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Open access

Fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique: a feasible treatment choice for posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis

Tao Xu, Shanxi Wang, Huang Fang, Hua Wu, and Feng Li

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique for the treatment of posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis (PTK).

METHODS

A total of 22 patients with PTK who were treated with the fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique were retrospectively analyzed. The radiological evaluation included global kyphosis, thoracolumbar angle, and sagittal vertical axis. The clinical evaluation included visual analog scale pain score, Oswestry Disability Index score, SF-12 Health Survey score, and American Spinal Injury Association grade. The complications were recorded.

RESULTS

The mean global kyphosis was 55.0° ± 12.6° preoperatively, 8.5° ± 5.0° postoperatively, and 10.3° ± 4.8° at the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The average total kyphosis correction achieved was 44.7° ± 14.2°, with a range of 23.4°–79.4°, indicating a mean final correction of 80.1%. The mean thoracolumbar angle was 46.2° ± 13.2° preoperatively, 6.6° ± 4.5° postoperatively, and 7.6° ± 4.2° at the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean sagittal vertical axis was improved significantly, from 51.1 ± 24.2 mm preoperatively to 28.5 ± 17.4 mm at the latest follow-up (p = 0.001). One patient (4.5%) experienced single intervertebral fusion nonunion, and 1 patient (4.5%) experienced distal screw loosening. No patients experienced any neurological deterioration. The visual analog scale pain score, Oswestry Disability Index score, SF-12 Health Survey score, and American Spinal Injury Association grade achieved significant improvement at the latest follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique can effectively correct kyphosis, reconstruct spinal stability, and improve the patient’s symptoms and neurological function. This technique is safer, minimally traumatic, and less technically demanding to avoid osteotomy-related complications. It is a feasible treatment choice for PTK.

Open access

Ongoing decision-making dilemma for treatment of de novo spinal infections: a comparison of the Spinal Infection Treatment Evaluation Score with the Spinal Instability Spondylodiscitis Score and Spine Instability Neoplastic Score

Jonathan Pluemer, Yevgeniy Freyvert, Nathan Pratt, Periklis Godolias, Hamzah A. Al-Awadi, Mitchell H. Young, Amir Abdul-Jabbar, Thomas A. Schildhauer, Jens R. Chapman, and Rod J. Oskouian

OBJECTIVE

De novo spinal infections are an increasing medical problem. The decision-making for surgical or nonsurgical treatment for de novo spinal infections is often a non–evidence-based process and commonly a case-by-case decision by single physicians. A scoring system based on the latest evidence might help improve the decision-making process compared with other purely radiology-based scoring systems or the judgment of a single senior physician.

METHODS

Patients older than 18 years with an infection of the spine who underwent nonsurgical or surgical treatment between 2019 and 2021 were identified. Clinical data for neurological status, pain, and existing comorbidities were gathered and transferred to an anonymous spreadsheet. Patients without an MR image and a CT scan of the affected spine region were excluded from the investigation. A multidisciplinary expert panel used the Spine Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS), Spinal Instability Spondylodiscitis Score (SISS), and Spinal Infection Treatment Evaluation Score (SITE Score), previously developed by the authors’ group, on every clinical case. Each physician of the expert panel gave an individual treatment recommendation for surgical or nonsurgical treatment for each patient. Treatment recommendations formed the expert panel opinion, which was used to calculate predictive validities for each score.

