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Open access

Epidural lipomatosis with foci of hemorrhage and acute compression of the spinal cord in a child with CLOVES syndrome: illustrative case

Dmytro Ishchenko, Iryna Benzar, and Andrii Holoborodko

BACKGROUND

Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, spinal/skeletal anomalies, and/or scoliosis (CLOVES) syndrome is the most recently described combined vascular anomaly characterized by congenital excessive growth of adipose tissue, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, and skeletal deformities. This condition exhibits a significant variability in clinical manifestations and a tendency for rapid progression and affects extensive anatomical regions. Information regarding the association of epidural lipomatosis with low-flow venous lymphatic malformations is rare, with few reports in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department complaining of rapidly progressing weakness in her lower extremities and partial loss of sensation in the inguinal area. Radiologically, an extradural mass was identified at the T2–6 level, causing acute spinal cord compression. Urgent decompression and partial resection of the mass were performed. Despite satisfactory intraoperative hemo- and lymphostasis, postoperative lymphorrhea/seroma leakage was encountered as a delayed complication and was managed conservatively.

LESSONS

CLOVES syndrome is characterized by the combination of various clinical symptoms, not all of which are included in the abbreviation, as well as a progressively deteriorating course, the emergence of new symptoms, and complications throughout the patient’s life. This necessitates ongoing monitoring of such patients.

Open access

Evaluation of the shrinkage process of a neck remnant after stent-coil treatment of a cerebral aneurysm using silent magnetic resonance angiography and computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Toru Satoh, Kenji Sugiu, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Jun Haruma, and Isao Date

BACKGROUND

Silent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) mitigates metal artifacts, facilitating clear visualization of neck remnants after stent and coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. This study aims to scrutinize hemodynamics at the neck remnant by employing silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors longitudinally tracked images of a partially thrombosed anterior communicating artery aneurysm’s neck remnant, which had been treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, using silent MRA over a decade. Computational fluid dynamics delineated the neck remnant’s reduction process, evaluating hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, wall shear stress magnitude and vector, and streamlines. The neck remnant exhibited diminishing surface area, volume, neck size, dome depth, and aspect ratio. Its reduction correlated with a decline in the flow rate ratio of the remnant dome to the inflow parent artery. Analysis delineated regions within the contracting neck remnant characterized by consistently low average wall shear stress magnitude and variation, accompanied by notable variations in wall shear stress vector directionality.

LESSONS

Evaluation of neck remnants after stent-coil embolization is possible through silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics. Predicting the neck remnant reduction may be achievable through hemodynamic parameter analysis.

Open access

Novel use of a closed-tip stent retriever to prevent distal embolism in the posterior circulation: illustrative case

Rikuo Nishii, Masanori Goto, Yuki Takano, Kota Nakajima, Takateru Takamatsu, Masanori Tokuda, Hikari Tomita, Mai Yoshimoto, Satohiro Kawade, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Yuji Naramoto, Kunimasa Teranishi, Nobuyuki Fukui, Tadashi Sunohara, Ryu Fukumitsu, Junichi Takeda, Masaomi Koyanagi, Chiaki Sakai, Nobuyuki Sakai, and Tsuyoshi Ohta

BACKGROUND

In mechanical thrombectomy for tandem occlusions in vertebrobasilar stroke, distal emboli from the vertebral artery lesion should be prevented. However, no suitable embolic protection devices are currently available in the posterior circulation. Here, the authors describe the case of a vertebral artery lesion effectively treated with a closed-tip stent retriever as an embolic protection device in the posterior circulation.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old male underwent mechanical thrombectomy for basilar artery occlusion, with tandem occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery. After basilar artery recanalization via the nonoccluded vertebral artery, a subsequent mechanical thrombectomy was performed for the occluded proximal vertebral artery. To prevent distal embolization of the basilar artery, an EmboTrap III stent retriever was deployed as an embolic protection device within the basilar artery to successfully capture the thrombus.

LESSONS

A stent retriever with a closed-tip structure can effectively capture thrombi, making it a suitable distal embolic protection device in the posterior circulation.

Open access

Successful coil embolization of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery after a percutaneous awake robot-assisted sacroiliac joint fusion: illustrative case

Samah Morsi, Alyssa M Bartlett, Andrew A Hardigan, Mounica Paturu, Shawn W Adams, Malcolm R DeBaun, Waleska Pabon-Ramos, and Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr

BACKGROUND

Robot-assisted sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has gained popularity, but it carries the risk of complications such as injury to the superior gluteal artery (SGA). The authors present the case of an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion leading to an SGA pseudoaneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old male, who had undergone an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion, experienced postoperative left hip pain and bruising. Subsequent arteriography demonstrated an SGA branch pseudoaneurysm requiring coil embolization.

