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Open access

Contralateral interhemispheric transcallosal transchoroidal approach to a thalamic glioma: illustrative case

Sayedali Ahmadi, Vrun J Mistry, and Basant Kumar Misra

BACKGROUND

Thalamic lesions located in the floor of the lateral ventricle pose significant surgical challenges, given their proximity to critical neurovascular structures. Transcortical approaches are often limited by risks of injuring the eloquent cortex and nearby vessels. Furthermore, lesions extending into the third ventricle further impede accessibility. The corticospinal tract (CST), situated close to the thalamus, presents a major obstacle. Diffusion tensor imaging plays a crucial role in overcoming these challenges by accurately delineating the CST’s location relative to the lesion, enabling surgeons to plan minimally invasive and safe access.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old female presented with progressive right-sided hemiparesis over several days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic ring-enhancing thalamic lesion extending into the third ventricle. While supine, the patient underwent surgery via a right pericoronal parasagittal craniotomy followed by a contralateral interhemispheric transcallosal transchoroidal approach.

LESSONS

This case exemplifies the utility of the contralateral interhemispheric transcallosal approach for treating thalamic lesions, particularly those extending into the third ventricle. This minimally invasive approach minimizes retraction of the eloquent cortex and reduces the risk of neurovascular injury, potentially leading to improved surgical outcomes and faster recovery.

Open access

Localized anaplastic lymphoma kinase–positive histiocytosis in a cerebellar hemisphere with long-term treatment: illustrative case

Eita Kumagai, Mio Tanaka, Fuminori Iwasaki, Masakatsu Yanagimachi, Daisuke Hirokawa, Hiroaki Goto, and Yukichi Tanaka

BACKGROUND

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)–positive histiocytosis (ALK-H) is an emerging entity in the category of histiocytic neoplasms that was first reported as a multisystemic disease in three infants in 2008. The clinicopathological spectrum of ALK-H has been expanded to include localized disorders in specific organs, but the features of this subtype are not well known. The authors report a case of ALK-H localized in the central nervous system that was difficult to treat and review the relevant literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reviewed archival histiocytic tumors at their institute and found a pediatric case of ALK-H localized in a cerebellar hemisphere that had previously been reported as histiocytic sarcoma. Chemotherapy (approximately 1 year), additional surgery, and conventional chemotherapy (approximately 2.5 years) led to clinical remission, and maintenance chemotherapy was continued (approximately 1.5 years). Three years after completing treatment, a high-grade glioma was found in a cerebral hemisphere, and the patient died of the glioma 2 years later.

LESSONS

Although the prognosis of ALK-H is generally good according to prior cases, the authors’ case required long-term conventional chemotherapy, suggesting the tumor displayed aggressive characteristics. Early administration of ALK inhibitors may be necessary.

Open access

Primary intraosseous xanthoma of the frontal bone in a child: illustrative case

Peter J Madsen, Adam J Kundishora, Benjamin C Reeves, Anne M Coyle, Daniel T Nagasawa, Judith M Wong, Isaac Yang, and Alexander M Tucker

BACKGROUND

Skull lesions are a common finding in children, with dermoid cysts and eosinophilic granulomas observed most frequently. However, primary intraosseous xanthomas of the calvaria, which are lytic, expansile lesions that develop without underlying hyperlipidemic disease, are rare in children, with only one prior case reported.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe the case of a healthy 6-year-old male who presented with a 2-month history of an enlarging midline skull mass that developed after a recent minor trauma. Imaging showed a full-thickness, lytic frontal bone lesion with an aggressive appearance and heterogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient underwent gross-total resection of the lesion with placement of a mesh cranioplasty. Histopathology revealed a primary intraosseous xanthoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 2 and required no further treatment at the 1-month follow-up.

LESSONS

This is the first reported case of a primary intraosseous xanthoma in the frontal bone of a pediatric patient. It emphasizes the need to include primary xanthomas in the differential diagnosis for pediatric skull lesions, particularly when the lesion has an aggressive radiographic appearance or the patient has a history of focal trauma. Furthermore, our findings indicate that resection, together with subsequent monitoring for lesion reccurrence, is an adequate first-line treatment.