RESULTS

A total of 263 patients with spinal infections were identified. After the exclusion of doubled patients, patients without de novo infections, or those without CT and MRI scans, 123 patients remained for the investigation. Overall, 70.70% of patients were treated surgically and 29.30% were treated nonoperatively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the SITE Score, SINS, and SISS were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91–0.95, p < 0.01), 0.65 (95% CI 0.91–0.83, p < 0.01), and 0.80 (95% CI 0.91–0.89, p < 0.01). In comparison with the expert panel decision, the SITE Score reached a sensitivity of 96.97% and a specificity of 81.90% for all included patients. For potentially unstable and unstable lesions, the SISS and the SINS yielded sensitivities of 84.42% and 64.07%, respectively, and specificities of 31.16% and 56.52%, respectively. The SITE Score showed higher overall sensitivity with 97.53% and a higher specificity for patients with epidural abscesses (75.00%) compared with potentially unstable and unstable lesions for the SINS and the SISS. The SITE Score showed a significantly higher agreement for the definitive treatment decision regarding the expert panel decision, compared with the decision by a single physician for patients with spondylodiscitis, discitis, or spinal osteomyelitis.

CONCLUSIONS

The SITE Score shows high sensitivity and specificity regarding the treatment recommendation by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The SITE Score shows higher predictive validity compared with radiology-based scoring systems or a single physician and demonstrates a high validity for patients with epidural abscesses.

Free access

Lumbar Spine Research Society 17th Annual Scientific Meeting

May 2–3, 2024 | Chicago, IL

Open access

Incidence and risk factors of heterotopic ossification after cervical Baguera C disc arthroplasty

Kai-Chen Chung, Chih-Wei Huang, Wen-Hsien Chen, Hsi-Kai Tsou, Chung-Yuh Tzeng, Ting-Hsien Kao, Ruei-Hong Lin, and Tse-Yu Chen

OBJECTIVE

This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the incidence and predisposing factors of heterotopic ossification (HO) after cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) with a specific implant at 1 and 2 levels, and to investigate the biomechanical effects related to HO. The study goal was to identify ways to reduce the likelihood of HO formation after surgery.

METHODS

The study included patients who underwent only 1- or 2-level CDA with the Baguera C disc between November 2014 and December 2021 at a single medical center. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon. The surgical indication included 1-level or 2-level disc herniation between C3 and C7 with radiculopathy, myelopathy, or both, with minimal spondylosis. The various factors were assessed by evaluating plain radiographs and cervical CT scans. The presence of HO was evaluated at different intervals postsurgery, and HO severity was graded using the McAfee classification.

RESULTS

Of 107 patients who underwent CDA, 47 (43.9%) had HO at 63 of 171 levels (36.8%). Most cases with HO were grade 1, and no grade 4 was observed. Statistically significant risk factors for HO were the length of endplate coverage ratio and inferior anterior residual exposed endplate (AREE); sex, age, implant height and width, shell angle, and pre- and postoperative functional spinal unit (FSU) angle were not significant. More AREE and greater kyphotic postoperative FSU angle in the flexion position were significant factors differentiating HO grades 0 and 1 from grades 2 and 3. Furthermore, the non-HO group showed a trend of higher range of motion at any postoperative time compared to the HO group, especially at 1 month after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

The HO incidence after CDA was correlated with the residual length of endplate coverage and inferior AREE. Additionally, the AREE and kyphotic postoperative FSU angle in the flexion position were associated with HO grade progression. Patients with HO also showed a trend of lower range of motion at 1 month after surgery. Using an adequately sized implant and encouraging neck motion may help prevent HO development and progression.

Open access

Clinical criteria for filum terminale resection in occult tethered cord syndrome

Petra M. Klinge, Owen P. Leary, Philip A. Allen, Konstantina Svokos, Patricia Sullivan, Thomas Brinker, and Ziya L. Gokaslan

OBJECTIVE

Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) comprises three symptom categories: back/leg pain, bowel/bladder, and neurological complaints. MRI typically reveals a low-lying conus medullaris, filum terminale (FT) pathology, or lumbosacral abnormalities. FT resection is established in TCS but not in radiologically occult TCS (OTCS). This study aims to identify patients with OTCS who are likely to benefit from FT resection.

METHODS

The authors recruited 149 patients with OTCS (31 pediatric, 118 adult) treated with FT resection—including only cases with progressive TCS, negative spine MRI, and no concurrent neurological/urological conditions. A comprehensive questionnaire collected patient self-reported symptoms and clinical findings at the preoperative and at 3- and 12-month follow-up examinations. Based on questionnaire data, the authors extracted a 15-item symptoms and findings scale to represent the three TCS symptom categories, assigning 1 point for each item present.

