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Open access

Recurrent choroid plexus carcinoma treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery: illustrative case

Lorenzo Yuan, David J Park, Amit R. L Persad, Yusuke S Hori, Armine Tayag, Louisa Ustrzynski, Sara C Emrich, and Steven D Chang

BACKGROUND

Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are rare malignant brain tumors primarily affecting children younger than 2 years old. These tumors originate from the choroid plexus epithelium and are a subtype of choroid plexus tumors, which account for 1%–4% of pediatric brain tumors. Although CPCs often show a notably high recurrence rate after surgery, the standard treatment approach remains gross-total resection (GTR) of the tumor, given the lack of clinical data supporting the effectiveness of adjunct treatment options such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

OBSERVATIONS

A 16-year-old female with a history of a recurrent cranial CPC resistant to surgery and radiotherapy was treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), following resection. The procedures successfully maintained local disease control for 41 months; however, there was a subsequent recurrence, ultimately leading to the death of the patient.

LESSONS

CPC treatment remains challenging. SRS can be used as a viable adjunct to surgery, which remains the gold standard, although it can also be considered for nonsurgical candidates or when GTR cannot be achieved. Nevertheless, it is crucial to conduct additional research to explore diverse approaches for radiosurgery, including its role as the primary treatment modality versus its combination with surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE23748

Open access

Symptomatic radionecrosis after postoperative but not preoperative stereotactic radiosurgery in a single patient: illustrative case

Bryce J Laurin, Michael Straza, George Noid, Jennifer M Connelly, Wade M Mueller, Joseph Bovi, and Max O Krucoff

BACKGROUND

Standard of care for brain metastases involves stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For cases that also require surgery because of lesion size, edema, or neurological symptoms, whether to provide pre- or postoperative SRS has become a prevalent debate.

OBSERVATIONS

Herein, the unique case of a patient with brain metastases of the same pathology and similar size in two different brain locations at two different times is described. The patient underwent surgery with preoperative SRS for the first lesion and surgery with postoperative SRS for the second lesion. Although both treatments resulted in successful local control, the location that received postoperative SRS developed symptomatic and rapidly progressive radiation necrosis (RN) requiring a third craniotomy.

LESSONS

Large randomized controlled trials are ongoing to compare pre- versus postoperative SRS for the treatment of symptomatic brain metastases (e.g., study NRG-BN012). Recent interest in preoperative SRS has emerged from its theoretical potential to decrease rates of postoperative RN and leptomeningeal disease. This valuable case in which both therapies were applied in a single patient with a single pathology and similar lesions provides evidence supportive of preoperative SRS.

Open access

Rare clival localization of an eosinophilic granuloma: illustrative case

Martin E. Weidemeier, Steffen Fleck, Werner Hosemann, Silke Vogelgesang, Karoline Ehlert, Holger N. Lode, and Henry W. S. Schroeder

BACKGROUND

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) belongs to the family of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is considered to be a benign disease typically found in children younger than 15 years of age. Here, the authors describe an EG of unusual localization and clinical presentation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a 9-year-old girl with an EG presenting as an osteolytic lesion of the clivus. After transsphenoidal resection and histological confirmation, adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Presenting signs and symptoms were weight loss, episodic grimacing, and moderate ballism-like movements. After a follow-up-period of 32 months, the patient presented with a total resolution of initial symptoms and no further tumor growth.

LESSONS

Although these lesions are rare, one should consider EG as a differential diagnosis when confronted with osteolytic lesions of the clivus.