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Open access

Fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique: a feasible treatment choice for posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis

Tao Xu, Shanxi Wang, Huang Fang, Hua Wu, and Feng Li

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique for the treatment of posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis (PTK).

METHODS

A total of 22 patients with PTK who were treated with the fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique were retrospectively analyzed. The radiological evaluation included global kyphosis, thoracolumbar angle, and sagittal vertical axis. The clinical evaluation included visual analog scale pain score, Oswestry Disability Index score, SF-12 Health Survey score, and American Spinal Injury Association grade. The complications were recorded.

RESULTS

The mean global kyphosis was 55.0° ± 12.6° preoperatively, 8.5° ± 5.0° postoperatively, and 10.3° ± 4.8° at the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The average total kyphosis correction achieved was 44.7° ± 14.2°, with a range of 23.4°–79.4°, indicating a mean final correction of 80.1%. The mean thoracolumbar angle was 46.2° ± 13.2° preoperatively, 6.6° ± 4.5° postoperatively, and 7.6° ± 4.2° at the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean sagittal vertical axis was improved significantly, from 51.1 ± 24.2 mm preoperatively to 28.5 ± 17.4 mm at the latest follow-up (p = 0.001). One patient (4.5%) experienced single intervertebral fusion nonunion, and 1 patient (4.5%) experienced distal screw loosening. No patients experienced any neurological deterioration. The visual analog scale pain score, Oswestry Disability Index score, SF-12 Health Survey score, and American Spinal Injury Association grade achieved significant improvement at the latest follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Fractured vertebra antedisplacement reconstruction technique can effectively correct kyphosis, reconstruct spinal stability, and improve the patient’s symptoms and neurological function. This technique is safer, minimally traumatic, and less technically demanding to avoid osteotomy-related complications. It is a feasible treatment choice for PTK.

Open access

Superior cerebellar peduncle deep brain stimulation for cerebral palsy

Suzhen Lin, Ningfei Li, Yimei Shu, Tao Wang, Peng Huang, Yixin Pan, Bomin Sun, Chencheng Zhang, Dianyou Li, and Yiwen Wu

OBJECTIVE

Patients with coexisting spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and dystonia have limited treatment options. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs) in adults with CP.

METHODS

Five patients with CP and medically refractory dystonia and spasticity underwent SCP DBS. Assessments included the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), modified Ashworth scale (mAS), and tests of cognition, mental status, and quality of life preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (in both DBS ON and OFF states, double blinded). Active contacts and fiber bundles were examined.

RESULTS

Four patients completed follow-up. The BFMDRS motor score decreased from 74 to 52 at 12 months postoperatively (30%, p = 0.008). The mean mAS score indicated significant spasticity reduction (from 2.9 ± 0.9 to 1.9 ± 0.6 after 12 months, p = 0.0454). Quality of life improved (p < 0.01), while cognition remained unaffected. Active contacts were found within the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract, with variable efficiency in decussating and nondecussating portions.

CONCLUSIONS

In this pilot trial, SCP DBS showed promise as a well-tolerated treatment for CP, improving dystonic symptoms, spasticity, quality of life, and functional capacities. However, caution is needed when interpreting the results given the small sample size and heterogeneous motor outcomes.

Open access

Erratum. Resection of an incidentally discovered spinal arachnoid web: illustrative case

Ali Bydon

Open access

Ongoing decision-making dilemma for treatment of de novo spinal infections: a comparison of the Spinal Infection Treatment Evaluation Score with the Spinal Instability Spondylodiscitis Score and Spine Instability Neoplastic Score

Jonathan Pluemer, Yevgeniy Freyvert, Nathan Pratt, Periklis Godolias, Hamzah A. Al-Awadi, Mitchell H. Young, Amir Abdul-Jabbar, Thomas A. Schildhauer, Jens R. Chapman, and Rod J. Oskouian

OBJECTIVE

De novo spinal infections are an increasing medical problem. The decision-making for surgical or nonsurgical treatment for de novo spinal infections is often a non–evidence-based process and commonly a case-by-case decision by single physicians. A scoring system based on the latest evidence might help improve the decision-making process compared with other purely radiology-based scoring systems or the judgment of a single senior physician.

METHODS

Patients older than 18 years with an infection of the spine who underwent nonsurgical or surgical treatment between 2019 and 2021 were identified. Clinical data for neurological status, pain, and existing comorbidities were gathered and transferred to an anonymous spreadsheet. Patients without an MR image and a CT scan of the affected spine region were excluded from the investigation. A multidisciplinary expert panel used the Spine Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS), Spinal Instability Spondylodiscitis Score (SISS), and Spinal Infection Treatment Evaluation Score (SITE Score), previously developed by the authors’ group, on every clinical case. Each physician of the expert panel gave an individual treatment recommendation for surgical or nonsurgical treatment for each patient. Treatment recommendations formed the expert panel opinion, which was used to calculate predictive validities for each score.

