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Brooke Sadler, Alex Skidmore, Jordan Gewirtz, Richard C. E. Anderson, Gabe Haller, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Christine Averill, Lissa C. Baird, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin S. Bierbrauer, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, Andrew H. Jea, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Nickalus Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, Timothy B. Mapstone, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael Muhlbauer, W. Jerry Oakes, Greg Olavarria, Brent R. O’Neill, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Jodi Smith, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Gerald F. Tuite, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, David D. Limbrick Jr., and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I)–associated syringomyelia. While it is known that treatment with posterior fossa decompression (PFD) may reduce the progression of scoliosis, it is unknown if decompression with duraplasty is superior to extradural decompression.

METHODS

A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of 1257 pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for patients with scoliosis who underwent PFD with or without duraplasty.

RESULTS

In total, 422 patients who underwent PFD had a clinical diagnosis of scoliosis. Of these patients, 346 underwent duraplasty, 51 received extradural decompression alone, and 25 were excluded because no data were available on the type of PFD. The mean clinical follow-up was 2.6 years. Overall, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of fusion or proportion of patients with curve progression between those with and those without a duraplasty. However, after controlling for age, sex, preoperative curve magnitude, syrinx length, syrinx width, and holocord syrinx, extradural decompression was associated with curve progression > 10°, but not increased occurrence of fusion. Older age at PFD and larger preoperative curve magnitude were independently associated with subsequent occurrence of fusion. Greater syrinx reduction after PFD of either type was associated with decreased occurrence of fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis undergoing PFD, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of surgical correction of scoliosis between those receiving a duraplasty and those with an extradural decompression. However, after controlling for preoperative factors including age, syrinx characteristics, and curve magnitude, patients treated with duraplasty were less likely to have curve progression than patients treated with extradural decompression. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of duraplasty in curve stabilization after PFD.

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Brooke Sadler, Alex Skidmore, Jordan Gewirtz, Richard C. E. Anderson, Gabe Haller, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Christine Averill, Lissa C. Baird, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin S. Bierbrauer, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, Andrew H. Jea, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Nickalus Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, Timothy B. Mapstone, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael Muhlbauer, W. Jerry Oakes, Greg Olavarria, Brent R. O’Neill, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Jodi Smith, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Gerald F. Tuite, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, David D. Limbrick Jr., and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I)–associated syringomyelia. While it is known that treatment with posterior fossa decompression (PFD) may reduce the progression of scoliosis, it is unknown if decompression with duraplasty is superior to extradural decompression.

METHODS

A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of 1257 pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for patients with scoliosis who underwent PFD with or without duraplasty.

RESULTS

In total, 422 patients who underwent PFD had a clinical diagnosis of scoliosis. Of these patients, 346 underwent duraplasty, 51 received extradural decompression alone, and 25 were excluded because no data were available on the type of PFD. The mean clinical follow-up was 2.6 years. Overall, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of fusion or proportion of patients with curve progression between those with and those without a duraplasty. However, after controlling for age, sex, preoperative curve magnitude, syrinx length, syrinx width, and holocord syrinx, extradural decompression was associated with curve progression > 10°, but not increased occurrence of fusion. Older age at PFD and larger preoperative curve magnitude were independently associated with subsequent occurrence of fusion. Greater syrinx reduction after PFD of either type was associated with decreased occurrence of fusion.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis undergoing PFD, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of surgical correction of scoliosis between those receiving a duraplasty and those with an extradural decompression. However, after controlling for preoperative factors including age, syrinx characteristics, and curve magnitude, patients treated with duraplasty were less likely to have curve progression than patients treated with extradural decompression. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of duraplasty in curve stabilization after PFD.

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Adrian J. Rodrigues, Michael C. Jin, Adela Wu, Hriday P. Bhambhvani, Gordon Li, and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

Although past studies have associated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with higher incidences of secondary neoplasms (SNs), its effect on SN development from pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs), defined as WHO grade I and II gliomas of astrocytic or oligodendrocytic origin, is not well understood. Utilizing a national cancer registry, the authors sought to characterize the risk of SN development after EBRT treatment of pediatric LGG.

METHODS

A total of 1245 pediatric patient (aged 0–17 years) records from 1973 to 2015 were assembled from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Univariable and multivariable subdistribution hazard regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic impact of demographic, tumor, and treatment-related covariates. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline characteristics. Cumulative incidence analyses measured the time to, and rate of, SN development, stratified by receipt of EBRT and controlled for competing mortality risk. The Fine and Gray semiparametric model was used to estimate future SN risk in EBRT- and non–EBRT-treated pediatric patients.

