Browse

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Refine by Access: user x
Clear All
Open access

Refractory seizures secondary to radiation-induced focal cortical dysplasia/neuronal gigantism: illustrative case

Annabelle Shaffer, Michael Pozin, Sharif Nasr, Paul M Arnold, Fadi Mikhail, Graham Huesmann, and Wael Hassaneen

BACKGROUND

Focal cortical dysplasia is a structural cause of drug-resistant epilepsy commonly identified in childhood. In rare cases, radiation-induced injury has led to radiation-induced cortical dysplasia, also known as “focal neuronal gigantism.”

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a 53-year-old woman with recurrent status epilepticus events after she had radiation therapy and surgery for a left frontal meningioma several years prior. Imaging revealed findings consistent with radiation necrosis and possible recurrence. The patient’s status epilepticus events required escalating therapies to manage. Scalp electroencephalography indicated that the seizure’s origin was in the left hemisphere. A craniotomy was performed to remove the left frontal lesion, and histopathology was consistent with radiation-induced focal cortical dysplasia/neuronal gigantism. The patient’s seizures ceased following the surgery, and she remains on maintenance antiseizure medications.

LESSONS

Radiation-induced focal cortical dysplasia/neuronal gigantism is an incredibly rare complication of therapy. However, it warrants consideration in the context of radiation necrosis and intractable epilepsy.

Open access

Infraclavicular de novo placement of a responsive neurostimulator for a patient with eloquent glioma-associated epilepsy: illustrative case

Ahmad R. Masri, Bailey R. Yekzaman, Bradley J. Estes, Christopher S. Park, Patrick Landazuri, and Michael Kinsman

BACKGROUND

The authors present a 50-year-old female with high-grade glioma involving the motor cortex as the cause of her drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) was chosen for epilepsy treatment. Due to concerns regarding the generator impeding the regular imaging surveillance required for treatment and monitoring of her glioma, surgeons placed the internal pulse generator (IPG) within an infraclavicular chest pocket.

OBSERVATIONS

Implantation of the RNS device and IPG within the infraclavicular pocket was uneventful. However, both subdural and depth electrodes were used and connected to the IPG, and subdural electrodes are considerably shorter than depth electrodes (37 vs 44 cm). The shorter strip leads presumably generated significant tension, leading to fracture of the leads. Therefore, surgery was repeated using only depth electrodes for more length and less tension. The device has good-quality electrocorticography signals that continue to be used for device programming. The seizure burden was reduced, and quality of life improved for the patient.

LESSONS

The RNS system with infraclavicular IPG placement reduced the seizure burden and improved the quality of life of a patient with glioma-associated epilepsy. Surgeons may consider the infraclavicular location as an alternative site for implantation for RNS candidates who require recurrent intracranial magnetic resonance imaging.

Open access

Improved psychotic symptoms following resection of amygdalar low-grade glioma: illustrative case

John P. Andrews, Thomas A. Wozny, John K. Yue, and Doris D. Wang

BACKGROUND

Epilepsy-associated psychoses are poorly understood, and management is focused on treating epilepsy. Chronic, interictal psychosis that persists despite seizure control is typically treated with antipsychotics. Whether resection of a mesial temporal lobe lesion may improve interictal psychotic symptoms that persist despite seizure control remains unknown.

OBSERVATIONS

In a 52-year-old man with well-controlled epilepsy and persistent comorbid psychosis, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an infiltrative, intraaxial, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery intense mass of the left amygdala. The patient received an amygdalectomy for oncological diagnosis and surgical treatment of a presumed low-grade glioma. Pathology was ganglioglioma, World Health Organization grade I. Postoperatively, the patient reported immediate resolution of auditory hallucinations. Patient has remained seizure-free on 2 antiepileptic drugs and no antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and reported lasting improvement in his psychotic symptoms.

LESSONS

This report discusses improvement of psychosis symptoms after resection of an amygdalar glioma, independent of seizure outcome. This case supports a role of the amygdala in psychopathology and suggests that low-grade gliomas of the limbic system may represent, at minimum, partially reversible etiology of psychotic symptoms.