LESSONS

An SGA injury, although uncommon (1.2% incidence), can arise from percutaneous screw placement, aberrant anatomy, or hardware contact. Thorough preoperative imaging, precise robot-assisted screw insertion, and soft tissue protection are crucial to mitigate risks. Immediate angiography aids in prompt diagnosis and effective intervention. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical variants is essential for managing complications and optimizing preventative measures in robot-assisted SIJ fusion.

Open access

First use of intraventricular nicardipine in a pediatric patient with vasospasm secondary to meningitis: illustrative case

V. Jane Horak, Nirali Patel, Sunny Abdelmageed, Jonathan Scoville, Melissa A LoPresti, and Sandi Lam

BACKGROUND

Cerebral vasospasm is commonly associated with adult aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but can develop in children. The standard vasospasm treatment includes induced hypertension, avoidance of hypovolemia, systemic use of the calcium channel blocker (CCB) nimodipine, and cerebral angiography for intraarterial therapy. Emerging treatments in adults, such as intraventricular CCB administration, have not been investigated in children. This study demonstrates the successful use of an intraventricular CCB in a pediatric patient with refractory vasospasm secondary to meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old female presented with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and ventriculitis with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. She received a 5-day course of intrathecal nicardipine through an existing external ventricular drain. Her clinical status, transcranial Doppler studies, and radiography improved. Treatment was well tolerated.

LESSONS

Pediatric vasospasm is uncommon and potentially devastating. The management of vasospasm in adults occurs frequently. Principles of this management are adapted to pediatric care given the rarity of vasospasm in children. The use of intraventricular nicardipine has been reported in the care of adults with level 3 evidence. It has not been adequately reported in children with refractory vasospasm. Here, the first use of intraventricular nicardipine in treating pediatric cerebral vasospasm in the setting of meningitis is described and highlighted.

Open access

Adhesive arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intradural extramedullary thoracic cavernoma: illustrative case

Agne Andriuskeviciute, Michel Gustavo Mondragón-Soto, Nicolas Penet, and Juan Barges-Coll

BACKGROUND

Spinal arachnoiditis can result from various factors, including spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH). In this paper, the authors describe a case of intradural extramedullary cavernoma with an initial presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to multilevel spinal arachnoiditis to discuss the pathophysiology and optimal treatment strategy.

OBSERVATIONS

Spinal intradural extramedullary cavernoma manifesting with sSAH is a rare clinical presentation; therefore, there is no clear strategy for the management of sSAH. Spinal arachnoiditis is a result of chronic inflammation of the pia arachnoid layer due to hematomyelia. No effective treatment that interrupts this inflammatory cascade and would also prevent the development of spinal arachnoiditis has been described to date.

LESSONS

Lumbar drainage could aid in sSAH management, relieve spinal cord compression, and restore the normal spinal cerebrospinal fluid circulation gradient. It could help to clear the blood degradation products rapidly and prevent early inflammatory arachnoiditis development. Mini-invasive intrathecal endoscopic adhesiolysis appears to be a reasonable approach for reducing the risk of aggravating spinal arachnoiditis with a mechanical-surgical stimulus. Whether a conservative approach should be applied in these patients with mild myelopathy symptoms is still debatable.

Open access

Impact of intraoperative cortical indocyanine green extravasation on local vasogenic edema immediately after direct revascularization in an adult with moyamoya disease: illustrative case

Maeho Yamasaki, Masaki Ito, Haruto Uchino, Taku Sugiyama, and Miki Fujimura

BACKGROUND

Local vasogenic edema induced after direct revascularization in moyamoya disease (MMD) is associated with blood–brain barrier dysfunction, potentially leading to postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion (CHP) or delayed intracerebral hemorrhage. This phenomenon allows the leakage of fluids, proteins, and other substances from the blood vessels into the extracellular compartment. Typically, such edema is observed postoperatively rather than intraoperatively.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old female with ischemic-onset MMD underwent revascularization on her left hemisphere with Suzuki’s angiographic stage III. Direct bypass was successfully performed, as confirmed by intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography. Subsequently, ICG extravasation was observed near the anastomosis site, despite the absence of cortical injury or bleeding under white light microscopy. Postoperative radiological imaging showed reversible pure vasogenic edema in the corresponding area, with no evidence of CHP. The patient did not exhibit neurological deterioration and was discharged home on postoperative day 16.

