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Darryl Lau, Lanjun Guo, Vedat Deviren, and Christopher P. Ames

OBJECTIVE

For severe and rigid adult cervical deformity, posterior-based three-column osteotomies (3COs) are warranted, but neurological complications are relatively high with such procedures. The performance measures of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during cervicothoracic 3CO have yet to be studied, and there remains a paucity of literature regarding the topic. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the performance of IONM in predicting new neurological weakness following lower cervical and upper thoracic 3CO. In addition, they report the 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year outcomes of patients who experienced new postoperative weakness.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of a single surgeon’s experience from 2011 to 2018 with all patients who had undergone posterior-based 3CO in the lower cervical (C7) or upper thoracic (T1–4) spine. Medical and neuromonitoring records were independently reviewed.

RESULTS

A total of 56 patients were included in the analysis, 38 of whom had undergone pedicle subtraction osteotomy and 18 of whom had undergone vertebral column resection. The mean age was 61.6 years, and 41.1% of the patients were male. Among the study cohort, 66.1% were myelopathic and 33.9% had preoperative weakness. Mean blood loss was 1565.0 ml, and length of surgery was 315.9 minutes. Preoperative and postoperative measures assessed were cervical sagittal vertical axis (6.5 and 3.8 cm, respectively; p < 0.001), cervical lordosis (2.3° and −6.7°, p = 0.042), and T1 slope (48.6° and 35.8°, p < 0.001). The complication rate was 49.0%, and the new neurological deficit rate was 17.9%. When stratifying by osteotomy level, there were significantly higher rates of neurological deficits at C7 and T1: C7 (37.5%), T1 (44.4%), T2 (16.7%), T3 (14.3%), and T4 (0.0%; p = 0.042). Most new neurological weakness was the nerve root pattern rather than the spinal cord pattern. Overall, there were 16 IONM changes at any threshold: 14 at 50%, 8 at 75%, and 13 if only counting patients who did not return to baseline (RTB). Performance measures for the various thresholds were accuracy (73.2% to 77.8%), positive predictive value (25.0% to 46.2%), negative predictive value (81.3% to 88.1%), sensitivity (18.2% to 54.5%), and specificity (77.8% to 86.7%). Sensitivity to detect a spinal cord pattern of weakness was 100% and 28.6% for a nerve root pattern of weakness. In patients with a new postoperative deficit, 22.2% were unchanged, 44.4% improved, and 33.3% had a RTB at the 2-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Complication rates are high following posterior 3CO for cervical deformity. 3CO at C7 and T1 has the highest rates of neurological deficit. Current IONM modalities have modest performance in predicting postoperative deficits, especially for nerve root neuropraxia. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted.

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Nikolaos Mouchtouris, David Hasan, Edgar A. Samaniego, Fadi Al Saiegh, Ahmad Sweid, Rawad Abbas, Kareem El Naamani, Rizwan Tahir, Mario Zanaty, Omaditya Khanna, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, M. Reid Gooch, Robert Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

Wide-neck bifurcation cerebral aneurysms have historically required either clip ligation or stent- or balloon-assisted coil embolization. This predicament led to the development of the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) aneurysm embolization system, a self-expanding mesh device that achieves intrasaccular flow disruption and does not require antithrombotic medications. The authors report their operative experience and 6-month follow-up occlusion outcomes with the first 115 aneurysms they treated via WEB embolization.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the first 115 cerebral aneurysms they treated by WEB embolization after FDA approval of the WEB embolization device (from February 2019 to January 2021). Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, procedural details, postembolization angiographic contrast stasis, and functional outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 110 patients and 115 aneurysms were included in our study (34 ruptured and 81 unruptured aneurysms). WEB embolization was successful in 106 (92.2%) aneurysms, with a complication occurring in 6 (5.5%) patients. Contrast clearance was seen in the arterial phase in 14 (12.2%) aneurysms, in the capillary phase in 16 (13.9%), in the venous phase in 63 (54.8%), and no contrast was seen in 13 (11.3%) of the aneurysms studied. Follow-up angiography was performed on 60 (52.6%) of the aneurysms, with complete occlusion in 38 (63.3%), neck remnant in 14 (23.3%), and aneurysmal remnant in 8 (13.3%). Six (5.5%) patients required re-treatment for persistent aneurysmal residual on follow-up angiography.

CONCLUSIONS

The WEB device has been successfully used for the treatment of both unruptured and ruptured wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms by achieving intrasaccular flow diversion. Here, the authors have shared their experience with its unique technical considerations and device size selection, as well as critically reviewed complications and aneurysm occlusion rates.

Open access

Sho Takata, Akira Tamase, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Osamu Tachibana, Katsuaki Sato, and Hideaki Iizuka

BACKGROUND

Pediatric meningiomas are rare, and only a few cases attributed to trauma and characterized by development at the site of bone fracture have been reported. Both pediatric and traumatic meningiomas have aggressive characteristics.