Open access

Stereo-electroencephalography evidence of an eccentrically located seizure-onset zone around a polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young: illustrative case

Koichi Hagiwara, Takashi Kamada, Satoshi O. Suzuki, Ayako Miyoshi, Hideaki Tanaka, Hiroshi Shigeto, Shinji Ohara, and Naoki Akamatsu

BACKGROUND

Polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY) is a newly identified low-grade brain tumor with frequent epileptic presentation. Despite the facilitated use of invasive electroencephalography owing to the growing availability of stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG), intracranial features of tumor-related seizures are still scarcely described. This report provides the first description of SEEG-recorded seizures in PLNTY to provide an insight into its surgical strategy.

OBSERVATIONS

Spontaneous clinical seizures were recorded with SEEG in a young adult patient with drug-resistant epilepsy associated with a PLNTY in the left lateral temporal cortex. The seizure onset was characterized by low-voltage fast activity (LVFA) and showed eccentric localization with respect to the tumor: LVFA was localized in the anterior portion of the tumor and spread toward the adjacent polar cortex. The language risks associated with the resection of the posterior temporal cortex could thus be minimized.

LESSONS

PLNTY can show a focal and eccentric seizure-onset zone around the tumor. The present findings serve to improve the functional and seizure outcomes using the staged invasive approach in PLNTY.

Open access

Presurgical language mapping in bilingual children using transcranial magnetic stimulation: illustrative case

Savannah K. Gibbs, Stephen Fulton, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Frederick A. Boop, and Shalini Narayana

BACKGROUND

Presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex in young patients undergoing neurosurgery is critical but presents challenges unique to the pediatric population, including motion artifact, noncompliance, and sedation requirements. Furthermore, as bilingualism in children increases, functional mapping of more than one language is becoming increasingly critical. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, is well suited to evaluate language areas in children since it does not require the patient to remain still during mapping.

OBSERVATIONS

A 13-year-old bilingual male with glioblastoma multiforme involving the left parietal lobe and deep occipital white matter underwent preoperative language mapping using magnetic resonance imaging-guided TMS. Language-specific cortices were successfully identified in both hemispheres. TMS findings aided in discussing with the family the risks of postsurgical deficits of tumor resection; postoperatively, the patient had intact bilingual speech and was referred for chemotherapy and radiation.

LESSONS

The authors’ findings add to the evolving case for preoperative dual language mapping in bilingual neurosurgical candidates. The authors illustrate the feasibility and utility of TMS as a noninvasive functional mapping tool in this child. TMS is safe, effective, and can be used for preoperative mapping of language cortex in bilingual children to aid in surgical planning and discussion with families.

Open access

Papillary glioneuronal tumor growing slowly for 26 years: illustrative case

Kazuma Shinno, Yoshiki Arakawa, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Yukinori Terada, Masahiro Tanji, Yohei Mineharu, Takayuki Kikuchi, Hironori Haga, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

Papillary glioneuronal tumors (PGNTs) are classified as a type of World Health Organization grade I mixed neuronal-glial tumor. Most PGNTs involve cystic formations with mural nodules and solid components in the cerebral hemispheres, and PGNTs occur mainly in young adults. The long-term prognosis of PGNTs remains unclear.

OBSERVATIONS

A 38-year-old male had been diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst associated with epilepsy in a local hospital. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed the tumor as a heterogeneously enhanced nodule in the left postcentral gyrus. Subsequent MRI studies showed slow growth of the tumor for 26 years. He underwent gross total resection to control his epilepsy. The histopathological findings revealed pseudopapillary structures involving hyalinized blood vessels with a single or pseudostratified layer of cuboidal glial cells with round nuclei and scant cytoplasm. At the periphery of the lesion, Rosenthal fibers and acidophilic granule bodies were observed in the gliotic brain tissue. Immunohistochemically, some interpapillary cells were positive for NeuN. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a PGNT.

LESSONS

This PGNT showed slow growth for 26 years. When recognizing a slowly growing tumor in the cerebral hemispheres of relatively young people that is associated with epileptic seizures, PGNT should be considered as a differential diagnosis.