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Liyong Sun, Jian Ren and Hongqi Zhang

Craniocervical junction dural arteriovenous fistula (CCJDAVF) is a rare and unique type of intracranial DAVF with complex neurovascular anatomy, making it difficult to identify the arterialized vein during operation. The authors report the case of a 50-year-old male who presented with symptoms of venous hypertensive myelopathy. Angiography demonstrated a left CCJDAVF. The fistula was successfully disconnected via a suboccipital midline approach. The selective indocyanine green videoangiography (SICG-VA) technique was applied to distinguish the fistula site and arterialized vein from adjacent normal vessels. Favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes were attained. The detailed operative technique, surgical nuances, and utility of SICG-VA are illustrated in this video atlas.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/GJYl_jOJQqU.

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Tyler S. Cole, Sirin Gandhi, Justin R. Mascitelli, Douglas Hardesty, Claudio Cavallo and Michael T. Lawton

Venous interruption through surgical clip ligation is the gold standard treatment for ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistula (e-dAVF). Their malignant natural history is attributable to the higher predilection for retrograde cortical venous drainage. This video illustrates an e-dAVF in a 70-year-old man with progressive tinnitus and headache. Angiogram revealed bilateral e-dAVFs (Borden III–Cognard III) with one fistula draining into cavernous sinus and another to the sagittal sinus. A bifrontal craniotomy was utilized for venous interruption of both e-dAVFs. Postoperative angiography confirmed curative obliteration with no postoperative anosmia. Bilateral e-dAVFs are rare but can be safely treated simultaneously through a single craniotomy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/666edwKHGKc.

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André Beer-Furlan, Krishna C. Joshi, Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock and Michael Chen

Superior sagittal sinus (SSS) dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare and present unique challenges to treatment. Complex, often bilateral, arterial supply and involvement of large volumes of eloquent cortical venous drainage may necessitate multimodality therapy such as endovascular, microsurgical, and stereotactic radiosurgery techniques. The authors present a complex SSS DAVF associated with an occluded/severely stenotic SSS. The patient underwent a successful endovascular transvenous approach with complete obliteration of the SSS. The authors discuss the management challenges faced on this case.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/-rztg0_cBXY.

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Varun R. Kshettry, Nina Z. Moore and Mark Bain

This video demonstrates the diagnosis and surgical ligation of a C1 dural arteriovenous fistula via a far lateral, transcondylar approach. The patient’s dural arteriovenous fistula was identified by MRI signal changes in the spinal cord and a cerebrospinal angiogram demonstrating an abnormal hypertrophied early venous drainage pattern suggestive of a C1 vessel origin. Indocyanine green was used to verify surgical treatment of the fistula intraoperatively. A postoperative angiogram and MR image demonstrate fistula occlusion and resolution of the spinal cord edema. Anatomic details and technical nuances of the approach are demonstrated.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/zSd0vuov8xk.

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Gregory J. Zipfel, David M. Hasan, Felipe C. Albuquerque and Adam S. Arthur

Over the past decade substantial advances in diagnostic imaging, classification, and understanding the natural history of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) have been made. Paralleling these improvements in patient evaluation and risk assessment have been considerable innovations and refinements in the microsurgical and endovascular techniques by which appropriately selected patients with dAVF are treated. On the microsurgical front, minimally invasive surgical approaches with less soft tissue and bony disruption, along with enhanced tools for the intraoperative assessment of vascular anatomy and completeness of dAVF obliteration, are now commonly utilized. On the endovascular front, liquid embolic agents, balloons, and flow-directed catheters have transformed our capacity to safely and effectively treat dAVFs with a variety of anatomic configurations and locations. Innovative combinations of microsurgical and endovascular approaches are even being applied to select cases. In this issue of Neurosurgical Focus, we present a series of narrated videos that demonstrate the decision-making, vascular anatomy, and technical nuances of many of these advanced techniques, while also providing narrated videos demonstrating tried-and-true microsurgical and endovascular approaches that have proven highly effective over the years. We hope this video supplement provides a meaningful update and demonstration of modern microsurgical and endovascular approaches to patients with dAVF and aids all of us in our unending quest to provide even better care for our patients in the future. We thank the authors for their outstanding contributions.

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Kyle P. O’Connor and Bradley N. Bohnstedt

A 67-year-old male presented to the hospital with a left anterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula connecting the anterior ethmoidal artery to the cavernous sinus and superior sagittal sinus. After failed embolization, the patient was taken for a supra-orbital (eyebrow) craniotomy for surgical dissection and clipping of the fistula. An intraoperative angiogram confirmed successful fistula ligation. The patient was discharged without complications.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/79Pk11SEkJg.

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Daniel M. S. Raper, Nasser Mohammed, M. Yashar S. Kalani and Min S. Park

The preferred method for treating complex dural arteriovenous fistulae of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses is via endovascular, transarterial embolization using liquid embolysate. However, this treatment approach mandates access to distal dural feeding arteries that can be technically challenging by standard endovascular approaches. This video describes a left temporal craniotomy for direct stick microcatheterization of an endovascularly inaccessible distal posterior division of the middle meningeal artery for embolization of a complex left temporal dural arteriovenous fistula. The case was performed in the hybrid operative suite with biplane intraoperative angiography. Technical considerations, operative nuances, and outcomes are reviewed.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Dnd4yHgaKcQ.

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Gregory Glauser, Tracy M. Flanders and Omar Choudhri

This video is a presentation of technical tenets for the microsurgical clipping of a tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with thalamic venous hypertension. These cases are easily misdiagnosed and often supplied by the tentorial artery of Davidoff and Schecter. The cases shown in the video uniquely illustrate a supracerebellar infratentorial approach to identify and clip an arterialized tentorial vein utilizing intraoperative Doppler and fluorescein, with navigation and an intraoperative cerebral angiogram in a hybrid neuroangiography operative suite. Both patients were found to have thalamic edema on preoperative imaging, which significantly improved postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/HmUO6Ye53QI.

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Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Douglas A. Hardesty, Brandon D. Liebelt and Peter Nakaji

Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have a near-universal association with cortical venous drainage and a malignant clinical course. Endovascular treatment options are often limited due to the high frequency of ophthalmic artery ethmoidal supply. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with syncope and was found to have a right ethmoidal DAVF. Rather than the traditional bicoronal craniotomy, an endoscope-assisted mini-pterional approach for clip ligation is demonstrated. The mini-pterional craniotomy allows a minimally invasive approach to ethmoidal DAVF via a lateral trajectory. The endoscope can help achieve full visualization in the narrow corridor.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ZroXp-T35DI.

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Lorenzo Rinaldo, Waleed Brinjikji and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla

An 80-year-old female presented with a long history of severe pulsatile tinnitus, vertigo, and decreased hearing. She was found to have a large right-sided tentorial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with enlarged deep draining veins, including the vein of Rosenthal. The patient underwent Onyx embolization of the fistula via a combined transarterial and transvenous approach resulting in complete obliteration of the fistula. Her symptoms improved immediately after the procedure and at 6-months’ follow-up she was clinically asymptomatic with no evidence of residual fistula on neuroimaging. Transvenous embolization of AVF is at times necessary when transarterial access is not possible.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/uOMHY7eaOoQ.