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Open access

Management of recurrent giant hemangiopericytoma: illustrative cases

Joshua Vignolles-Jeong, Guilherme Finger, Ben G McGahan, Thomas L Beaumont, Matthieu D Weber, Kyle C Wu, and Daniel M Prevedello

BACKGROUND

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 0.4% of intracranial tumors. HPCs are characterized by local aggressiveness, high rates of recurrence, and a tendency to metastasize to extracranial sites. These features make management of HPCs challenging, often requiring a combination of radical resection and radiation. Given their rarity, optimal treatment algorithms remain undefined.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a series of four patients who underwent resection of intracranial HPC. Mean age at presentation was 49.3 years. Three patients had reoperation for progression of residual tumor, and one patient was surgically retreated for recurrence. One patient received adjuvant radiotherapy following initial resection, and three patients received adjuvant radiotherapy following resection of recurrent or residual disease. There was one death in the series. Average progression-free survival and overall survival following the index procedure were 32.8 and 82 months, respectively. Progression occurred locally in all patients, with metastatic recurrence in one patient.

LESSONS

The current gold-standard treatment for intracranial HPC consists of gross-total resection followed by radiation therapy. This approach allows satisfactory local control; however, given the tendency for these tumors to recur either locally or distally within or outside of the central nervous system, there is a need for salvage therapies to improve long-term outcomes for patients.

Open access

Role of stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent skull base acinic cell carcinoma: illustrative case

Tomohiro Yoshihira, Motoyuki Umekawa, Yuki Shinya, Hirotaka Hasegawa, Masahiro Shin, Yodai Kikuchi, Yuki Saito, Kenji Kondo, Atsuto Katano, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, and Nobuhito Saito

BACKGROUND

Acinic cell carcinomas (AcCCs), rare malignancies of the salivary glands, often recur and metastasize, particularly in the skull base. Conventional radical resection can be invasive for skull base AcCCs adjacent to cranial nerves and major vasculature, and the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative is not well established.

OBSERVATIONS

This case report details the application of SRS for recurrent skull base AcCCs. A 71-year-old male with a history of resection for a right mandibular AcCC 23 years earlier experienced tumor recurrence involving the right cavernous sinus and nasal cavity. He underwent endoscopic transnasal surgery followed by SRS targeting different tumor locations—the cavernous sinus to the pterygopalatine fossa, maxillary sinus, and clivus—each with a prescribed dose of 20 Gy to the 40% to 50% isodose line. After the first skull base metastasis, additional sessions of localized SRS after endoscopic surgery led to a 12-year survival without sequela.

LESSONS

This is a report indicating that SRS for skull base AcCCs can achieve favorable local control, functional preservation, and long-term survival. SRS may be suitable for skull base AcCC given the lesion’s tendency toward multiple local recurrences. Further investigation is needed to validate the treatment’s efficacy.

Open access

Rare clival localization of an eosinophilic granuloma: illustrative case

Martin E. Weidemeier, Steffen Fleck, Werner Hosemann, Silke Vogelgesang, Karoline Ehlert, Holger N. Lode, and Henry W. S. Schroeder

BACKGROUND

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) belongs to the family of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is considered to be a benign disease typically found in children younger than 15 years of age. Here, the authors describe an EG of unusual localization and clinical presentation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a 9-year-old girl with an EG presenting as an osteolytic lesion of the clivus. After transsphenoidal resection and histological confirmation, adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Presenting signs and symptoms were weight loss, episodic grimacing, and moderate ballism-like movements. After a follow-up-period of 32 months, the patient presented with a total resolution of initial symptoms and no further tumor growth.

LESSONS

Although these lesions are rare, one should consider EG as a differential diagnosis when confronted with osteolytic lesions of the clivus.

Open access

White epidermoid cyst transformation after stereotactic radiosurgery: illustrative case

Hideki Matsumoto, Yuki Shinya, Satoru Miyawaki, Masahiro Shin, Satoshi Koizumi, Daisuke Sato, Munetoshi Hinata, Masako Ikemura, Satoshi Kiyofuji, Taich Kin, Mototaro Iwanaga, Masahiro Shimizu, Hirofumi Nakatomi, and Nobuhito Saito

BACKGROUND

White epidermoid cysts (WECs) are a rare type of epidermoid cyst with atypical radiological features. The epidemiological aspects and mechanisms of their onset remain unknown. Herein, the authors report a unique case of WEC transformation from a typical epidermoid cyst after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), confirmed by radiological and pathological findings.

OBSERVATIONS

The case involved a 78-year-old man with a history of 2 surgeries for a left cerebellopontine angle typical epidermoid cyst 23 years earlier and SRS using the CyberKnife for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia (TN) 14 years earlier. The tumor with high intensity on T1-weighted imaging, low intensity on T2-weighted imaging, without restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging had gradually enlarged after SRS. Therefore, a salvage surgery was performed via a left suboccipital craniotomy, and the intraoperative findings showed a cyst with a brown, viscous liquid component, consistent with those of WECs. Histopathologically, keratin calcification and hemorrhage were identified, leading to a diagnosis of WEC. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the TN resolved. No tumor recurrence was recorded at 2 years postoperatively.

LESSONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first world case of WEC transformation from a typical epidermoid cyst after SRS, confirmed by radiological and pathological findings. Radiation effects could have been involved in this transformation.

Open access

Stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent skull base polymorphous adenocarcinoma invading the cavernous sinus: illustrative case

Yurie Rai, Motoyuki Umekawa, Yuki Shinya, Hirotaka Hasegawa, Atsuto Katano, Kenji Kondo, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, and Nobuhito Saito

BAKGROUND

Polymorphous adenocarcinomas (PACs) are rare tumors arising from the salivary glands. Radical resection and postoperative radiotherapy are the mainstays of treatment. However, complete tumor resection is not always achievable when the tumor invades the skull base. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) could be a less invasive alternative for treating skull base PACs.

OBSERVATIONS

A 70-year-old male with a history of surgery for a right palatine PAC presented with right visual impairment, diplopia, and ptosis. Imaging studies revealed tumor recurrence invading the right cavernous sinus (CS). SRS using a gamma knife was performed for this recurrence, prescribing a marginal dose of 18 Gy at a 50% isodose line. Five months after SRS, his symptoms were relieved, and the tumor was well-controlled for 55 months without any adverse events.

LESSONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the world’s first case of recurrent skull base PAC invading the CS that was successfully treated with salvage SRS. Thus, SRS may be an applicable treatment option for skull base PACs.