Browse

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for :

  • Refine by Access: user x
Clear All
Open access

Techniques for restoring optimal spinal biomechanics to alleviate symptoms in Bertolotti syndrome: illustrative case

Nolan J Brown, Zach Pennington, Hania Shahin, Oanh T Nguyen, and Martin H Pham

BACKGROUND

Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) are congenital anomalies that occur in the spinal segments of L5–S1. These vertebrae result from sacralization of the lowermost lumbar segment or lumbarization of the uppermost sacral segment. When the lowest lumbar vertebra fuses or forms a false joint with the sacrum (pseudoarticulation), it can cause pain and manifest clinically as Bertolotti syndrome.

OBSERVATIONS

A 36-year-old female presented with severe right-sided low-back pain. Computed tomography was unremarkable except for a right-sided Castellvi type IIA LSTV. The pain proved refractory to physical therapy and lumbar epidural spinal injections, but targeted steroid and bupivacaine injection of the pseudoarticulation led to 2 weeks of complete pain relief. She subsequently underwent minimally invasive resection of the pseudoarticulation, with immediate improvement in her low-back pain. The patient continued to be pain free at the 3-year follow-up.

LESSONS

LSTVs alter the biomechanics of the lumbosacral spine, which can lead to medically refractory mechanical pain requiring surgical intervention. Select patients with Bertolotti syndrome can benefit from operative management, including resection, fusion, or decompression of the pathologic joint.

Open access

Percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation for pathologic sacral fractures and spinopelvic dissociation: patient series

Nikolas Baksh, Caleb Yeung, and Max Vaynrub

BACKGROUND

Because patients with advanced cancer live longer, the number of patients with the sequelae of metastatic spine disease has increased. Pathologic instability of the mobile spine has been classified, and minimally invasive surgery has been well described. However, pathologic sacral instability is uncommon and often underdiagnosed. Although most sacral fractures are stable, patients with unstable U- or H-type fractures have spinopelvic dissociation and can experience progressive pain, sacral kyphosis, and neurological injury. Open lumbopelvic fusion carries a high perioperative risk for this patient population, which has often been previously radiated and is medically frail. The authors investigated the utility and safety of percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation, as previously described for traumatic spinopelvic dissociation, in the oncological setting. The authors retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unstable pathologic sacral fractures who had undergone percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation after conservative management failed.

OBSERVATIONS

Patients experienced significant improvement between pre- and postoperative visual analog scale scores (9.2 and 1.6, respectively) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group grades (median 3 and 1, respectively). All patients were independently ambulatory at the final follow-up. Sagittal alignment remained stable in four patients and worsened in one. There were no major medical or surgical complications.

LESSONS

Percutaneous lumbopelvic fixation shows promising results for palliation, durability, and safety for pathologic sacropelvic instability.

Open access

Robotics planning in minimally invasive surgery for adult degenerative scoliosis: illustrative case

Zach Pennington, Nolan J. Brown, Saif Quadri, Seyedamirhossein Pishva, Cathleen C. Kuo, and Martin H. Pham

BACKGROUND

Minimally invasive surgical techniques are changing the landscape in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, enabling surgical correction to be achievable in increasingly medically complex patients. Spinal robotics are one technology that have helped facilitate this. Here the authors present an illustrative case of the utility of robotics planning workflow for minimally invasive correction of ASD.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old female presented with persistent and debilitating low back and leg pain limiting her function and quality of life. Standing scoliosis radiographs demonstrated adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), with a lumbar scoliosis of 53°, a pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch of 44°, and pelvic tilt of 39°. Robotics planning software was utilized for preoperative planning of the multiple rod and 4-point pelvic fixation in the posterior construct.

LESSONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing the use of spinal robotics for complex 11-level minimally invasive correction of ADS. Although additional experiences adapting spinal robotics to complex spinal deformities are necessary, the present case represents a proof-of-concept demonstrating the feasibility of applying this technology to minimally invasive correction of ASD.