RESULTS

OTCS presents without radicular/segmental sensorimotor findings, but with leg/back pain and conus dysfunction, in addition to leg fatigue and spasticity; the latter indicating an upper motoneuron pathology. The 15-item scale showed clinical improvement in 89% of patients at the 3-month follow-up and 68% at the 12-month follow-up. Multivariate analysis of the scale revealed that it accurately predicts outcome of FT resection in 82% of cases. Patients with a preoperative score exceeding 6 points are most likely to benefit from surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

By applying the study’s inclusion criteria and incorporating the novel 15-item scale, surgeons can effectively select candidates for FT resection in patients with OTCS. The observed outcomes in these selected patients are comparable to those achieved in degenerative spine surgery.

Free access

Erratum. The potential of proximal junctional kyphosis prevention using a novel tether pedicle screw construct: an in silico study comparing the influence of standard and dynamic techniques on adjacent-level range of motion and load pattern

Sebastian Decker

Open access

A prospective multicenter randomized study comparing the SpineJack system and nonsurgical management with a brace in acute traumatic vertebral fractures: the SPICO study

Mourad Ould-Slimane, Antoine Petit, Olivier Gille, Jean Marc Kaya, Adamou Touta, Jonathan Lebhar, and Michael Grelat

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efffectiveness of a titanium vertebral augmentation device (SpineJack system) in terms of back pain, radiological outcomes, and economic burden compared with nonsurgical management (NSM) (bracing) for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Complications were also evaluated for both treatment methods.

METHODS

A prospective multicenter randomized study was performed at 9 French sites. Patients (n = 100) with acute traumatic Magerl type A1 and A3.1 vertebral fractures were enrolled and randomized to treatment with the SpineJack system or NSM consisting of bracing and administration of pain medication. Participants were monitored at admission, during the procedure, and at 1, 12, and 24 months after treatment initiation. Primary outcomes included visual analog scale back pain score, and secondary outcomes included disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] score), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D score), radiological measures (vertebral kyphosis angle [VKA] and regional traumatic angulation [RTA]), and economic outcomes (costs, procedures, hours of help, and time to return to work).

RESULTS

Ninety-five patients were included in the analysis, with 48 in the SpineJack group and 47 in the NSM group. Back pain improved significantly for all participants with no significant differences between groups. ODI and EQ-5D scores improved significantly between baseline and follow-up (1, 12, and 24 months) for all participants, with the SpineJack group showing a larger improvement than the NSM group between baseline and 1 month. VKA was significantly lower (p < 0.001) (i.e., better) in the SpineJack group than in the NSM group at 1, 12, and 24 months of follow-up. There was no significant change over time in RTA for the SpineJack group, but the NSM group showed a significant worsening in RTA over time. SpineJack treatment was associated with higher costs than NSM but involved a shorter hospital stay, fewer medical visits, and fewer hours of nursing care. Time to return to work was significantly shorter for the SpineJack group than for the NSM group. There were no significant differences in complications between the two treatments.

CONCLUSIONS

Overall, there was no statistical difference in the primary outcomes between the SpineJack treatment group and the NSM group. In terms of secondary outcomes, SpineJack treatment was associated with better radiological outcomes, shorter hospital stays, faster return to work, and fewer hours of nursing care.

Free access

Surgical intervention ≤ 24 hours versus > 24 hours after injury for the management of acute traumatic central cord syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Othman Bin-Alamer, Jumanah Qedair, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Arka N. Mallela, Kishore Balasubramanian, Nada Alnefaie, Abdul Rahman Abou Al-Shaar, Tritan Plute, Victor M. Lu, David J. McCarthy, Daryl P. Fields, Nitin Agarwal, Peter C. Gerszten, and D. Kojo Hamilton

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to evaluate the efficacy, outcomes, and complications of surgical intervention performed within 24 hours (≤ 24 hours) versus after 24 hours (> 24 hours) in managing acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS).