RESULTS

In this study, 366 patients received EBRT and 879 did not. Forty-six patients developed SNs after an LGG diagnosis, and 27 of these patients received EBRT (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.90–6.95; p < 0.001). For patients alive 30 years from the initial LGG diagnosis, the absolute risk of SN development in the EBRT-treated cohort was 12.61% (95% CI 8.31–13.00) compared with 4.99% (95% CI 4.38–12.23) in the non–EBRT-treated cohort (p = 0.013). Cumulative incidence curves that were adjusted for competing events still demonstrated higher rates of SN development in the EBRT-treated patients with LGGs. After matching across available covariates and again adjusting for the competing risk of mortality, a clear association between EBRT and SN development remained (subhazard ratio 2.26, 95% CI 1.21–4.20; p = 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS

Radiation therapy was associated with an increased risk of future SNs for pediatric patients surviving LGGs. These data suggest that the long-term implications of EBRT should be considered when making treatment decisions for this patient population

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Michael C. Jin, Jonathon J. Parker, Michael Zhang, Zack A. Medress, Casey H. Halpern, Gordon Li, John K. Ratliff, Gerald A. Grant, Robert S. Fisher, and Stephen Skirboll

OBJECTIVE

Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with significant mortality, cost, and risk of future seizures. In one of the first studies of SE after neurosurgery, the authors assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of postneurosurgical SE (PNSE).

METHODS

Neurosurgical admissions from the MarketScan Claims and Encounters database (2007 through 2015) were assessed in a longitudinal cross-sectional sample of privately insured patients who underwent qualifying cranial procedures in the US and were older than 18 years of age. The incidence of early (in-hospital) and late (postdischarge readmission) SE and associated mortality was assessed. Procedural, pathological, demographic, and anatomical covariates parameterized multivariable logistic regression and Cox models. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to study the incidence of early and late PNSE. A risk-stratification simulation was performed, combining individual predictors into singular risk estimates.

RESULTS

A total of 197,218 admissions (218,217 procedures) were identified. Early PNSE occurred during 637 (0.32%) of 197,218 admissions for cranial neurosurgical procedures. A total of 1045 (0.56%) cases of late PNSE were identified after 187,771 procedure admissions with nonhospice postdischarge follow-up. After correction for comorbidities, craniotomy for trauma, hematoma, or elevated intracranial pressure was associated with increased risk of early PNSE (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.538, 95% CI 1.183–1.999). Craniotomy for meningioma resection was associated with an increased risk of early PNSE compared with resection of metastases and parenchymal primary brain tumors (aOR 2.701, 95% CI 1.388–5.255). Craniotomies for infection or abscess (aHR 1.447, 95% CI 1.016–2.061) and CSF diversion (aHR 1.307, 95% CI 1.076–1.587) were associated with highest risk of late PNSE. Use of continuous electroencephalography in patients with early (p < 0.005) and late (p < 0.001) PNSE rose significantly over the study time period. The simulation regression model predicted that patients at high risk for early PNSE experienced a 1.10% event rate compared with those at low risk (0.07%). Similarly, patients predicted to be at highest risk for late PNSE were significantly more likely to eventually develop late PNSE than those at lowest risk (HR 54.16, 95% CI 24.99–104.80).

CONCLUSIONS

Occurrence of early and late PNSE was associated with discrete neurosurgical pathologies and increased mortality. These data provide a framework for prospective validation of clinical and perioperative risk factors and indicate patients for heightened diagnostic suspicion of PNSE.

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Alexander T. Yahanda, P. David Adelson, S. Hassan A. Akbari, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Brent R. O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Joshua S. Shimony, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, James C. Torner, Gerald F. Tuite, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

METHODS

The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

RESULTS

A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

CONCLUSIONS

In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.

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Jennifer L. Quon, Michelle Han, Lily H. Kim, Mary Ellen Koran, Leo C. Chen, Edward H. Lee, Jason Wright, Vijay Ramaswamy, Robert M. Lober, Michael D. Taylor, Gerald A. Grant, Samuel H. Cheshier, John R. W. Kestle, Michael S. B. Edwards, and Kristen W. Yeom

OBJECTIVE

Imaging evaluation of the cerebral ventricles is important for clinical decision-making in pediatric hydrocephalus. Although quantitative measurements of ventricular size, over time, can facilitate objective comparison, automated tools for calculating ventricular volume are not structured for clinical use. The authors aimed to develop a fully automated deep learning (DL) model for pediatric cerebral ventricle segmentation and volume calculation for widespread clinical implementation across multiple hospitals.

METHODS

The study cohort consisted of 200 children with obstructive hydrocephalus from four pediatric hospitals, along with 199 controls. Manual ventricle segmentation and volume calculation values served as “ground truth” data. An encoder-decoder convolutional neural network architecture, in which T2-weighted MR images were used as input, automatically delineated the ventricles and output volumetric measurements. On a held-out test set, segmentation accuracy was assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (0 to 1) and volume calculation was assessed using linear regression. Model generalizability was evaluated on an external MRI data set from a fifth hospital. The DL model performance was compared against FreeSurfer research segmentation software.