OBSERVATIONS

An 11-year-old boy who sustained a head injury resulting from a left frontal skull fracture 8 years previously experienced a convulsive attack. Imaging revealed a meningioma in the left frontal convexity. Total removal of the tumor with a hyperostotic section was successfully achieved. Intraoperative investigation showed tumor invasion into the adjacent frontal cortex. Histologically, the surgical specimen revealed a transitional meningioma with brain invasion and a small cluster of rhabdoid cells. This led to a final pathological diagnosis of an atypical meningioma with rhabdoid features. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no recurrence of the tumor was found after 2 years without adjuvant therapy.

LESSONS

This is the first report of a pediatric meningioma with rhabdoid features occurring at the site of a skull fracture. Meningiomas that contain rhabdoid cells without malignant features are not considered to be as aggressive as rhabdoid meningiomas. However, the clinical course must be carefully observed for possible long-term tumor recurrence.

Open access

Taha M. Taka, Chen Yi Yang, Joshua N. Limbo, Alvin Y. Chan, Jordan Davies, Edward C. Kuan, Scott G. Turner, and Frank P. K. Hsu

BACKGROUND

Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the pituitary gland is an extremely rare nonfunctional World Health Organization grade I tumor. SCOs are often misdiagnosed as nonfunctional pituitary adenomas on the basis of preoperative imaging. They are often hypervascular and locally adherent, which increases hemorrhage risk and limits resection, leading to increased risk of recurrence. The authors report a case of SCO treated at their institution and provide a review of the current literature.

OBSERVATIONS

SCO of the pituitary gland can be a rare cause of progressively growing pituitary tumors that presents similarly to nonfunctional pituitary adenoma. Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of the tumor by a multidisciplinary team allowed total resection despite local adherence of the tumor. Postoperatively, the patient’s visual symptoms improved with persistence of secondary adrenal insufficiency and secondary hypothyroidism.

LESSONS

Careful resection is needed due to SCO’s characteristic hypervascularity and strong adherence to minimize local structure damage. Long-term follow-up is recommended due to the tendency for recurrence.

Open access

Savannah K. Gibbs, Stephen Fulton, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Frederick A. Boop, and Shalini Narayana

BACKGROUND

Presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex in young patients undergoing neurosurgery is critical but presents challenges unique to the pediatric population, including motion artifact, noncompliance, and sedation requirements. Furthermore, as bilingualism in children increases, functional mapping of more than one language is becoming increasingly critical. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, is well suited to evaluate language areas in children since it does not require the patient to remain still during mapping.

OBSERVATIONS

A 13-year-old bilingual male with glioblastoma multiforme involving the left parietal lobe and deep occipital white matter underwent preoperative language mapping using magnetic resonance imaging-guided TMS. Language-specific cortices were successfully identified in both hemispheres. TMS findings aided in discussing with the family the risks of postsurgical deficits of tumor resection; postoperatively, the patient had intact bilingual speech and was referred for chemotherapy and radiation.

LESSONS

The authors’ findings add to the evolving case for preoperative dual language mapping in bilingual neurosurgical candidates. The authors illustrate the feasibility and utility of TMS as a noninvasive functional mapping tool in this child. TMS is safe, effective, and can be used for preoperative mapping of language cortex in bilingual children to aid in surgical planning and discussion with families.

Open access

Yiming Li, Jiahe Guo, Huijie Wei, Cuiyun Sun, Yan Chai, Xiuwei Fu, Kai Zhang, Shengping Yu, and Xuejun Yang

BACKGROUND

Dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease) is an extremely rare, slow-growing hereditary mass lesion that is mainly characterized by both specific neuroradiological features and secondary hydrocephalus. Patients may present with symptoms of cerebellar mass lesion and increased intracranial pressure. As an important part of Cowden syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos disease in adults is typically marked by PTEN gene mutation.

OBSERVATIONS

The clinical management of a 31-year-old woman who suffered Lhermitte-Duclos disease was introduced in this case report. Subtotal resection was performed with the assistance of intraoperative sonography to relieve obstructive hydrocephalus, and prophylactic C1 laminectomy was performed to prevent possible postoperative progression of the residual lesion. Perioperative care and surgical process were clearly revealed in an accompanying video. Intraoperative sonography of Lhermitte-Duclos disease presents hyperechoic distorted thickening cortices surrounded by hypoechoic edema belt. The patient did not report any significant neurological complications or sequelae after the lesion resection.

LESSONS

The authors first reported the use of intraoperative sonography in resection of adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease. Hopefully, the educative case report can provide a feasible experience in the diagnosis and treatment of Lhermitte-Duclos disease.

Open access

Yasufumi Ohtake, Makoto Senoo, Mamoru Fukuda, Yuuki Ishida, Ryunosuke Yoshihara, Kohei Ishikawa, Tomoki Fuchizaki, Tomoaki Ishizuka, Naoyasu Okamura, and Hirohiko Nakamura

BACKGROUND

Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is very rare. Some reports have described postoperative ventral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections in patients with ISCH; however, such collections are asymptomatic in most patients, and there is no consensus regarding whether they are part of the natural history or a complication.