RESULTS

A total of 263 patients with spinal infections were identified. After the exclusion of doubled patients, patients without de novo infections, or those without CT and MRI scans, 123 patients remained for the investigation. Overall, 70.70% of patients were treated surgically and 29.30% were treated nonoperatively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the SITE Score, SINS, and SISS were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91–0.95, p < 0.01), 0.65 (95% CI 0.91–0.83, p < 0.01), and 0.80 (95% CI 0.91–0.89, p < 0.01). In comparison with the expert panel decision, the SITE Score reached a sensitivity of 96.97% and a specificity of 81.90% for all included patients. For potentially unstable and unstable lesions, the SISS and the SINS yielded sensitivities of 84.42% and 64.07%, respectively, and specificities of 31.16% and 56.52%, respectively. The SITE Score showed higher overall sensitivity with 97.53% and a higher specificity for patients with epidural abscesses (75.00%) compared with potentially unstable and unstable lesions for the SINS and the SISS. The SITE Score showed a significantly higher agreement for the definitive treatment decision regarding the expert panel decision, compared with the decision by a single physician for patients with spondylodiscitis, discitis, or spinal osteomyelitis.

CONCLUSIONS

The SITE Score shows high sensitivity and specificity regarding the treatment recommendation by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The SITE Score shows higher predictive validity compared with radiology-based scoring systems or a single physician and demonstrates a high validity for patients with epidural abscesses.

Open access

Primary intraosseous xanthoma of the frontal bone in a child: illustrative case

Peter J Madsen, Adam J Kundishora, Benjamin C Reeves, Anne M Coyle, Daniel T Nagasawa, Judith M Wong, Isaac Yang, and Alexander M Tucker

BACKGROUND

Skull lesions are a common finding in children, with dermoid cysts and eosinophilic granulomas observed most frequently. However, primary intraosseous xanthomas of the calvaria, which are lytic, expansile lesions that develop without underlying hyperlipidemic disease, are rare in children, with only one prior case reported.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe the case of a healthy 6-year-old male who presented with a 2-month history of an enlarging midline skull mass that developed after a recent minor trauma. Imaging showed a full-thickness, lytic frontal bone lesion with an aggressive appearance and heterogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient underwent gross-total resection of the lesion with placement of a mesh cranioplasty. Histopathology revealed a primary intraosseous xanthoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 2 and required no further treatment at the 1-month follow-up.

LESSONS

This is the first reported case of a primary intraosseous xanthoma in the frontal bone of a pediatric patient. It emphasizes the need to include primary xanthomas in the differential diagnosis for pediatric skull lesions, particularly when the lesion has an aggressive radiographic appearance or the patient has a history of focal trauma. Furthermore, our findings indicate that resection, together with subsequent monitoring for lesion reccurrence, is an adequate first-line treatment.

Open access

Visual dysfunction and neurodegeneration caused by severe inflammatory optic neuropathy after coil embolization of a paraclinoid aneurysm: illustrative case

Tomohiro Okuyama, Kota Kurisu, PhD, Toshiya Osanai, Masaki Ito, Taku Sugiyama, Haruto Uchino, and Miki Fujimura

BACKGROUND

Visual impairment due to delayed optic neuropathy is a rare complication of the endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms. An inflammatory response induced in the treated aneurysm wall is a known mechanism underlying this pathophysiology. The authors describe a case with severe and progressive optic neuropathy leading to neuronal degeneration and severe visual dysfunction.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old female with a history of surgical clipping for a paraclinoid aneurysm presented with a recurrence. Although the patient was unaware of any visual dysfunction, a preoperative ophthalmological examination revealed mild inferior quadrantanopia in the left eye. The coil embolization procedure was uneventful; however, the following day, the patient experienced progressive visual impairment, which worsened despite the initiation of steroid therapy. Ophthalmological examination revealed a severe decrease in visual acuity and further deterioration of the visual field. Magnetic resonance imaging showed remarkable swelling and edema of the left optic nerve adjacent to the treated aneurysm. Despite continued steroid therapy, the patient’s visual function did not recover well due to subsequent optic nerve degeneration.

LESSONS

Optic neuropathy after endovascular procedures can lead to severe visual dysfunction. Careful management is essential, particularly when treating a symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysm, even if symptoms are only apparent on detailed examination.

Open access

Early GFAP and UCH-L1 point-of-care biomarker measurements for the prediction of traumatic brain injury and progression in patients with polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock

Jason L. Sperry, James F. Luther, David O. Okonkwo, Laura E. Vincent, Vikas Agarwal, Bryan A. Cotton, Jeremy W. Cannon, Martin A. Schreiber, Ernest E. Moore, Nicholas Namias, Joseph P. Minei, Kelly L. Urbanek, Mark H. Yazer, Ava M. Puccio, Erin E. Fox, Joshua B. Brown, Matthew D. Neal, Frank X. Guyette, and Stephen R. Wisniewski

OBJECTIVE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhage are responsible for the largest proportion of all trauma-related deaths. In polytrauma patients at risk of hemorrhage and TBI, the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of TBI remain poorly characterized. The authors sought to characterize the predictive capabilities of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) measurements in patients with hemorrhagic shock with and without concomitant TBI.

