complications of computer-assisted 3D navigation (CaN) during multiple-level LLIF for spinal deformity.

METHODS

Retrospective analysis of clinical and operative characteristics was performed for all patients > 18 years of age who underwent multiple-level CaN LLIF combined with posterior instrumentation for adult spinal deformity at the University of Michigan between 2014 and 2020. Intraoperative CaN-related complications, LLIF approach–related postoperative complications, and medical postoperative complications were assessed.

RESULTS

Fifty-nine patients were identified. The mean age was 66.3 years (range 42–83 years) and body mass index was 27.6 kg/m2 (range 18–43 kg/m2). The average coronal Cobb angle was 26.8° (range 3.6°–67.0°) and sagittal vertical axis was 6.3 cm (range −2.3 to 14.7 cm). The average number of LLIF and posterior instrumentation levels were 2.97 cages (range 2–5 cages) and 5.78 levels (range 3–14 levels), respectively. A total of 6 intraoperative complications related to the LLIF stage occurred in 5 patients. Three of these were CaN-related and occurred in 2 patients (3.4%), including 1 misplaced lateral interbody cage (0.6% of 175 total lateral cages placed) requiring intraoperative revision. No patient required a return to the operating room for a misplaced interbody cage. A total of 12 intraoperative complications related to the posterior stage occurred in 11 patients, with 5 being CaN-related and occurring in 4 patients (6.8%). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant risk factors for intraoperative and CaN-related complications. Transient hip weakness and numbness were found to be in 20.3% and 22.0% of patients, respectively. At the 1-month follow-up, weakness was observed in 3.4% and numbness in 11.9% of patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Use of CaN in multiple-level LLIF in the treatment of adult spinal deformity appears to be a safe and effective technique. The incidence of approach-related complications with CaN was 3.4% and cage placement accuracy was high.

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Yamaan S. Saadeh, Clay M. Elswick, Eleanor Smith, Timothy J. Yee, Michael J. Strong, Kevin Swong, Brandon W. Smith, Mark E. Oppenlander, Osama N. Kashlan, and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

Age is known to be a risk factor for increased complications due to surgery. However, elderly patients can gain significant quality-of-life benefits from surgery. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a minimally invasive procedure that is commonly used to treat degenerative spine disease. Recently, 3D navigation has been applied to LLIF. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an increased complication risk in the elderly with navigated LLIF.

METHODS

Patients who underwent 3D-navigated LLIF for degenerative disease from 2014 to 2019 were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into elderly and nonelderly groups, with those 65 years and older categorized as elderly. Ninety-day medical and surgical complications were recorded. Patient and surgical characteristics were compared between groups, and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for complication.

RESULTS

Of the 115 patients included, 56 were elderly and 59 were nonelderly. There were 15 complications (25.4%) in the nonelderly group and 10 (17.9%) in the elderly group, which was not significantly different (p = 0.44). On multivariable analysis, age was not a risk factor for complication (p = 0.52). However, multiple-level LLIF was associated with an increased risk of approach-related complication (OR 3.58, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Elderly patients do not appear to experience higher rates of approach-related complications compared with nonelderly patients undergoing 3D navigated LLIF. Rather, multilevel surgery is a predictor for approach-related complication.

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Paul Park, Juan Uribe, Tokumi Kanemura, and Dean Chou

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Jay K. Nathan, Mitchell A. Johnson, Jennifer F. Waljee, Nicholas Szerlip, Paul Park, and Mark E. Oppenlander

OBJECTIVE

Approximately 550,000 Americans experience vertebral fracture annually, and most receive opioids to treat the resulting pain. Kyphoplasty of the fractured vertebra is a procedural alternative that may mitigate risks of even short-term opioid use. While reports of kyphoplasty’s impact on pain scores are mixed, no large-scale data exist regarding opioid prescribing before and after the procedure. This study was conducted to determine whether timing of kyphoplasty following vertebral fracture is associated with duration or intensity of opioid prescribing.

