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Open access

Zeferino Demartini Jr., Guilherme H. W. Ceccato, Érico S. G. G. da Trindade, and Luis A. B. Borba

Intracranial hemorrhage is the most common presentation of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and may have serious consequences. The authors present a case of a 7-year-old girl with headache, vomiting, dysmetria, and ataxia due to a ruptured cerebellar grade III AVM. After two sessions of embolization, the patient underwent total microsurgical resection through a suboccipital craniotomy. There were no additional postoperative deficits, and the patient improved progressively during 6 months of rehabilitation. These challenging lesions should be removed after rupture, especially in children with long-term cumulative risk of rebleeding. Multimodal treatment reduces the perioperative bleeding, allowing better outcomes for pediatric AVM.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/HQWnjD8ENZQ

Open access

Guilherme H. W. Ceccato, Rodolfo F. M. da Rocha, Duarte N. C. Cândido, Wladimir O. Melo, Marcio S. Rassi, and Luis A. B. Borba

Foramen magnum (FM) meningiomas are challenging lesions. We present the case of a 38-year-old female with neck pain, dysphonia, and slight twelfth nerve palsy. Imaging workup was highly suggestive of an FM meningioma, and microsurgical resection with the aid of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring was indicated. A transcondylar approach was employed, the vertebral artery was mobilized, and the tumor was completely removed. Postoperative MRI demonstrated complete resection. There were no signs of cervical instability. The patient presented with improvement of her symptoms and no new neurological deficit on follow-up. FM meningiomas can be successfully resected using a transcondylar approach, since it increases the exposure of the ventral FM, allowing the surgeon to work parallel to the skull base and flush with the tumor’s attachment. Informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this operative video.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/itfUOB-6zM0.

Open access

Guilherme H. W. Ceccato, Rodolfo F. M. da Rocha, Julia Goginski, Pedro H. A. da Silva, Gabriel S. de Fraga, Marcio S. Rassi, and Luis A. B. Borba

Brainstem cavernous malformations are especially difficult to treat because of their deep location and intimate relation with eloquent structures. This is the case of a 26-year-old female presenting with dizziness, dysmetria, nystagmus and unbalance. Imaging depicted a lesion highly suggestive of a cavernous malformation in the left inferior cerebellar peduncle. Following a suboccipital midline craniotomy, the cerebellomedullary fissure was dissected and the lesion was identified bulging the surface. The malformation was completely removed with constant intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. The patient presented improvement of initial symptoms with no new deficits. Surgical resection of brainstem cavernous malformations can be successfully performed, especially when superficial, using the inferior cerebellar peduncle as an entry zone.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/-GGZe_CaZnQ.