METHODS

Articles pertinent to the study were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment procedures and outcomes according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIMSA) guidelines.

RESULTS

Seven articles comprising 488 patients were included, with 188 (38.5%) patients in the ≤ 24-hour group and 300 (61.5%) in the > 24-hour group. Significant differences were not found between groups in terms of demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, spinal cord compression level, neuroimaging features, and the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score at admission. Both groups had a similar approach to surgery and steroid administration. The surgical complication rate was significantly higher in the > 24-hour group (4.5%) compared to the ≤ 24-hour group (1.2%) (p = 0.05). Clinical follow-up duration was similar at 12 months (interquartile range 3–36) for both groups (p > 0.99). The ≤ 24-hour group demonstrated a not statistically significant greater improvement in ASIA motor score, with a mean difference of 12 (95% CI −20.7 to 44.6) compared to the > 24-hour group.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study indicates potential advantages of early (≤ 24 hours) surgery in ATCCS patients, specifically in terms of lower complication rates. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings and their clinical implications.

Free access

Ideal length of accessory rod for the prevention of rod fracture after pedicle subtraction osteotomy in adult spinal deformity: short or long?

Ki Young Lee, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Chung Kang, Seong Jin Cho, and Woo Jae Jang

OBJECTIVE

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is an effective surgical procedure for adult spinal deformity (ASD). However, the complexity of the procedure and its associated complications including rod fracture (RF) remain challenging issues. Among several RF reduction methods, the accessory rod (AR) is an important surgical technique. To date, knowledge about the ideal length and configuration of the AR is limited. This study aimed to assess the influence of the connection levels and configuration of the AR on RF occurrence in patients with ASD who underwent long level constructs and PSO.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively selected 57 consecutive patients (mean age 70.6 years) who underwent deformity correction including PSO and the AR technique with a minimum 2-year follow-up. The patients were classified into a non-RF group (n = 49) and an RF group (n = 8). Along with analysis of patient and radiological factors in the 2 groups, comparative studies were performed including configuration of the AR (D shaped vs linear shaped) and the connection levels of AR (long AR [the lower end below S1–2] vs short AR [above L5–S1]).

RESULTS

The overall rate of RF incidence was 14% (8/57 cases) at an average of 42.5 months (2 patients with unilateral RF and 6 with bilateral RF). RF occurred most commonly at the L4–5 level, below the lower end of the AR: 6 below the lower end of the AR and 2 at the PSO site. There were no significant differences in patient and radiological factors between the groups. Comparisons between the 2 groups indicated that more RFs occurred when the configuration of the AR was a linear shape (p = 0.016) and when the distal end of the AR was above L5–S1 (p = 0.025).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study the authors found that the D-shaped configuration of the AR and lower end of the AR below S1–2 (i.e., long AR) could be preventive methods for reducing RF after deformity correction performed using PSO and the AR technique for ASD. Here, the authors have provided the first comprehensive outline for the AR technique. These findings could establish effective guidelines for spine surgeons.

Free access

Current concepts in adult cervical spine deformity surgery

Peter G. Passias, Oluwatobi O. Onafowokan, Peter Tretiakov, Pooja Dave, Jamshaid M. Mir, and Muhammad B. Janjua

Cervical spine deformity surgery has significantly evolved over recent decades. There has been substantial work performed, which has furthered the true understanding of alignment and advancements in surgical technique and instrumentation. Concomitantly, understanding of cervical spine pathology and the contributing drivers have also improved, which have influenced the development of classification systems for cervical spine deformity and the development of treatment-guiding algorithms. This article aims to provide a synopsis of the current knowledge surrounding cervical spine deformity to date, with particular focus on preoperative expected alignment targets, perioperative optimization, and the whole operative strategy.