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Open access

Endoscopic endonasal repair of temporal lobe meningoencephalocele in the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus, complicated by intracerebral hematoma: illustrative case

Rasim Agaev, Ekaterina Gormolysova, Anton Kalinovskiy, and Jamil Rzaev

BACKGROUND

Anomalies in the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses often serve as a potential cause of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and may result in the development of a meningoencephalocele. In this report, the authors present a case of surgically treated intrasphenoidal meningoencephalocele attributed to the persistence of the lateral craniopharyngeal canal, which was further complicated by the occurrence of an intracerebral hematoma.

OBSERVATIONS

A temporal lobe meningoencephalocele located in the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus was successfully managed using endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid repair (EETR). However, an intracerebral hematoma developed after resection of the meningoencephalocele, necessitating additional surgical interventions. Despite this complication, the patient exhibited a favorable clinical outcome after the surgical interventions.

LESSONS

This case highlights the potential risk of intracerebral hematoma associated with EETR of a lateral sphenoid sinus meningoencephalocele. A thorough examination of magnetic resonance imaging scans, especially identifying vascular structures, is crucial during surgical planning. This knowledge can help to prevent the occurrence of complications, including intracerebral hematoma.

Open access

Clival intraosseous myxoma treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach: illustrative case

Mokshal H. Porwal, Daniel M. Aaronson, Abrahim N. Razzak, and Nathan T. Zwagerman

BACKGROUND

Solitary lesions of the clivus, especially nonchordomatous ones, are exceptionally rare pathologies representing only 0.1%–0.2% of intracranial tumors that may present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Intraosseous myxomas are benign tumors arising from mesenchymal cells with an unknown pathophysiology.

OBSERVATIONS

In this article, a 15-year-old male with clival intraosseous myxoma who was treated via an endoscopic endonasal surgical approach is presented. The patient became symptomatic after a baseball struck his head, leading to throbbing headaches and visual difficulties for tracking objects. Examination noted diplopia, cranial nerve VI palsy, and ptosis. After imaging revealed a tumor extending to the left cavernous sinus with bulging of the dorsal clivus against the basilar artery/ventral pons, resection was performed. Postoperatively, the patient noted ocular motility and alignment improvement without further complications.

LESSONS

Clival masses present with symptoms from compromised neurovascular structures including visual disturbances and trigeminal sensory deficits. Given the rarity of these entities, patients may postpone further treatment until workup; this patient was misdiagnosed for possible concussion until several weeks passed. A PubMed database review of cranial myxoma cases was conducted to identify solitary clival intraosseous myxoma cases. This case is one of the few in which this pathology was treated through an endoscopic endonasal operative approach without complications, demonstrating its safety and effectiveness.

Open access

Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as a complication of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction collection for the detection of coronavirus disease 2019: illustrative cases

Lucca B. Palavani, Camila V. F. Andrade, Renato A. Andrade, Egmond Alves, Marcio Falchi Barros, and João F. Barbieri

BACKGROUND

The most used method to detect coronavirus disease 2019 during the pandemic is reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction with nasal swab. Despite being highly effective, the test does not leave the patient risk-free and can lead to serious complications. These can be traumatic nasal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and its consequences, such as meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

In this article, the authors present 4 case reports and a literature review. The following MeSH terms in the research were used: “CSF leak case report and covid 19.” Six results were found and after searching the references and keywords 16 articles were identified. By using them, the authors tried to clarify the etiology of the fistula, its influences, and complications.

LESSONS

The authors conclude that professionals must receive training, since CSF fistula originates from technical failure and lack of anatomical knowledge. The diagnosis cannot be neglected because it can bring complications to the patient’s health.