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Open access

Multiple three-column osteotomies successfully correcting cervicothoracic kyphosis in the setting of ankylosing spondylitis: illustrative case

Luke Mugge, Paul Gorka, Cristie Brewer, and Brian McHugh

BACKGROUND

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune spondylarthritis often associated with rigid kyphoscoliosis. The authors describe a surgical approach that employs multilevel three-column osteotomies for the restoration of normal global alignment.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old male with a past medical history of AS presented to the clinic with a stooped-over posture: his chin-brow vertical angle (CBVA) was 58.0°; T1 slope (T1S), 97.8°; thoracic kyphosis (TK; T1–12), 94.2°; proximal TK (T1–5), 50.8°; distal TK (T5–12), 43.5°; and sagittal vertical axis (SVA), 22.6 cm. A two-stage procedure was planned. During stage 1, instrumentation was placed from C5 to T10, followed by a T3 vertebral column resection. During stage 2, bilateral pedicle screws were placed from T11 to the pelvis. An L3 pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) was completed and was followed by a T7 PSO. Postoperatively, the patient had significant postural improvement: CBVA was 29.3°; T1S, 57.8°; TK, 77.3°; proximal TK, 33.5°; distal TK, 43.8°; and SVA, 15 cm. At 6 years postoperatively, the patient continued to do well and was without evidence of construct breakdown.

LESSONS

The authors propose that multilevel three-column osteotomies, if optimally located, successfully correct spinal malalignment associated with AS.

Open access

Oblique anterior column realignment with a mini-open posterior column osteotomy for minimally invasive adult spinal deformity correction: illustrative case

Zach Pennington, Nolan J Brown, Seyedamirhossein Pishva, Hernán F. J González, and Martin H Pham

BACKGROUND

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) occurs from progressive anterior column collapse due to disc space desiccation, compression fractures, and autofusion across disc spaces. Anterior column realignment (ACR) is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to address ASD by progressively lengthening the anterior column through the release of the anterior longitudinal ligament during lateral interbody approaches. Here, we describe the application of minimally invasive ACR through an oblique antepsoas corridor for deformity correction in a patient with adult degenerative scoliosis and significant sagittal imbalance.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old female with a prior history of L4–5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and morbid obesity presented with refractory, severe low-back and lower-extremity pain. Preoperative radiographs showed significant sagittal imbalance. Computed tomography showed a healed L4–5 fusion and a vacuum disc at L3–4 and L5–S1, whereas magnetic resonance imaging was notable for central canal stenosis at L3–4. The patient was treated with a first-stage L5–S1 lateral anterior lumbar interbody fusion with oblique L2–4 ACR. The second-stage posterior approach consisted of a robot-guided minimally invasive T10–ilium posterior instrumented fusion with a mini-open L2–4 posterior column osteotomy (PCO). Postoperative radiographs showed the restoration of her sagittal balance. There were no complications.

LESSONS

Oblique ACR is a powerful minimally invasive tool for sagittal plane correction. When combined with a mini-open PCO, substantial segmental lordosis can be achieved while eliminating the need for multilevel PCO or invasive three-column osteotomies.

Open access

Two-year results of single-level fixation with lateral mass screws for cervical degenerative spondylolisthesis: patient series

Hiroyasu Kodama, Naohiro Kawamura, Junichi Ohya, Yuki Onishi, Chiaki Horii, Mitsuhiro Nishizawa, Masaya Sekimizu, Yuji Ishino, and Junichi Kunogi

BACKGROUND

In surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with spondylolisthesis, there is no consensus on the correction and fixation for spondylolisthesis. The authors retrospectively studied whether the correction of single-level fixation with lateral mass screws (LMSs) could be maintained.

OBSERVATIONS

The records of patients with CSM with spondylolisthesis who had been treated with posterior decompression and single-level fusion with LMSs from 2017 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic measurements included cervical parameters such as C2–7 lordosis, T1 slope, and the degree of spondylolisthesis (percent slippage) before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the final observation.