LESSONS

ICG, characterized by low molecular weight, water solubility, and high affinity with plasma proteins, can extravasate, serving as a direct indication of local vasogenic edema induced by direct revascularization in MMD. To enhance comprehension of the vulnerability of the blood–brain barrier in MMD, it is advisable to gather cases with prolonged observations of ICG video angiography after direct revascularization.

Open access

Ruptured pial-pial collateral aneurysm associated with left internal carotid artery occlusion: nuances of surgical management. Illustrative case

Juan Silvestre G Pascual, Eddie Guo, Runze Yang, Kristopher D Langdon, Sanju Lama, and Garnette R Sutherland

BACKGROUND

Carotid occlusion often leads to the formation of a collateral network. On rare occasions, due to hemodynamic influence, aneurysms can occur. Here, the authors describe a 69-year-old male presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured aneurysm within such a network.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented to the emergency department with an altered level of consciousness. Imaging showed a left temporal lobe hemorrhage extending into the ventricle, subdural hematoma, and evidence of contrast extravasation. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an occluded left internal carotid artery with the left middle cerebral artery territory reconstituted by flow through an external carotid artery–internal carotid artery anastomosis. The latter was formed by the superficial temporal artery–superior orbital artery, as well as pial-pial collaterals from the posterior temporal artery. Notably, a 4-mm aneurysm arising from the pial-pial collateral network was identified. Surgical intervention involved a left temporal craniectomy and aneurysm excision, with special attention paid to preserving the anastomotic flow through the superficial temporal artery.

LESSONS

This case underscores the importance of recognizing and preserving collateral vascular pathways in cases of carotid occlusion with an associated aneurysm. It emphasizes the necessary balance between managing aneurysm risk and maintaining cerebral perfusion, highlighting the need for careful preoperative planning and intraoperative caution.

Open access

Combination of neuroendoscopic hematoma evacuation and endovascular coil embolization for a ruptured anterior choroidal artery aneurysm in patients with moyamoya disease: illustrative cases

Kohei Uemasu, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Sumito Sato, Hideto Komai, Madoka Inukai, Takuichiro Hide, Yasushi Asari, and Toshihiro Kumabe

BACKGROUND

The treatment strategy for hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD) due to a ruptured aneurysm at the distal portion of the anterior choroidal artery remains controversial. The authors successfully treated the ruptured aneurysm with neuroendoscopic hematoma evacuation, followed by endovascular coil embolization.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors encountered two patients with massive hemorrhagic MMD whose MMD had already been diagnosed and who had a periventricular anastomosis due to a ruptured aneurysm of the distal portion of the anterior choroidal artery involving the periventricular anastomosis. In both cases, neuroendoscopic hematoma evacuation was performed for hemorrhagic MMD in the acute phase, followed by endovascular coil embolization of the ruptured aneurysm in the chronic phase. In both endovascular treatments, the patient’s condition was stabilized by hematoma evacuation, allowing a detailed preoperative evaluation of the anatomical findings of the vessel and functional findings of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring using continuous monitoring of motor evoked potentials to preserve motor function.

LESSONS

Combination therapy can be useful for hemorrhagic MMD in patients with diagnosed MMD with a periventricular anastomosis. Additionally, a preoperative understanding of the vascular construction and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring will aid in the successful coil embolization of aneurysms at the distal portion of the anterior choroidal artery with hemorrhagic MMD.

Open access

Successful surgical management of a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome: illustrative case

Fangjun Liu, Mengqing Hu, Daling Ruan, Xiaoling Ruan, Ting Lei, and Xiang’en Shi

BACKGROUND

Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder, poses unique challenges in neurosurgery, given the fragility of vascular structures. Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms in patients with the syndrome are rare and present distinct surgical difficulties, necessitating innovative approaches.

OBSERVATIONS

A 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured SCA aneurysm. Given the lack of a defined aneurysm neck and the small diameter of the SCA, standard clipping and endovascular therapies were unsuitable. A microsurgical approach using microsutures was successfully employed, effectively managing the aneurysm while preserving the parent artery.

LESSONS

This case underscores the efficacy of the microsuture technique in complex neurosurgical scenarios, particularly in patients with connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome. The adaptability of surgical strategies, as demonstrated in this case, is crucial for achieving successful outcomes in patients with unique anatomical challenges.