RESULTS

Model segmentation performed with an overall Dice score of 0.901 (0.946 in hydrocephalus, 0.856 in controls). The model generalized to external MR images from a fifth pediatric hospital with a Dice score of 0.926. The model was more accurate than FreeSurfer, with faster operating times (1.48 seconds per scan).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors present a DL model for automatic ventricle segmentation and volume calculation that is more accurate and rapid than currently available methods. With near-immediate volumetric output and reliable performance across institutional scanner types, this model can be adapted to the real-time clinical evaluation of hydrocephalus and improve clinician workflow.

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Michael C. Jin, Bina Kakusa, Seul Ku, Silvia D. Vaca, Linda W. Xu, Juliet Nalwanga, Joel Kiryabwire, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Michael Muhumuza, Anthony T. Fuller, Michael M. Haglund, and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Uganda and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Due to the difficulty of long-term in-person follow-up, there is a paucity of literature on longitudinal outcomes of TBI in LMICs. Using a scalable phone-centered survey, this study attempted to investigate factors associated with both mortality and quality of life in Ugandan patients with TBI.

METHODS

A prospective registry of adult patients with TBI admitted to the neurosurgical ward at Mulago National Referral Hospital was assembled. Long-term follow-up was conducted between 10.4 and 30.5 months after discharge (median 18.6 months). Statistical analyses included univariable and multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression to elucidate factors associated with mortality and long-term recovery.

RESULTS

A total of 1274 adult patients with TBI were included, of whom 302 (23.7%) died as inpatients. Patients who died as inpatients received surgery less frequently (p < 0.001), had more severe TBI at presentation (p < 0.001), were older (p < 0.001), and were more likely to be female (p < 0.0001). Patients presenting with TBI resulting from assault were at reduced risk of inpatient death compared with those presenting with TBI caused by road traffic accidents (OR 0.362, 95% CI 0.128–0.933). Inpatient mortality and postdischarge mortality prior to follow-up were 23.7% and 9%, respectively. Of those discharged, 60.8% were reached through phone interviews. Higher Glasgow Coma Scale score at discharge (continuous HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53–0.94) was associated with improved long-term survival. Tracheostomy (HR 4.38, 95% CI 1.05–16.7) and older age (continuous HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.009–1.05) were associated with poor long-term outcomes. More than 15% of patients continued to suffer from TBI sequelae years after the initial injury, including seizures (6.1%) and depression (10.0%). Despite more than 60% of patients seeking follow-up healthcare visits, mortality was still 9% among discharged patients, suggesting a need for improved longitudinal care to monitor recovery progress.

CONCLUSIONS

Inpatient and postdischarge mortality remain high following admission to Uganda’s main tertiary hospital with the diagnosis of TBI. Furthermore, posttraumatic sequelae, including seizures and depression, continue to burden patients years after discharge. Effective scalable solutions, including phone interviews, are needed to elucidate and address factors limiting in-hospital capacity and access to follow-up healthcare.

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Laura M. Prolo, Michael C. Jin, Tina Loven, Hannes Vogel, Michael S. B. Edwards, Gary K. Steinberg, and Gerald A. Grant

OBJECTIVE

Cavernous malformations (CMs) are commonly treated cerebrovascular anomalies in the pediatric population; however, the data on radiographic recurrence of pediatric CMs after surgery are limited. The authors aimed to study the clinical presentation, outcomes, and recurrence rate following surgery for a large cohort of CMs in children.

METHODS

Pediatric patients (≤ 18 years old) who had a CM resected at a single institution were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Fisher’s exact test of independence was used to assess differences in categorical variables. Survival curves were evaluated using the Mantel-Cox method.

RESULTS

Fifty-three patients aged 3 months to 18 years underwent resection of 74 symptomatic CMs between 1996 and 2018 at a single institution. The median length of follow-up was 5.65 years. Patients most commonly presented with seizures (45.3%, n = 24) and the majority of CMs were cortical (58.0%, n = 43). Acute radiographic hemorrhage was common at presentation (64.2%, n = 34). Forty-two percent (n = 22) of patients presented with multiple CMs, and they were more likely to develop de novo lesions (71%) compared to patients presenting with a single CM (3.4%). Both radiographic hemorrhage and multiple CMs were independently prognostic for a higher risk of the patient requiring subsequent surgery. Fifty percent (n = 6) of the 12 patients with both risk factors required additional surgery within 2.5 years of initial surgery compared to none of the patients with neither risk factor (n = 9).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with either acute radiographic hemorrhage or multiple CMs are at higher risk for subsequent surgery and require long-term MRI surveillance. In contrast, patients with a single CM are unlikely to require additional surgery and may require less frequent routine imaging.

