Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common problem during the postoperative course after pituitary surgery. Although treatment of this condition is well characterized, prevention strategies are less studied and reported. The authors sought to characterize outcomes and predictive factors of SIADH after implementation of routine postoperative fluid restriction for patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma.
In March 2018, routine postoperative fluid restriction to 1000 ml/day for 7 days was instituted for all patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma. These patients were compared with patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma between March 2016 and March 2018, prior to implementation of routine fluid restriction. Patients with preoperative history of diabetes insipidus (DI) or concern for postsurgical DI were excluded. Patients were followed by neuroendocrinologists and neurosurgeons, and sodium levels were checked between 7 and 10 days postoperatively. SIADH was defined by a serum sodium level less than 136 mmol/L, with or without symptoms within 10 days after surgery. Thirty-day readmission was recorded and reviewed to determine underlying reasons.
In total, 82 patients in the fluid-unrestricted cohort and 135 patients in the fluid-restricted cohort were analyzed. The patients in the fluid-restricted cohort had a significantly lower rate of postoperative SIADH than patients in the fluid-unrestricted cohort (5% vs 15%, adjusted OR [95% CI] 0.1 [0.0–0.6], p = 0.01). Higher BMI was associated with lower rate of postoperative SIADH (adjusted OR [95%] 0.9 [0.9–1.0], p = 0.03), whereas female sex was associated with higher rate of SIADH (adjusted OR [95% CI] 3.1 [1.1–9.8], p = 0.03). There was no difference in the 30-day readmission rates between patients in the fluid-unrestricted and fluid-restricted cohorts (4% vs 7%, adjusted OR [95% CI] 0.5 [0–5.1], p = 0.56). Thirty-day readmission was more likely for patients with history of hypertension (adjusted OR [95% CI] 5.7 [1.3–26.3], p = 0.02) and less likely for White patients (adjusted OR [95% CI] 0.3 [0.1–0.9], p = 0.04).
Routine fluid restriction reduced the rate of SIADH in patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma but was not associated with reduction in 30-day readmission rate.