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Gabriel F. Santiago, Amir Wolff, Micah Belzberg, and Chad R. Gordon

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Jesús A. Morales-Gómez, Everardo Garcia-Estrada, Jorge E. Leos-Bortoni, Miriam Delgado-Brito, Luis E. Flores-Huerta, Adriana A. De La Cruz-Arriaga, Luis J. Torres-Díaz, and Ángel R. Martínez-Ponce de León


Cranioplasty implants should be widely available, low in cost, and customized or easy to mold during surgery. Although autologous bone remains the first choice for repair, it cannot always be used due to infection, fragmentation, bone resorption, or other causes, which led to use of synthetic alternatives. The most frequently used allogenic material for cranial reconstructions with long-term results is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Three-dimensional printing technology has allowed the production of increasingly popular customized, prefabricated implants. The authors describe their method and experience with a customized PMMA prosthesis using a precise and reliable low-cost implant that can be customized at any institution with open-source or low-cost software and desktop 3D printers.


A review of 22 consecutive patients undergoing CT-based, low-cost, customized PMMA cranioplasty over a 1-year period at a university teaching hospital was performed. Preoperative data included patient sex and age; CT modeling parameters, including the surface area of the implant (defect); reason for craniectomy; date(s) of injury and/or resections; the complexity of the defect; and associated comorbidities. Postoperative data included morbiditiy and complications, such as implant exposure, infection, hematoma, seroma, implant failure, and seizures; the cost of the implant; and cosmetic outcome.


Indications for the primary craniectomy were traumatic brain injury (16, 73%), tumor resection (3, 14%), infection (1, 4%), and vascular (2, 9%). The median interval between previous surgery and PMMA cranioplasty was 12 months. The operation time ranged from 90 to 150 minutes (mean 126 minutes). The average cranial defect measured 65.16 cm2 (range 29.31–131.06 cm2). During the recovery period, there was no sign of infection, implant rejection, or wound dehiscence, and none of the implants had to be removed over a follow-up ranging from 1 to 6 months. The aesthetic appearance of all patients was significantly improved, and the implant fit was excellent.


The use of a customized PMMA was associated with excellent patient, family, and surgeon satisfaction at follow-up at a fraction of the cost associated with commercially available implants. This technique could be an attractive option to all patients undergoing cranioplasty.

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Jesús A. Morales-Gómez, Vicente V. Garza-Oyervides, José A. Arenas-Ruiz, Mariana Mercado-Flores, C. Guillermo Elizondo-Riojas, Frederick A. Boop, and Ángel Martínez-Ponce de León

Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas, also known as nongalenic fistulas, are rare vascular malformations affecting predominantly the pediatric population. Hydrocephalus is an unusual presentation in which the exact pathophysiology is not fully understood. The aim of treatment in these cases is occlusion of the fistula prior to considering ventricular shunting. Here, the authors describe the hydrodynamic considerations of the paravascular pathway and the resolution of hydrocephalus with endovascular treatment of the fistula.