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Ahmed Mohyeldin, Peter Hwang, Gerald A. Grant, and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

Pediatric craniopharyngiomas that were once thought to be inoperable or considered only for salvage medical therapy are now being reconsidered for aggressive surgical resection via endoscopic endonasal approaches. Here we review the operative video case of an 11-year-old with a giant complex craniopharyngioma that was resected via an endoscopic endonasal approach. Due to the extent of tumor burden near the basilar apex, a transclival approach was necessary. To accomplish this, a wide sphenoidotomy, posterior ethmoidectomy, and resection of the middle turbinate were necessary to create enough working space for the resection. We also highlight several key innovations in pediatric endoscopic endonasal surgery management and underscore a multidisciplinary approach that allows for the safe and successful treatment of these lesions. Our multidisciplinary team involves an experienced fellowship-trained endoscopic skull base surgeon and otolaryngologist, as well as a pediatric neurosurgeon, pediatric endocrinologist, pediatric anesthesiologist, and pediatric intensivists who play important roles in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care of the patient. Finally, we discuss critical surgical decision points including pituitary transposition, which has a lot of conceptual appeal when it is anatomically feasible but unfortunately, in our experience, has low functional preservation rates. Initially, we always aim to utilize pituitary transposition for tuberoinfundibular craniopharyngiomas, and once the relationship between the tumor and the stalk is determined, a decision on whether to preserve or sacrifice the stalk and pituitary gland is made. In this particular case, there was a salvageable stalk and the transposition was performed knowing that the chances for functional preservation were low.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ClL73FU5QIU.

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Andrew T. Hale, P. David Adelson, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Timothy M. George, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, James M. Johnston, Robert F. Keating, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Brent O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, Tae Sung Park, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons, William E. Whitehead, Chevis N. Shannon, David D. Limbrick Jr., and for the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium Investigators

OBJECTIVE

Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) or PFD with duraplasty (PFDD) for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM; CM-I+SM) are not well established.

METHODS

Using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry, the authors analyzed variables associated with syrinx radiological outcomes in patients (< 20 years old at the time of surgery) with CM-I+SM undergoing PFD or PFDD. Syrinx resolution was defined as an anteroposterior (AP) diameter of ≤ 2 mm or ≤ 3 mm or a reduction in AP diameter of ≥ 50%. Syrinx regression or progression was defined using 1) change in syrinx AP diameter (≥ 1 mm), or 2) change in syrinx length (craniocaudal, ≥ 1 vertebral level). Syrinx stability was defined as a < 1-mm change in syrinx AP diameter and no change in syrinx length.

RESULTS

The authors identified 380 patients with CM-I+SM who underwent PFD or PFDD. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed younger age at surgery and PFDD as being independently associated with syrinx resolution, defined as a ≤ 2-mm or ≤ 3-mm AP diameter or ≥ 50% reduction in AP diameter. Radiological syrinx resolution was associated with improvement in headache (p < 0.005) and neck pain (p < 0.011) after PFD or PFDD. Next, PFDD (p = 0.005), scoliosis (p = 0.007), and syrinx location across multiple spinal segments (p = 0.001) were associated with syrinx diameter regression, whereas increased preoperative frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOHR; p = 0.007) and syrinx location spanning multiple spinal segments (p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length regression. Scoliosis (HR 0.38 [95% CI 0.16–0.91], p = 0.03) and smaller syrinx diameter (5.82 ± 3.38 vs 7.86 ± 3.05 mm; HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.34–1.03], p = 0.002) were associated with syrinx diameter stability, whereas shorter preoperative syrinx length (5.75 ± 4.01 vs 9.65 ± 4.31 levels; HR 0.21 [95% CI 0.12–0.38], p = 0.0001) and smaller pB-C2 distance (6.86 ± 1.27 vs 7.18 ± 1.38 mm; HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length stability. Finally, younger age at surgery (8.19 ± 5.02 vs 10.29 ± 4.25 years; HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31–3.04], p = 0.01) was associated with syrinx diameter progression, whereas increased postoperative syrinx diameter (6.73 ± 3.64 vs 3.97 ± 3.07 mm; HR 3.10 [95% CI 1.67–5.76], p = 0.003), was associated with syrinx length progression. PFD versus PFDD was not associated with syrinx progression or reoperation rate.

CONCLUSIONS

These data suggest that PFDD and age are independently associated with radiological syrinx improvement, although forthcoming results from the PFDD versus PFD randomized controlled trial (NCT02669836, clinicaltrials.gov) will best answer this question.