Open access

CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery for extramedullary plasmacytoma in the external auditory canal: illustrative case

Surya Patil, Elaheh Shaghaghian, Lorenzo Yuan, Aaryan Shah, Neelan J Marianayagam, David J Park, Scott G Soltys, Anand Veeravagu, Iris C Gibbs, Gordon Li, and Steven D Chang

BACKGROUND

Plasmacytoma, a rare plasma cell disorder, often presents as a solitary or multiple tumors within the bone marrow or soft tissues, typically associated with multiple myeloma. Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs), particularly those located in the external auditory canal (EAC), are exceedingly rare and pose significant treatment challenges given their location, anatomical complexity, and high risk of recurrence.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 72-year-old male with a history of multiple myeloma, presenting with recurrent left EAC plasmacytoma. After initial conventional radiotherapy for the lesion, a recurrence was documented in 7 years. The patient subsequently underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, which proved successful, leading to complete resolution of the lesion without any long-term adverse effects or radiation-related complications over a 45-month period.

LESSONS

This case is a unique instance of utilizing stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent EMP in the EAC, highlighting its potential as an effective approach in managing complex plasmacytomas.

Open access

Phantom limb pain, traumatic neuroma, or nerve sheath tumor? Illustrative case

Patrick J Halloran, E. Antonio Chiocca, and Andres Santos

BACKGROUND

Phantom limb pain and traumatic neuromas are not commonly seen in neurosurgical practice. These conditions can present with similar symptoms; however, management of traumatic neuroma is often surgical, whereas phantom limb pain is treated with conservative measures.

OBSERVATIONS

A 77-year-old female patient with a long-standing history of an above-the-knee amputation experienced severe pain in her right posterior buttocks area for several years’ duration, attributed to phantom limb pain, which radiated down the stump of her leg and was treated with a variety of conservative measures. A recent exacerbation of her pain led to a prolonged hospitalization with magnetic resonance imaging of her leg stump, revealing a mass in the sciatic notch, at a relative distance from the stump. The anatomical location of the mass on the sciatic nerve in the notch led to a presumed radiological diagnosis of nerve sheath tumor, for which she underwent excision. At surgery, a neuroma of the proximal portion of the transected sciatic nerve that had retracted from the amputated stump to the notch was diagnosed.

LESSONS

Traumatic neuromas of transected major nerves after limb amputation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of phantom limb pain.

Open access

Primary intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: lessons from an exceptionally rare neoplasm. Illustrative case

Jhon E Bocanegra-Becerra, Luis Felipe Novoa-Ramírez, Alan Jesús Latorre-Zúñiga, Norka Tacas-Gil, and Rolando Rojas-Apaza

BACKGROUND

The primary intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a lesion subtype within the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. pPNETs are extremely uncommon pathologies, accounting for 0.03% of intracranial tumors and 1% to 2% of Ewing sarcoma cases. Given its histological aspect similar to other highly proliferative malignant neuroectodermal neoplasms, pPNET merits extensive workup for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

OBSERVATIONS

A 36-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a 1-year history of headaches in the right frontoparietal area, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and a history of the resection of a tumor labeled as a meningioma 5 years before admission. He was neurologically intact. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous focal lesion of 25 × 35 × 23 mm with a necrotic center and neoformative appearance in the right frontal cortex. The patient underwent multimodal treatment with gross-total resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Histopathological examination results supported the diagnosis of pPNET. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient had no new-onset symptoms, and brain imaging revealed absent signs of tumor recurrence.

LESSONS

The present case describes an extraordinary pPNET case, initially confounded as a clear cell meningioma. Managing pPNET requires thorough investigation, careful differentiation from similar neuroectodermal lesions, and multimodal treatment to improve the patient’s prognosis.

Open access

A rare case of atypical intradural extramedullary glioblastoma diagnosed utilizing next-generation sequencing and methylation profiling: illustrative case

William J Shelton, Andrew P Mathews, Karrar Aljiboori, J. Stephen Nix, Murat Gokden, and Analiz Rodriguez

BACKGROUND

Primary spinal cord tumors, especially primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme (PSC-GBM), are exceptionally rare, accounting for less than 1.5% of all spinal tumors. Their infrequency and aggressive yet atypical presentation make diagnosis challenging. In uncertain cases, a surgical approach for tissue diagnosis is often optimal.

OBSERVATIONS

A 76-year-old male presented with a rapidly progressing clinical history marked by worsening extremity weakness, urinary retention, and periodic fecal incontinence alongside diffuse changes on neuraxis imaging. The patient, in whom subacute polyneuropathy was initially diagnosed, received multiple rounds of steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin without clinical improvement. Histopathological review of the biopsy tissue yielded an initial diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is done routinely on all neuropathology specimens at the authors’ institution, and methylation profiling is pursued in difficult cases. Ultimately, NGS and methylation profiling results were essential to an integrated final diagnosis of GBM.