Ten cases (mean age 72.8 ± 7.8 years) were included in the final analysis, and four cases (40%) were on hemodialysis. The median observation period was 26.5 months (interquartile range, 12–35.75). The mean percent slippage was 16.8% ± 4.7% before surgery, 5.3% ± 4.0% immediately after surgery, and 6.5% ± 4.7% at the final observation. Spearman’s rank correlation showed a moderate correlation between preoperative slippage magnitude and correction loss (r = 0.659; p = 0.038). Other parameters showed no correlation with correction loss.

LESSONS

For CSM with spondylolisthesis, single-level fixation with LMSs achieved and maintained successful correction in the 2-year observation.

Open access

Contralateral lower limb radiculopathy by extraforaminal disc herniation following oblique lumbar interbody fusion in degenerative lumbar disorder: illustrative cases

Satoshi Hattori and Toru Maeda

BACKGROUND

Contralateral lower limb radiculopathy is a potential early complication of oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) in degenerative lumbar disorders. Among several pathologies related to contralateral radiculopathy following OLIF, extraforaminal disc herniation during the OLIF procedure is very rare.

OBSERVATIONS

Case 1 is a 68-year-old male underwent L4–5 and L5–6 OLIF for recurrent lumbar canal stenosis–expressed right leg pain and muscle weakness after surgery. Case 2 is a 76-year-old female on whom L4–5 OLIF was performed for L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis and who presented right leg pain and numbness postoperatively. In both patients, OLIF cages were inserted into the posterior part of the disc space or obliquely and the extraforaminal extruded disc compressed opposite exiting nerve roots (L5 root in case 1 and L4 root in case 2) as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical decompression with discectomy was required for pain relief and neurological improvement in both cases.

LESSONS

When emerging from new-onset opposite limb radiculopathy attributed to the OLIF procedure, extraforaminal disc herniation should be considered a potential pathology and MRI is useful for early diagnosis and selecting a subsequent management, including surgery.

Open access

Uniportal full endoscopic spinous process–preserving laminectomy for bilateral decompression in cervical stenotic myelopathy: patient series

Hyun-Jin Ma, Sang-Ho Lee, and Chan Hong Park

BACKGROUND

Endoscopic decompression for cervical stenotic myelopathy has several advantages over conventional open surgery. However, sometimes performing bilateral decompression, especially contralateral decompression, can be dangerous. The cervical spine has specific characteristics, including a shallower lamina angle and thinner lamina than the lumbar or thoracic lamina. These characteristics may cause cord compression when instruments approach the contralateral side of the lamina. This article introduces a novel surgical technique that can overcome the specificities of the cervical spine and discusses the efficacy and safety of uniportal full endoscopy for cervical decompression.

OBSERVATIONS

Fourteen patients underwent uniportal full endoscopic spinous process–preserving laminectomy (ESP-L) for bilateral decompression of multilevel cervical stenotic myelopathy. The mean follow-up period was 13.44 months (range: 4–17 months). The preoperative and postoperative cervical spine angle and cervical range of motion did not differ significantly. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score significantly improved postoperatively. The numeric rating scale scores significantly improved postoperatively. The mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 2.3 days.

LESSONS

ESP-L is a new, safe, effective, and noninvasive technique that can achieve complete decompression of multilevel cervical stenotic myelopathy.

Open access

Robotics planning in minimally invasive surgery for adult degenerative scoliosis: illustrative case

Zach Pennington, Nolan J. Brown, Saif Quadri, Seyedamirhossein Pishva, Cathleen C. Kuo, and Martin H. Pham

BACKGROUND

Minimally invasive surgical techniques are changing the landscape in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, enabling surgical correction to be achievable in increasingly medically complex patients. Spinal robotics are one technology that have helped facilitate this. Here the authors present an illustrative case of the utility of robotics planning workflow for minimally invasive correction of ASD.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old female presented with persistent and debilitating low back and leg pain limiting her function and quality of life. Standing scoliosis radiographs demonstrated adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), with a lumbar scoliosis of 53°, a pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch of 44°, and pelvic tilt of 39°. Robotics planning software was utilized for preoperative planning of the multiple rod and 4-point pelvic fixation in the posterior construct.

LESSONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing the use of spinal robotics for complex 11-level minimally invasive correction of ADS. Although additional experiences adapting spinal robotics to complex spinal deformities are necessary, the present case represents a proof-of-concept demonstrating the feasibility of applying this technology to minimally invasive correction of ASD.

