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Open access

Bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function identified by the superselective infusion of propofol in an epilepsy patient with a mild malformation of cortical development: illustrative case

Mayuko Otomo, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazuo Kakinuma, Kazushi Ukishiro, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Norio Narita, Nobukazu Nakasato, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Atypical localization of language function can result in unexpected postsurgical deficits after cortical resection, but it is difficult to predict the risk in the presurgical evaluation. The authors experienced a rare case of the bilateral and independent existence of different components of language function identified by segmented evaluation of anatomical anterior and posterior language areas using the superselective infusion of propofol.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old right-handed female presented with drug-resistant epilepsy. Comprehensive epilepsy evaluation suggested that the epileptic foci involved the whole left frontal lobe but provided less evidence of structural abnormality. To estimate the extent of functional deterioration likely to be caused by an extended left frontal lobectomy, the authors evaluated segmented cortical function in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres by the superselective infusion of propofol into the branches of the intracranial artery. The results revealed bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function because the patient presented with different components of aphasia in each hemisphere. Based on the authors’ assessment of her functional tolerance, an extended left frontal lobectomy was performed and resulted in neurological deficits within the anticipated range.

LESSONS

An accurate understanding of the correlations between vascular and functional anatomy and the highly specific evaluation of language function provides more advanced presurgical assessment, allowing more tailored planning of cortical resection.

Open access

Vasospasm secondary to responsive neurostimulator placement: a previously unreported complication. Illustrative case

Brandon Rogowski, Aaron Miller, Brian F. Saway, Jeffrey Wessell, Nathan C. Rowland, Jonathan Ross Lena, and William A. Vandergrift

BACKGROUND

The Responsive Neurostimulation (RNS) system is an implantable device for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who are not candidates for resection of a seizure focus. As a relatively new therapeutic, the full spectrum of adverse effects has yet to be determined. A literature review revealed no previous reports of cerebral vasospasm following RNS implantation.

OBSERVATIONS

A 35-year-old man developed severe angiographic and clinical vasospasm following bilateral mesial temporal lobe RNS implantation. He initially presented with concerns for status epilepticus 8 days after implantation. On hospital day 3, a decline in his clinical examination prompted imaging studies that revealed a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke with angiographic evidence of severe vasospasm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA), MCA, anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and right ICA and ACA. Despite improvements in angiographic vasospasm after appropriate treatment, a thrombus developed in the posterior M2 branch, requiring mechanical thrombectomy. Ultimately, the patient was stabilized and discharged to a rehabilitation facility with residual cognitive and motor deficits.

LESSONS

Cerebral vasospasm as a cause of ischemic stroke after uneventful RNS implantation is exceedingly rare, yet demands particular attention given the potential for severe consequences and the growing number of patients receiving RNS devices.

Open access

Removal of malformation in cerebral proliferative angiopathy: illustrative case

Gwang Yoon Choi, Hyuk Jai Choi, Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jin Seo Yang, Suk-Hyung Kang, and Yong-Jun Cho

BACKGROUND

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) is a rare vascular disorder distinct from arteriovenous malformation. Because of the disorder’s rarity, there is still a controversy on the most promising treatment method for CPA. However, several meta-analysis articles suggest indirect vascularization such as encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis as an effective way of treating symptoms that are medically uncontrolled.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of an 11-year-old boy with this disease, who had epilepsy that was intractable despite conservative management. The patient recovered from his symptoms after the vascular malformation was surgically removed. This is the first reported case of surgical removal in CPA.

LESSONS

Although further investigation on the best treatment for CPA is needed, the authors believe surgical intervention may also be an effective treatment modality when a patient presents with persisting symptoms.