Open access

Surgical outcome of a patient with Bertolotti’s syndrome in whom the established Castellvi classification system failed: illustrative case

Richard J. Chung, Camryn Harvie, John O’Donnell, Sarah Jenkins, and Arthur L. Jenkins III

BACKGROUND

Bertolotti’s syndrome is a condition of the lower back and/or L5 distribution leg pain caused by a lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). Diagnosing the LSTV as the cause of the symptoms and condition is essential for accurate management of this syndrome. Castellvi’s classification system is widely accepted for LSTV anatomy, but it measures only one aspect of transitional anatomy and was intended primarily to identify target-level disk herniations.

OBSERVATIONS

In this case, the Castellvi classification system failed to identify the patient (with 2 years of back and L5 pain) as having an LSTV, even though he displayed LSTV-like anatomy because both L5 transverse process heights measured less than 19 mm. He attained brief but significant relief from bilateral injections into the L5–S1 transverse/ala region and underwent a minimally invasive bilateral decompression of L5–S1 with almost complete relief of his symptoms maintained more than 6 months postoperatively.

LESSONS

Given that the patient gained significant relief from treatment of transitional anatomy that failed to be identified using Castellvi’s classification system, this case suggests that transverse process height may not be adequate or even the most clinically relevant indicator in identifying LSTV anatomy, which is a precursor to the diagnosis of Bertolotti’s syndrome.

Open access

Presacral mature cystic teratoma associated with Currarino syndrome in an adolescent with androgen insensitivity: illustrative case

Grant Koskay, Patrick Opperman, Frank M. Mezzacappa, Joseph Menousek, Megan K. Fuller, Linden Fornoff, and Daniel Surdell

BACKGROUND

Currarino syndrome is a rare disorder that classically presents with the triad of presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and spinal dysraphism. The presacral mass is typically benign, although malignant transformation is possible. Surgical treatment of the mass and exploration and repair of associated dysraphism are indicated for diagnosis and symptom relief. There are no previous reports of Currarino syndrome in an androgen-insensitive patient.

OBSERVATIONS

A 17-year-old female patient presented with lack of menarche. Physical examination and laboratory investigation identified complete androgen insensitivity. Imaging analysis revealed a presacral mass lesion, and the patient was taken to surgery for resection of the mass and spinal cord untethering. Intraoperative ultrasound revealed a fibrous stalk connecting the thecal sac to the presacral mass, which was disconnected without the need for intrathecal exploration. The presacral mass was then resected, and pathological analysis revealed a mature cystic teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without neurological or gastrointestinal sequelae.

LESSONS

Diagnosis of incomplete Currarino syndrome may be difficult but can be identified via work-up of other disorders, such as androgen insensitivity. Intraoperative ultrasound is useful for surgical decision making and may obviate the need for intrathecal exploration during repair of dysraphism in the setting of Currarino syndrome.

Open access

Navigation-assisted resection of tumoral calcinosis of the lumbosacral spine: illustrative case

Oliver Y. Tang, Patricia Zadnik Sullivan, Teddi Tubre, Joshua Feler, Belinda Shao, Jesse Hart, and Ziya L. Gokaslan

BACKGROUND

Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon disease resulting from dystrophic calcium phosphate crystal deposition, with only 7% of cases involving the spine, and it may diagnostically mimic neoplasms.

OBSERVATIONS

In this case, a 54-year-old woman with history of systemic scleroderma presented with 10 months of progressive left lumbosacral pain. Imaging revealed an expansile, 4 × 7-cm, well-circumscribed mass in the lumbosacral spine with L5–S1 neuroforaminal compression. Because intractable pain and computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy did not entirely rule out malignancy, operative management was pursued. The patient underwent L4–S2 laminectomies, left L5–S1 facetectomy, L5 and S1 pediculectomies, and en bloc resection, performed under stereotactic CT-guided intraoperative navigation. Subsequently, instrumented fusion was performed with L4 and L5 pedicle screws and S2 alar-iliac screws. Pathological examination was consistent with tumoral calcinosis, with multiple nodules of amorphous basophilic granular calcified material lined by histiocytes. There was no evidence of recurrence or neurological deficits at 5-month follow-up.