OBSERVATIONS

A 30-year-old man with ISCH underwent direct closure of a duplicated dura mater. Eight months postoperatively, he developed reworsening of right lower limb paresis and new severe right arm pain and paresis. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventral CSF collections, which the authors judged as the responsible lesions. The authors initially considered these collections to be present in the epidural space, extradurally compressing the dural sac and resulting in myelopathy. An epidural blood patch failed; however, a CSF drainage test resulted in dramatic improvement. The authors therefore determined that the CSF collections were located in the interdural space, not the epidural space. A lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was performed to reduce the CSF pressure. The patient’s symptoms improved immediately postoperatively. He had developed no recurrence of symptoms 6 months after surgery.

LESSONS

Ventral interdural CSF collections after ISCH surgery can cause reworsening of myelopathy and may be cured by a LP shunt to control CSF pressure.

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Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Moridaira, Daisaku Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Sorimachi, Haruki Ueda, Hiromichi Aoki, Takuya Iimura, Yutaka Nohara, and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have demonstrated that Lenke lumbar modifier A contains 2 distinct types (AR and AL), and the AR curve pattern is likely to develop adding-on (i.e., a progressive increase in the number of vertebrae included within the primary curve distally after posterior surgery). However, the results of anterior surgery are unknown. The purpose of this study was to present the surgical results in a cohort of patients undergoing scoliosis treatment for type 1AR curves and to compare anterior and posterior surgeries to consider the ideal indications and advantages of anterior surgery for type 1AR curves.

METHODS

Patients with a Lenke type 1 or 2 and lumbar modifier AR (L4 vertebral tilt to the right) and a minimum 2-year postoperative follow-up were included. The incidence of adding-on and radiographic data were compared between the anterior and posterior surgery groups. The numbers of levels between the end, stable, neutral, and last touching vertebra to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) were also evaluated.

RESULTS

Forty-four patients with a mean follow-up of 57 months were included. There were 14 patients in the anterior group and 30 patients in the posterior group. The main thoracic Cobb angle was not significantly different between the groups preoperatively and at final follow-up. At final follow-up, the anterior group had significantly less tilting of the LIV than the posterior group (−0.8° ± 4.5° vs 3° ± 4°). Distal adding-on was observed in no patient in the anterior group and in 6 patients in the posterior group at final follow-up (p = 0.025). In the anterior group, no LIV was set below the end vertebra, and all LIVs were set above last touching vertebra. The LIV was significantly more proximal in the anterior group than in the posterior surgery patients without adding-on for all reference vertebrae (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to investigate the surgical results of anterior surgery for Lenke type 1AR curve patterns, and it showed that anterior surgery for the curves could minimize the distal extent of the instrumented fusion without adding-on. This would leave more mobile disc space below the fusion.

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Shih-Shan Lang, Alexander M. Tucker, Craig Schreiber, Phillip B. Storm, Hongyan Liu, Yimei Li, Rebecca Ichord, Lauren A. Beslow, Neda I. Sedora-Roman, Mougnyan Cox, Hussein Nasser, Arastoo Vossough, Michael J. Fisher, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is commonly performed after pial synangiosis surgery for pediatric moyamoya disease to assess the degree of neovascularization. However, angiography is invasive, and the risk of ionizing radiation is a concern in children. In this study, the authors aimed to identify whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) can predict postoperative angiogram grading. In addition, they sought to determine whether patients who underwent ASL imaging without DSA had similar postoperative outcomes when compared with patients who received ASL imaging and postoperative DSA.

METHODS

The medical records of pediatric patients who underwent pial synangiosis for moyamoya disease at a quaternary children’s hospital were reviewed during a 10-year period. ASL-only and ASL+DSA cohorts were analyzed. The frequency of preoperative and postoperative symptoms was analyzed within each cohort. Three neuroradiologists assigned a visual ASL grade for each patient indicating the change from the preoperative to postoperative ASL perfusion sequences. A postoperative neovascularization grade was also assigned for patients who underwent DSA.

RESULTS

Overall, 21 hemispheres of 14 patients with ASL only and 14 hemispheres of 8 patients with ASL+DSA were analyzed. The groups had similar rates of MRI evidence of acute or chronic stroke preoperatively (61.9% in the ASL-only group and 64.3% in the ASL+DSA group). In the entire cohort, transient ischemic attack (TIA) (p = 0.027), TIA composite (TIA or unexplained neurological symptoms; p = 0.0006), chronic headaches (p = 0.035), aphasia (p = 0.019), and weakness (p = 0.001) all had decreased frequency after intervention. The authors found a positive association between revascularization observed on DSA and the visual ASL grading (p = 0.048). The visual ASL grades in patients with an angiogram indicating robust neovascularization demonstrated improved perfusion when compared with the ASL grades of patients with a poor neovascularization.

CONCLUSIONS

Noninvasive ASL perfusion imaging had an association with postoperative DSA neoangiogenesis following pial synangiosis surgery in children. There were no significant postoperative stroke differences between the ASL-only and ASL+DSA cohorts. Both cohorts demonstrated significant improvement in preoperative symptoms after surgery. Further study in larger cohorts is necessary to determine whether the results of this study are validated in order to circumvent the invasive catheter angiogram.