METHODS

The authors performed a secondary analysis on serial blood samples derived from a prospective observational cohort study that focused on comparing early whole-blood and component resuscitation. A convenience sample of patients was used in which samples were collected at three time points and the presence of TBI or no TBI via CT imaging was documented. GFAP and UCH-L1 measurements were performed on plasma samples using the i-STAT Alinity point-of-care platform. Using classification tree recursive partitioning, the authors determined the measurement cut points for each biomarker to maximize the abilities for predicting the diagnosis of TBI, Rotterdam CT imaging scores, and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended (GOSE) scores.

RESULTS

Biomarker comparisons demonstrated that GFAP and UCH-L1 measurements were associated with the presence of TBI at all time points. Classification tree analyses demonstrated that a GFAP level > 286 pg/ml for the sample taken upon the patient’s arrival had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77 for predicting the presence of TBI. The classification tree results demonstrated that a cut point of 3094 pg/ml for the arrival GFAP measurement was the most predictive for an elevated Rotterdam score on the initial and second CT scans and for TBI progression between scans. No significant associations between any of the most predictive cut points for UCH-L1 and Rotterdam CT scores or TBI progression were found. The predictive capabilities of UCH-L1 were limited by the range allowed by the point-of-care platform. Arrival GFAP cut points remained strong independent predictors after controlling for all potential polytrauma confounders, including injury characteristics, shock severity, and resuscitation.

CONCLUSIONS

Early measurements of GFAP and UCH-L1 on a point-of-care device are significantly associated with CT-diagnosed TBI in patients with polytrauma and shock. Early elevated GFAP measurements are associated with worse head CT scan Rotterdam scores, TBI progression, and worse GOSE scores, and these associations are independent of other injury attributes, shock severity, and early resuscitation characteristics.

Free access

Letter to the Editor. Chiari malformation type I in adults and children

Isaías Raymundo Ramírez Díaz

Open access

A child with unilateral abducens nerve palsy and neurovascular compression in Chiari malformation type 1 resolved with posterior fossa decompression: illustrative case

Olivia A Kozel, Belinda Shao, Cody A Doberstein, Natalie Amaral-Nieves, Matthew N Anderson, Gita V Harappanahally, Michael A Langue, and Konstantina A Svokos

BACKGROUND

Unilateral cranial nerve (CN) VI, or abducens nerve, palsy is rare in children and has not been reported in association with Chiari malformation type 1 (CM1) in the absence of other classic CM1 symptoms.

OBSERVATIONS

A 3-year-old male presented with acute incomitant esotropia consistent with a unilateral, left CN VI palsy and no additional neurological symptoms. Imaging demonstrated CM1 without hydrocephalus or papilledema, as well as an anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) vessel loop in the immediate vicinity of the left abducens nerve. Given the high risk of a skull base approach for direct microvascular decompression of the abducens nerve and the absence of other classic Chiari symptoms, the patient was initially observed. However, as his palsy progressed, he underwent posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD), with the aim of restoring global cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and decreasing possible AICA compression of the left abducens nerve. Postoperatively, his symptoms completely resolved.

LESSONS

In this first reported case of CM1 presenting as a unilateral abducens palsy in a young child, possibly caused by neurovascular compression, the patient’s symptoms resolved after indirect surgical decompression via PFDD.

Open access

CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery for extramedullary plasmacytoma in the external auditory canal: illustrative case

Surya Patil, Elaheh Shaghaghian, Lorenzo Yuan, Aaryan Shah, Neelan J Marianayagam, David J Park, Scott G Soltys, Anand Veeravagu, Iris C Gibbs, Gordon Li, and Steven D Chang

BACKGROUND

Plasmacytoma, a rare plasma cell disorder, often presents as a solitary or multiple tumors within the bone marrow or soft tissues, typically associated with multiple myeloma. Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs), particularly those located in the external auditory canal (EAC), are exceedingly rare and pose significant treatment challenges given their location, anatomical complexity, and high risk of recurrence.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 72-year-old male with a history of multiple myeloma, presenting with recurrent left EAC plasmacytoma. After initial conventional radiotherapy for the lesion, a recurrence was documented in 7 years. The patient subsequently underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, which proved successful, leading to complete resolution of the lesion without any long-term adverse effects or radiation-related complications over a 45-month period.

LESSONS

This case is a unique instance of utilizing stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent EMP in the EAC, highlighting its potential as an effective approach in managing complex plasmacytomas.