LESSONS

Because spinal tumoral calcinosis may mimic neoplasms on imaging or gross intraoperative appearance, awareness of this clinical entity is essential for any spine surgeon. A review of all case reports of lumbosacral tumoral calcinosis (n = 14 from 1952 to 2016) was additionally performed. The case featured in this report presents the first known case of navigation-assisted resection of lumbosacral tumoral calcinosis.

Open access

Management of traumatic sacral spondyloptosis: illustrative case

Jovanna A. Tracz, Brendan F. Judy, Amanda N. Sacino, Ali Bydon, and Timothy F. Witham

BACKGROUND

Grade V spondylolisthesis, or spondyloptosis, is a complication of high-energy trauma that is most commonly reported at the lumbosacral junction. Sacral intersegmental spondyloptosis is extremely rare. The authors present a case of spondyloptosis of S1 on S2 with a comminuted fracture of S2 and complex fractures of the L4 and L5 transverse processes, resulting in severe stenosis of the lumbosacral nerve roots.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient was a 70-year-old woman with a history of a fall 3 weeks prior and progressive L5 and S1 radiculopathy. Instrumentation and fusion were undertaken, extending from L3 to the pelvis because degenerative stenosis at L3–4 and L4–5 was also found. Reduction was achieved, leading to diminished pain and partial resolution of weakness.

LESSONS

Traumatic sacral spondyloptosis adds a degree of difficulty to reduction, fixation, and fusion. The technique presented herein achieved sagittal realignment via a distraction maneuver of S1–2 in which rods were attached to bilateral dual S2 alar-iliac screws with reduction screws placed at S1, ultimately pulling L5 and S1 up to the rod for fixation.

Open access

Pearls and pitfalls of posterior superior iliac spine reference frame placement for spinal navigation: cadaveric series

Brendan F. Judy, Hector Soriano-Baron, Yike Jin, Hesham M. Zakaria, Srujan Kopparapu, Mir Hussain, Connor Pratt, and Nicholas Theodore

BACKGROUND

Navigation and robotics are important tools in the spine surgeon’s armamentarium and use of these tools requires placement of a reference frame. The posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) is a commonly used site for reference frame placement, due to its location away from the surgical corridor and its ability to provide solid fixation. Placement of a reference frame requires not only familiarity with proper technique, but also command of the relevant anatomy.

OBSERVATIONS

Cadaveric analysis demonstrates a significant difference in PSIS location in males versus females, and additionally provides average thickness for accurate placement.

LESSONS

In this technical note, the authors describe the precise technique for PSIS frame placement in addition to relevant anatomy and offer solutions to commonly encountered problems.

Open access

Minimally invasive endoscopic approach to perform complete coccygectomy in patients with chronic refractory coccydynia: illustrative case

Jorge A. Roa, Sarah White, Ernest J. Barthélemy, Arthur Jenkins III, and Konstantinos Margetis

BACKGROUND

Coccydynia refers to debilitating pain in the coccygeal region of the spine. Treatment strategies range from conservative measures (e.g., ergonomic adaptations, physical therapy, nerve block injections) to partial or complete removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy). Because the surgical intervention is situated in a high-pressure location close to the anus, a possible complication is the formation of sacral pressure ulcers and infection at the incision site.

OBSERVATIONS

In this case report, the authors presented a minimally invasive, fully endoscopic approach to safely perform complete coccygectomy for treatment of refractory posttraumatic coccydynia.

LESSONS

Although this is a single case report, the authors hope that this novel endoscopic approach may achieve improved wound healing, reduced infection rates, and lower risk of penetration injury to retroperitoneal organs in patients requiring coccygectomy.