Open access

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula masquerading as a herniated disc: illustrative case

Moustafa A. Mansour, Dyana F. Khalil, Soliman El-Sokkary, Mostafa A. Mostafa, and Ahmad A. Ayad

BACKGROUND

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Often, the clinical presentation and imaging findings are misleading, causing this condition to be mistaken for other entities, such as demyelinating or degenerative spinal lesions.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a challenging case of SDAVF in which the patient’s symptoms were initially thought to be attributable to a herniated disc based on his imaging studies at another institution. He sought the authors for a second opinion, which yielded a confirmed diagnosis of SDAVF. Due to his rapidly progressive neurological manifestations, he underwent a surgical division of the fistula using intraoperative video angiography via indocyanine green injections. His symptoms progressively improved over a 3-month period. He regained full sphincter control by 4 months, which gave him a better recovery than seen in other patients with SDAVFs, who do not generally fully regain sphincter control.

LESSONS

SDAVF is a critical spinal vascular pathology that should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with signs of progressive myelopathy. Despite its associated vague initial clinical symptoms, SDAVF typically, but not always, demonstrates a characteristic imaging appearance on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies; therefore, MR angiography is still required for definitive diagnosis. Surgical treatment for SDAVF is almost always definitive and curative.

Open access

Lumbar pedicle screw pseudoarthrosis salvage technique with moldable, bioabsorbable, calcium phosphate–based putty: illustrative case

Nathan Esplin, Shahed Elhamdani, Seung W. Jeong, Michael Moran, Brandon Rogowski, and Jonathan Pace

BACKGROUND

Pseudoarthrosis is a complication of spinal fixation. Risk factors include infection, larger constructs, significant medical comorbidities, and diabetes. The authors present a case report of dilated pedicle screw pseudoarthrosis salvaged with moldable, settable calcium phosphate–based putty.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with back pain and radiculopathy in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes. He was taken to the operating room for laminectomy and fusion complicated by postoperative infection requiring incision and drainage. He returned to the clinic 6 months later with pseudoarthrosis of the L4 screws and adjacent segment degeneration. He was taken for revision with extension of fusion. The L4 tracts were significantly dilated. A moldable, bioabsorbable polymer-based putty containing calcium phosphate was used to augment the dilated tract after decortication back to bleeding bone, allowing good purchase of screws. The patient did well postoperatively.

LESSONS

There are several salvage options for clinically significant pseudoarthrosis after spinal fixation, including anterior or lateral constructs, extension, and revision of fusion. The authors were able to obtain good screw purchase with dilated screw tracts after addition of moldable, bioabsorbable polymer-based putty containing calcium phosphate. It appears that this may represent an effective salvage strategy for dilated pseudoarthropathy in select settings to support extension of fusion.

Open access

Utilization of lateral anterior lumbar interbody fusion for revision of failed prior TLIF: illustrative case

Ghani Haider, Katherine E. Wagner, Venita Chandra, Ivan Cheng, Martin N. Stienen, and Anand Veeravagu

BACKGROUND

The use of the lateral decubitus approach for L5–S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (LALIF) is a recent advancement capable of facilitating single-position surgery, revision operations, and anterior column reconstruction. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of the use of LALIF at L5–S1 for failed prior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and anterior column reconstruction. Using an illustrative case, the authors discuss their experience using LALIF at L5–S1 for the revision of pseudoarthrosis and TLIF failure.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient had prior attempted L2 to S1 fusion with TLIF but suffered from hardware failure and pseudoarthrosis at the L5–S1 level. LALIF was used to facilitate same-position revision at L5–S1 in addition to further anterior column revision and reconstruction by lateral lumbar interbody fusion at the L1–2 level. Robotic posterior T10–S2 fusion was then added to provide stability to the construct and address the patient’s scoliotic deformity. No complications were noted, and the patient was followed until 1 year after the operation with a favorable clinical and radiological result.

LESSONS

Revision of a prior failed L5–S1 TLIF with an LALIF approach has technical challenges but may be advantageous for single position anterior column reconstruction under certain conditions.