LESSONS

PSC-GBM is a rare but highly aggressive occurrence of this tumor. Prolonged back pain, rapid neurological decline, and imaging changes warrant the consideration of lesional biopsy for precise disease characterization. In inconclusive cases, NGS has proved invaluable for clinical clarification and diagnosis, underscoring its importance for integrated diagnoses in guiding appropriate treatment strategies.

Open access

Migratory schwannoma of the cauda equina with a change in radicular pattern: illustrative case

Matthew S Parr, Sanford R Williams, James H Mooney, Travis J Atchley, and Mamerhi O Okor

BACKGROUND

Intradural spinal tumors are an uncommon entity with a variety of pathologies and symptom patterns. Few cases reports in the literature have described tumor migration within the spinal canal.

OBSERVATIONS

A 38-year-old male presented with bilateral upper lumbar radicular symptoms of anterior thigh pain, with an enhancing tumor of the cauda equina initially located at L1–2. He declined surgery initially, and at a follow-up 3 years later, his symptoms were unchanged but the tumor was now located at T12–L1. He again declined surgery, but 3 months later, he had a significant change in his pain distribution, which was now along his posterolateral right leg to his foot with associated dorsiflexion and extensor hallicus longus weakness. At this time, the tumor had migrated to L2–3. He underwent laminectomy and tumor resection with resolution of his radicular symptoms and improvement in his strength back to baseline by the 1-month follow-up. Pathology was consistent with a World Health Organization grade I schwannoma.

LESSONS

Migratory schwannoma is a rare entity but should be considered when radicular symptoms acutely change in the setting of a known intradural tumor. Repeat imaging should be performed to avoid wrong-level surgery. Intraoperative imaging can also be used for tumor localization.

Open access

Successful resection of bilateral parafalcine meningioma with unilateral interhemispheric and contralateral transfalcine approach under nonintubated spontaneous breathing conditions: illustrative case

Seiichiro Hirono, Keisuke Kawano, Masato Ito, Kana Saito, Taiichiro Hayashida, and Yoshinori Higuchi

BACKGROUND

The best surgical approach for resecting bilateral parafalcine meningioma, as well as the optimal anesthesia and airway management for craniotomy in patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP) for preventing postsurgical exacerbation, remains unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 66-year-old female with a history of multiple relapses of IP underwent craniotomy for resection of a 4.5-cm bilateral parafalcine meningioma located just beneath the inferior sagittal sinus. To avoid mechanical ventilation or high-concentration oxygenation, the entire procedure was performed under nonintubated spontaneous breathing conditions with a supraglottic airway/laryngeal mask airway (SGA/LMA) device. Half of the tumor was resected using the ipsilateral interhemispheric approach, while the remaining half was resected using the contralateral transfalcine approach (CTA). No brain retractors were required. Preoperative embolization contributed toward reducing blood loss and surgery duration. During most of the operation, additional oxygen administration was not required. The postoperative course was uneventful, without exacerbation of the IP.

LESSONS

This case demonstrated the utility and feasibility of a unilateral interhemispheric approach combined with CTA for resection of a bilateral parafalcine meningioma. Additionally, this case provides an alternative method of airway and anesthesia management with an SGA/LMA device and nonintubated spontaneous breathing for the prevention of postoperative acute exacerbation of IP.

Open access

Time course of tumorigenesis of a newly developed sporadic hemangioblastoma in an elderly patient: illustrative case

Yu Sugiyama, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Kaoru Eguchi, Masashi Ito, Ryo Ando, Hiroki Matsuno, Noriyuki Suzaki, and Satoshi Maesawa

BACKGROUND

von Hippel-Lindau disease–associated hemangioblastomas (HBs) account for 20%–30% of all HB cases, with the appearance of new lesions often observed in the natural course of the disease. By comparison, the development of new lesions is rare in patients with sporadic HB.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old man underwent clipping for an unruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Fourteen years later, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a strongly enhanced mass in the right cerebellar hemisphere, diagnosed as a sporadic HB. A retrospective review of MRI studies obtained over the follow-up period revealed the gradual development of peritumoral edema and vascularization before mass formation.

LESSONS

Newly appearing high-intensity T2 lesions in the cerebellum may represent a preliminary stage of tumorigenesis. Careful monitoring of these patients would be indicated, which could provide options for early treatment to improve patient outcomes.