METHODS

This retrospective cohort study used 2001–2014 insurance claims data from a single, large private insurer in the US across multiple care settings. Patients were adults with vertebral fractures who were prescribed opioids and underwent balloon-assisted kyphoplasty within 4 months of fracture. Opioid overdose risk was stratified by prescribed average daily morphine milligram equivalents using CDC guidelines. Filled prescriptions and risk categories were evaluated at baseline and 90 days following kyphoplasty.

RESULTS

Inclusion criteria were met by 7119 patients (median age 77 years, 71.7% female). Among included patients, 3505 (49.2%) were opioid naïve before fracture. Of these patients, 31.1% had new persistent opioid prescribing beyond 90 days after kyphoplasty, and multivariable logistic regression identified kyphoplasty after 8 weeks as a predictor (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.76). For patients previously receiving opioids, kyphoplasty > 4 weeks after fracture was associated with persistently elevated prescribing risk (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.23–2.74).

CONCLUSIONS

New persistent opioid prescribing occurred in nearly one-third of patients undergoing kyphoplasty after vertebral fracture, although early treatment was associated with a reduction in this risk. For patients not naïve to opioids before fracture diagnosis, early kyphoplasty was associated with less persistent elevation of opioid overdose risk. Subsequent trials must compare opioid use by vertebral fracture patients treated via operative (kyphoplasty) and nonoperative (ongoing opioid) strategies before concluding that kyphoplasty lacks value, and early referral for kyphoplasty may be appropriate to avoid missing a window of efficacy.

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Suyash Singh, Jayesh Sardhara, Anant Mehrotra, and Sanjay Behari

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Paul Park, Khoi D. Than, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Pierce D. Nunley, Robert K. Eastlack, Juan S. Uribe, Michael Y. Wang, Vivian Le, Richard G. Fessler, David O. Okonkwo, Adam S. Kanter, Neel Anand, Dean Chou, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Alexander F. Haddad, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., and the International Spine Study Group

OBJECTIVE

Surgical decision-making and planning is a key factor in optimizing outcomes in adult spinal deformity (ASD). Minimally invasive spinal (MIS) strategies for ASD have been increasingly used as an option to decrease postoperative morbidity. This study analyzes factors involved in the selection of either a traditional open approach or a minimally invasive approach to treat ASD in a prospective, nonrandomized multicenter trial. All centers had at least 5 years of experience in minimally invasive techniques for ASD.

METHODS

The study enrolled 268 patients, of whom 120 underwent open surgery and 148 underwent MIS surgery. Inclusion criteria included age ≥ 18 years, and at least one of the following criteria: coronal curve (CC) ≥ 20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm, pelvic tilt (PT) > 25°, or thoracic kyphosis (TK) > 60°. Surgical approach selection was made at the discretion of the operating surgeon. Preoperative significant differences were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine odds ratios (ORs) for approach selection.

RESULTS

Significant preoperative differences (p < 0.05) between open and MIS groups were noted for age (61.9 vs 66.7 years), numerical rating scale (NRS) back pain score (7.8 vs 7), CC (36° vs 26.1°), PT (26.4° vs 23°), T1 pelvic angle (TPA; 25.8° vs 21.7°), and pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis (PI-LL; 19.6° vs 14.9°). No significant differences in BMI (29 vs 28.5 kg/m2), NRS leg pain score (5.2 vs 5.7), Oswestry Disability Index (48.4 vs 47.2), Scoliosis Research Society 22-item questionnaire score (2.7 vs 2.8), PI (58.3° vs 57.1°), LL (38.9° vs 42.3°), or SVA (73.8 mm vs 60.3 mm) were found. Multivariate analysis found that age (OR 1.05, p = 0.002), VAS back pain score (OR 1.21, p = 0.016), CC (OR 1.03, p < 0.001), decompression (OR 4.35, p < 0.001), and TPA (OR 1.09, p = 0.023) were significant factors in approach selection.

CONCLUSIONS

Increasing age was the primary driver for selecting MIS surgery. Conversely, increasingly severe deformities and the need for open decompression were the main factors influencing the selection of traditional open surgery. As experience with MIS surgery continues to accumulate, future longitudinal evaluation will reveal if more experience, use of specialized treatment algorithms, refinement of techniques, and technology will expand surgeon adoption of MIS techniques for adult spinal deformity.